• adj.



  1. unrefined in character; "low comedy"
  2. an air mass of lower pressure; often brings precipitation; "a low moved in over night bringing sleet and snow" (同)depression
  3. a low level or position or degree; "the stock market fell to a new low"
  4. used of sounds and voices; low in pitch or frequency (同)low-pitched
  5. very low in volume; "a low murmur"; "the low-toned murmur of the surf" (同)low-toned
  6. in a low position; near the ground; "the branches hung low"
  7. less than normal in degree or intensity or amount; "low prices"; "the reservoir is low"
  8. literal meanings; being at or having a relatively small elevation or upward extension; "low ceilings"; "low clouds"; "low hills"; "the sun is low"; "low furniture"; "a low bow"
  9. in the lowest position; nearest the ground; "the branch with the big peaches on it hung lowest"
  10. move something or somebody to a lower position; "take down the vase from the shelf" (同)take_down, let down, get_down, bring_down
  11. cause to drop or sink; "The lack of rain had depressed the water level in the reservoir" (同)depress
  12. set lower; "lower a rating"; "lower expectations" (同)lour
  13. a lack of competence; "pointed out the insufficiencies in my report"; "juvenile offenses often reflect an inadequacy in the parents" (同)inadequacy
  14. (pathology) inability of a bodily part or organ to function normally
  15. lack of an adequate quantity or number; "the inadequacy of unemployment benefits" (同)inadequacy, deficiency
  16. inadequate in amount or degree; "a deficient education"; "deficient in common sense"; "lacking in stamina"; "tested and found wanting" (同)lacking, wanting
  17. falling short of some prescribed norm; "substandard housing" (同)inferior, substandard
  18. lacking the requisite qualities or resources to meet a task; "inadequate training"; "the staff was inadequate"; "she was unequal to the task" (同)unequal
  19. not sufficient to meet a need; "an inadequate income"; "a poor salary"; "money is short"; "on short rations"; "food is in short supply"; "short on experience" (同)poor, short
  20. an informant who exposes wrongdoing within an organization in the hope of stopping it; "the law gives little protection to whistleblowers who feel the public has a right to know what is going on"; "the whistleblower was fired for exposing the conditions in mental hospitals" (同)whistle-blower, whistleblower
  21. tall evergreen of the Pacific coast of North America often cultivated for ornament (同)yellow cedar, Nootka cypress, Alaska cedar, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis
  22. British political cartoonist (born in New Zealand) who created the character Colonel Blimp (1891-1963) (同)David Low, Sir David Low, Sir David Alexander Cecil Low


  1. (高さ・位置が)『低い』,低い所にある / (価格・数量・程度などが)『低い』,少ない / (身分・地位などが)『低い』,卑しい / (人格・行為などが)『卑しい』,下劣な,下品な / 《補語にのみ用いて》(体が)『弱った』;元気のない,憂うつな / (供給が)不十分な;(…が)乏しい《+『in』(『on』)+『名』》 / (音・声が)低い,小さい / (生物が)下等な / 『低く』,低い所に / (価格・程度などが)『安く』,低く / 低い声(調子)で;静かに / 最低点,最低水準
  2. (牛の)モーという鳴き声 / (牛が)モーと鳴く
  3. (lowの最上級)最下の,最低の,最少の,最も安い
  4. (lowの比較級)『もっと低い』,(価格が)もっと安い / 《名詞の前にのみ用いて》『下級の』;低い(下の)ほうの / …‘を'『下げる』,降ろす / 〈価格・程度・量・調子など〉‘を'『下げる』,小さくする,低下させる / 〈人〉‘を'品位(品格)を落とす / 低くなる,下がる,滅る
  5. (…に向かって)顔をしかめる,まゆをひそめる《+『at(on, upon)』+『名』》 / 〈空模様が〉険悪になる,〈雨などが〉降りそうな / しかめっつら / 険悪な空模様
  6. 不十分な[点],不足;不適当,不向き
  7. 欠陥のある,欠けた,不足した
  8. (物事が)不十分な,不適当な;(人が)能力不足の
  9. 見よ,そら
  10. liter[s]

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出典(authority):フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』「2013/12/25 18:56:37」(JST)

