person

  • n.


human being

       

WordNet

  1. a human being; "there was too much for one person to do" (同)individual, someone, somebody, mortal, soul
  2. a grammatical category used in the classification of pronouns, possessive determiners, and verb forms according to whether they indicate the speaker, the addressee, or a third party; "stop talking about yourself in the third person"
  3. a human body (usually including the clothing); "a weapon was hidden on his person"
  4. a person regarded as nonexistent and having no rights; a person whose existence is systematically ignored (especially for ideological or political reasons); "the former senator is treated as a nonperson by this administration"; "George Orwell predicted that political dissidents would be treated as unpersons" (同)unperson
  5. a person of greater than average size
  6. a native or inhabitant of England

PrepTutorEJDIC

  1. (性別・年齢に関係なく)『人』 / (人間の)『体』,身体 / 《単数形で》『容姿』,身なり / (文法で)人称

Wikipedia preview

出典(authority):フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』「2017/07/25 21:53:55」(JST)

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English Journal

  • The genus Shewanella: from the briny depths below to human pathogen.
  • Janda JM, Abbott SL.Author information Department of Public Health, Public Health Laboratory , Downey, CA , USA and.AbstractAbstract The genus Shewanella is currently composed of more than 50 species that inhabit a range of marine environs and ecosystems. Several members of this genus, including S. oneidensis, have been identified that could potentially play key roles in environmental processes such as bioremediation of toxic elements and heavy metals and serving as microbial fuel cells. In contrast to this beneficial role, shewanellae are increasingly being implicated as human pathogens in persons exposed through occupational or recreational activities to marine niches containing shewanellae. Documented illnesses linked to Shewanella include skin and soft tissue infections, bacteremia, and otitis media. At present, it is unclear exactly how many Shewanella species are truly bona fide human pathogens. Recent advances in the taxonomy and phylogenetic relatedness of members of this genus, however, support the concept that most human infections are caused by a single species, S. algae. Some phylogenetic data further suggest that some current members of the genus are not true Shewanella species sensu stricto. The current review summarizes our present knowledge of the distribution, epidemiology, disease spectrum, and identification of microbial species focusing on a clinical perspective.
  • Critical reviews in microbiology.Crit Rev Microbiol.2014 Nov;40(4):293-312. doi: 10.3109/1040841X.2012.726209. Epub 2012 Oct 8.
  • Abstract The genus Shewanella is currently composed of more than 50 species that inhabit a range of marine environs and ecosystems. Several members of this genus, including S. oneidensis, have been identified that could potentially play key roles in environmental processes such as bioremediation of
  • PMID 23043419
  • Severe adverse events from the treatment of advanced melanoma: a systematic review of severe side effects associated with ipilimumab, vemurafenib, interferon alfa-2b, dacarbazine and interleukin-2.
  • Ma C, Armstrong AW.Author information Department of Dermatology, University of California Davis , Sacramento, CA , USA.AbstractBackground: Current immunomodulatory agents for stage III and IV melanoma exert different mechanisms of action that manifest in distinct adverse events. Objective: This systematic review aims to synthesize safety data from clinical trials on ipilimumab, vemurafenib, interferon (IFN) alfa-2b, dacarbazine and interleukin (IL)-2 to elucidate the severe adverse events associated with each melanoma therapy. Methods: Through a systematic search using MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register between January 1, 2010 and June 1, 2012, we identified 32 clinical trials with 5802 subjects that met the inclusion criteria. Results:Ipilimumab was associated with immune-mediated diarrhea and colitis, with an incidence rate of 0.0017 cases per 100 person-years. Patients receiving vemurafenib developed keratoacanthomas and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma at an incidence rate of 0.0025 cases per 100 person-years. Treatment with IFN alfa-2b precipitated depression at an incidence rate of 0.0002 cases per 100 person-years. Dacarbazine was associated with respiratory toxicity and dyspnea, with incidence rates of 0.0001 and 0.00008 cases per 100 person-years, respectively. IL-2 treatment induced vascular leak syndrome (VLS), with symptoms of hypotension and oliguria, was observed at incidence rates of 0.17 and 0.15 cases per 100 person-years, respectively. Findings may serve as a foundation for future research in this area and guide clinical recommendations.
  • The Journal of dermatological treatment.J Dermatolog Treat.2014 Oct;25(5):401-8. doi: 10.3109/09546634.2013.813897. Epub 2013 Jul 3.
  • Background: Current immunomodulatory agents for stage III and IV melanoma exert different mechanisms of action that manifest in distinct adverse events. Objective: This systematic review aims to synthesize safety data from clinical trials on ipilimumab, vemurafenib, interferon (IFN) alfa-2b, dacarba
  • PMID 23763243
  • Disentangling the effects of age and APOE on neuropathology and late life cognitive decline.
  • Yu L1, Boyle PA2, Leurgans S3, Schneider JA4, Bennett DA5.Author information 1Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA; Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address: lei_yu@rush.edu.2Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA; Department of Behavioral Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.3Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA; Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA; Department of Preventive Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.4Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA; Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA; Department of Pathology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.5Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA; Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.AbstractAge and APOE are the most robust risk factors for dementia and cognitive decline, but the underlying neurobiology remains unclear. We examined the extent to which the hallmark pathologies of Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body disease, and cerebrovascular diseases account for the association of age and APOE with decline in episodic memory versus nonepisodic cognitive abilities. Up to 20 waves of longitudinal cognitive data were collected from 858 autopsied participants in 2 ongoing clinical-pathologic cohort studies of aging. Neuropathologic examinations quantified measures of beta amyloid (Aβ) plaque, mesial temporal and neocortical neurofibrillary tangles, macro- and microinfarcts, and neocortical Lewy bodies. Random coefficient models estimated person-specific slopes of decline in episodic memory and nonepisodic cognition. Path analysis examined the relation of age, APOE, and the 6 pathologic indices to the slopes of cognitive decline. The effect of age on decline in episodic memory was mediated by Aβ, mesial temporal and neocortical tau tangles, and macroscopic infarcts; age on decline in nonepisodic cognition was mediated by Aβ, neocortical tangles, and macroscopic infarcts. The effect of APOE on decline in episodic memory was mediated by Aβ, mesial temporal and neocortical tangles, and neocortical Lewy bodies; APOE on nonepisodic cognition was mediated by Aβ, neocortical tangles, and neocortical Lewy bodies. There were no direct effects of age and APOE on decline after accounting for these pathologic pathways.
  • Neurobiology of aging.Neurobiol Aging.2014 Apr;35(4):819-26. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2013.10.074. Epub 2013 Oct 9.
  • Age and APOE are the most robust risk factors for dementia and cognitive decline, but the underlying neurobiology remains unclear. We examined the extent to which the hallmark pathologies of Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body disease, and cerebrovascular diseases account for the association of age and A
  • PMID 24199961
  • Apolipoprotein E genotype influences spatial distribution of cerebral microbleeds.
  • Loehrer E1, Ikram MA2, Akoudad S3, Vrooman HA4, van der Lugt A5, Niessen WJ6, Hofman A7, Vernooij MW8.Author information 1Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Netherlands Institute for Health Sciences, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.2Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Neurology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address: m.a.ikram@erasmusmc.nl.3Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Neurology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.4Department of Neurology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Biomedical Imaging Group Rotterdam, Departments of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.5Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.6Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Biomedical Imaging Group Rotterdam, Departments of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands.7Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.8Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.AbstractIn cerebral amyloid angiopathy patients, microbleeds often cluster, mostly occipital, and are associated with apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype. Microbleeds also frequently occur in the asymptomatic, general population. In this population, we investigated spatial distribution of microbleeds and whether this is influenced by APOE genotype. In 292 persons with microbleeds, we labeled microbleeds on baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance images. We calculated distance between incident and prevalent microbleeds within and between persons and performed lobar segmentation on the magnetic resonance images. Subsequently, we investigated proximity and lobar distribution in strata of APOE genotype. Microbleeds occurred closer within persons than between persons (-42.2 mm, 95% confidence interval, -44.6 to -39.9; p < 0.001). Microbleeds within APOE ε2 and ε4 carriers occurred closer than those in persons with ε3ε3 genotype (-11.9 mm, 95% confidence interval, -24.4 to 0.6; p = 0.06). Persons with ε2 and ε4 alleles had a larger proportion of microbleeds in the occipital lobe than persons with ε3ε3 genotype. Similar to cerebral amyloid angiopathy patients, microbleeds in the general population cluster and the distribution is affected by APOE genotype.
  • Neurobiology of aging.Neurobiol Aging.2014 Apr;35(4):899-905. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2013.09.012. Epub 2013 Oct 9.
  • In cerebral amyloid angiopathy patients, microbleeds often cluster, mostly occipital, and are associated with apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype. Microbleeds also frequently occur in the asymptomatic, general population. In this population, we investigated spatial distribution of microbleeds and wheth
  • PMID 24119543

Japanese Journal

  • 2007年能登半島地震による建物被害調査報告
  • 岩井 哲,貞末 和史
  • 広島工業大学紀要. 研究編 42, 185-190, 39479-00-00
  • … One person was killed, more than 359 were injured. …
  • NAID 120005403222
  • 機械翻訳サービスと編集サービスの相互連携における翻訳品質と編集者適応
  • 山口 卓郎,菱山 玲子,北川 大輔,中島 悠,稲葉 利江子,林 冬惠
  • 情報処理学会論文誌 55(4), 1303-1315, 2014-04-15
  • 本研究では,人間の手により行われる翻訳リペアサービスと翻訳文の書き換えサービスを機械翻訳連携サービスのサービスフローに連携させ,翻訳品質および作業コスト面において,この連携がどのような効果を及ぼすかを明らかにする.実験では,越英(ベトナム語-英語)翻訳サービスと英日翻訳サービスを連携させて知識伝達を行う翻訳サービスフローを想定し,このフローにおいて,英日翻訳サービスにおける入力文としての英文に対し …
  • NAID 110009752442
  • 休憩施設の多面的活用の可能性と園芸療法による障がい者の自立支援に関する研究
  • 槇島 みどり
  • 高速道路と自動車 = Expressways and automobiles 57(4), 52-55, 2014-04
  • NAID 40020032310
  • Key Person INTERVIEW(NO.47)薬事法改正後の医療機器規制の今後 厚生労働省医薬食品局審査管理課 医療機器審査管理室長 古元重和氏 新「医薬品・医療機器等法」成立、医療機器産業活性化へ
  • 古元 重和,杉元 順子
  • 月刊新医療 41(4), 58-61, 2014-04
  • NAID 40020021534