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UpToDate Contents

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English Journal

  • Recommendation for Center-Based Early Childhood Education to Promote Health Equity.
  • Community Preventive Services Task Force.
  • Journal of public health management and practice : JPHMP.J Public Health Manag Pract.2016 Dec 15. [Epub ahead of print]
  • The Community Preventive Services Task Force recommends early childhood education programs based on strong evidence of effectiveness in improving educational outcomes associated with long-term health and sufficient evidence of effectiveness in improving social- and health-related outcomes. When prov
  • PMID 26672408
  • Early Childhood Education to Promote Health Equity: A Community Guide Systematic Review.
  • Hahn RA1, Barnett WS, Knopf JA, Truman BI, Johnson RL, Fielding JE, Muntaner C, Jones CP, Fullilove MT, Hunt PC; Community Preventive Services Task Force.
  • Journal of public health management and practice : JPHMP.J Public Health Manag Pract.2016 Dec 15. [Epub ahead of print]
  • CONTEXT: Children in low-income and racial and ethnic minority families often experience delays in development by 3 years of age and may benefit from center-based early childhood education.DESIGN: A meta-analysis on the effects of early childhood education by Kay and Pennucci best met Community Guid
  • PMID 26672406
  • Using Evidence-Based Interventions to Improve Cancer Screening in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.
  • DeGroff A1, Carter A, Kenney K, Myles Z, Melillo S, Royalty J, Rice K, Gressard L, Miller JW.
  • Journal of public health management and practice : JPHMP.J Public Health Manag Pract.2016 Dec 15. [Epub ahead of print]
  • CONTEXT: The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides cancer screening to low-income, un-, and underinsured women through more than 11 000 primary care clinics. The program is well-positioned to work with health systems to implement evidence-based interventions
  • PMID 26672405
  • Quality of HIV Testing Data Before and After the Implementation of a National Data Quality Assessment and Feedback System.
  • Beltrami J1, Wang G, Usman HR, Lin L.
  • Journal of public health management and practice : JPHMP.J Public Health Manag Pract.2016 Dec 15. [Epub ahead of print]
  • CONTEXT: In 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) implemented a national data quality assessment and feedback system for CDC-funded HIV testing program data.OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to analyze data quality before and after feedback.DESIGN: Coinciding with required quarterly
  • PMID 26672404

Japanese Journal

  • Low temperature thermal oxidation sharpening of microcast of microcast tips
  • Inhibition of Automatic Semantic Processing in Children With High-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders Having Reading Difficulty
  • Mean Field Theory of a Coupled Heisenberg Model and Its Application to an Organic Antiferromagnet with Magnetic Anions
  • Effects of buffer layer and back-surface field on MBE-grown InGaAsP/InGaAs solar cells

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Official website of LOW - a band from Duluth, Minnesota.
4 Mar 2008 ... We caught up with Flo Rida at the BET Rip The Runway, check out this music from the movie Step Up 2, featuring dancers from the original motion picture Step ...

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リンク元100Cases 33」「insufficiency」「deficient」「不十分」「lower

100Cases 33」


☆case33 頭痛と混乱
slurred n. 不明瞭
強直間代痙攣 tonic-clonic convulsion
 意識消失とともに全身随意筋強直痙攣が生じ(強直痙攣tonic convulsion)、次いで全身の筋の強直弛緩とが律動的に繰り返される時期(間代痙攣clonic convulsion)を経て、発作後もうろう状態を呈する一連発作
28歳、女性 黒人 南アフリカ 手術室看護師 ロンドン住在
診察 examination
やせている。55kg。38.5℃。口腔カンジダ症(oral candidiasis)。リンパ節腫脹無し。心血管呼吸器系、消化器系正常。痙攣前における神経検査では時間場所、人の見当識無し。神経局所症状無し(no focal neurological sign)。眼底両側に乳頭浮腫有り。
検査 investigation
口腔カンジダ症(oral candidiasis)
口腔カンジダ症(oral candidiasis) → 細胞免疫低下状態(DM免疫抑制AIDSなど) or 常在細菌叢の攪乱(長期抗菌薬の使用)
 ・The occurrence of thrush in a young, otherwise healthy-appearing person should prompt an investigation for underlying HIV infection.(HIM.1254)
 ・More commonly, thrush is seen as a nonspecific manifestation of severe debilitating illness.(HIM.1254)
精神症状強直間代痙攣 → 一次的、あるいは二次的な脳の疾患がありそう
頭痛 → 漠然としていて絞れないが、他の症状からして機能性頭痛ではなく症候性頭痛っぽい。
・眼底両側に乳頭浮腫 → 脳圧亢進徴候 → 原因は・・・脳腫瘍、ことにテント下腫瘍側頭葉腫瘍クモ膜下出血、脳水腫など、そのほか、眼窩内病変、低眼圧などの局所的要因、悪性高血圧、血液疾患大量出血肺気腫などの全身的要因 (vindicate本のp342も参考になる)
 ・頭痛脳圧亢進 → 頭蓋内圧占拠性病変脳炎(IMD.274)
CT所見 → ringform病変脳浮腫脳圧亢進
・低ナトリウム血症 → 脳ヘルニア続発して起こることがあるらしい。実際には下垂体トキソプラズマによる病変形成されることにより起こりうる。
パターン認識HIV + 精神症状 + てんかん発作(強直間代痙攣) + 脳圧亢進 + CT所見 = 一番ありそうなのはToxoplasma gondiiによるトキソプラズマ脳症 cerebral toxoplasosis (トキソプラズマ脳炎 toxoplasmic encephalitis)
Toxoplasma gondii
 原虫 胞子原虫
(感染予防学 080521のプリント、CASES p,92、HIM p.1305-)
 ・終宿主ネコネコ小腸上皮細胞で有性・無性生殖 糞便オーシスト排泄
病原病因 phathogenesis
 1. オーシスト経口摂取
 2. 中間宿主の生肉中のシスト経口摂取
 3. 初感染妊婦からの経胎盤感染。既感染なら胎盤感染しないらしい(HIM.1306)
 (4)移植臓器、輸血確率は低い(at low rate)(HIM.1306)
 1. 先天性トキソプラズマ症 congenital toxoplasmosis
   ①網脈絡膜炎、 ②水頭症、 ③脳内石灰化、 ④精神運動障害
 2. 後天性トキソプラズマ症 acquired toxoplasmosis
  (1) 健常者
   ・(少数例)筋肉痛、暈疼痛、腹痛、斑状丘疹状皮疹(maculopapular rash)、脳脊髄炎、混乱(HIM.1308)
   ・急性感染症状は数週間で消失 筋肉中枢神経系緩増虫体残存
   AIDSでは、トキソプラズマ脳炎が指標疾患 AIDS-defineing illness(CASES)
 (日本)アセチルスピラマイシンファンシダール(感染予防学 080521)
トキソプラズマ脳炎 toxoplasmic encephalitisトキソプラズマ脳症 cerebral toxoplasosis
 (CT,MRI)多発性両側性ring-enhancing lesion、特に灰白質-白質境界、大脳基底核脳幹小脳が冒されやすい(CASES)
このCTcerebral toxoplasmosis特徴的かは不明
 AIDSWBC(leukocyte)の数はどうなるんだろう???AIDSの初診患者ではWBCが低い人が多いらしいし()、HIVCD4+ T cellmacrophage感染して殺すから、これによってB cellは減るだろうし、CD8+ T cellも若干減少するだろうからWBCは減るんじゃないか?!好中球AIDSとは関係ない?好中球は他の感染症に反応性増加している?ちなみに、好酸球寄生虫(原虫)の感染のために増える傾向にあるらしい(HIMのどこか)。
スルファメトキサゾールトリメトプリム合剤 sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim mixture
A CD4+ T-cell count below 200 cells/μl (or a CD4+ T-cell percentage of total lymphocytes of less than 14%).
or he/she has one of the following defining illnesses:
People who are not infected with HIV may also develop these conditions; this does not mean they have AIDS. However, when an individual presents laboratory evidence against HIV infection, a diagnosis of AIDS is ruled out unless the patient has not:
HIM = Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 17th Edition
CASES = 100 Cases in Clinical Medicine Second edition
IMD = 内科診断学第2版



  • n.
dearthdeficientdeficitdysfunctionfailingfailurehypofunctionimperfectain shortinadequateincompetenceinsufficientinsufficientlylacklowmalfunctionpaucitypoorlyregurgitationscantyscarcescarcityshortshortageshortnessstun




  • adj.
  • 不足/欠乏した、不十分な(in)。不完全な、欠陥のある
  • n.
  • 不完全なもの/人







  • adj.
  • (low比較級)より低い、下位の、下等な、低次の、低下させる、低減させる
declinedecreasedepressiondropfallinferioinferiorinferiorlylow levellower dimensionlower levellower orderloweringreduction




  • 後述の、下記の
followingmentioned below



  • 黄褐色の