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在住外国人の赤ちゃんから年配までのモデル、日本人の子供、キャラクターモデル、役者、パフォーマー、ナレーターと幅広く揃えています。 SKIP →
personとは。意味や和訳。[名]1(1) (性別・年齢を問わず)人. 多人数(特に不特定多数)の場合には複数形personsよりpeopleのほうが好まれる.(2) ((複合語))…型の人, …党a hotel room for two personsホテルの2人用の部屋.2 ((形式 ...


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★リンクテーブル★
リンク元100Cases 33」「human being」「人間」「人物
拡張検索disabled person」「personal computer」「personality inventory

100Cases 33」

  [★]

☆case33 頭痛と混乱
glossary
accompany
vt.
(人)と同行する、(人)に随行する。(もの)に付随する。~と同時に起こる。~に加える(添える、同封する)(with)
slurred n. 不明瞭
強直間代痙攣 tonic-clonic convulsion
 意識消失とともに全身随意筋強直痙攣が生じ(強直痙攣tonic convulsion)、次いで全身の筋の強直弛緩とが律動的に繰り返される時期(間代痙攣clonic convulsion)を経て、発作後もうろう状態を呈する一連発作
症例
28歳、女性 黒人 南アフリカ 手術室看護師 ロンドン住在
主訴頭痛と混乱
現病歴過去3週間で頭痛が続いており、ひどくなってきた。現在頭痛持続しており、頭全体が痛い。友人曰く「過去六ヶ月で体重が10kg減っていて、最近、混乱してきたようだ」。発話不明瞭救急室にいる間に強直間代痙攣を起こした。
診察 examination
やせている。55kg。38.5℃。口腔カンジダ症(oral candidiasis)。リンパ節腫脹無し。心血管呼吸器系、消化器系正常。痙攣前における神経検査では時間場所、人の見当識無し。神経局所症状無し(no focal neurological sign)。眼底両側に乳頭浮腫有り。
検査 investigation
血算:白血球増多
血液生化学ナトリウム低下
CT供覧
キーワード着目するポイント
口腔カンジダ症(oral candidiasis)
頭痛精神症状強直間代痙攣
・眼底両側に乳頭浮腫
CT所見
・低ナトリウム血症は二次的なもの
アプローチ
口腔カンジダ症(oral candidiasis) → 細胞免疫低下状態(DM免疫抑制AIDSなど) or 常在細菌叢の攪乱(長期抗菌薬の使用)
 ・The occurrence of thrush in a young, otherwise healthy-appearing person should prompt an investigation for underlying HIV infection.(HIM.1254)
 ・More commonly, thrush is seen as a nonspecific manifestation of severe debilitating illness.(HIM.1254)
精神症状強直間代痙攣 → 一次的、あるいは二次的な脳の疾患がありそう
頭痛 → 漠然としていて絞れないが、他の症状からして機能性頭痛ではなく症候性頭痛っぽい。
・眼底両側に乳頭浮腫 → 脳圧亢進徴候 → 原因は・・・脳腫瘍、ことにテント下腫瘍側頭葉腫瘍クモ膜下出血、脳水腫など、そのほか、眼窩内病変、低眼圧などの局所的要因、悪性高血圧、血液疾患大量出血肺気腫などの全身的要因 (vindicate本のp342も参考になる)
 ・頭痛脳圧亢進 → 頭蓋内圧占拠性病変脳炎(IMD.274)
CT所見 → ringform病変脳浮腫脳圧亢進
・低ナトリウム血症 → 脳ヘルニア続発して起こることがあるらしい。実際には下垂体トキソプラズマによる病変形成されることにより起こりうる。
・そのほか出身地、体重減少もHIVを疑わせる点
パターン認識HIV + 精神症状 + てんかん発作(強直間代痙攣) + 脳圧亢進 + CT所見 = 一番ありそうなのはToxoplasma gondiiによるトキソプラズマ脳症 cerebral toxoplasosis (トキソプラズマ脳炎 toxoplasmic encephalitis)
Toxoplasma gondii
 原虫 胞子原虫
(感染予防学 080521のプリント、CASES p,92、HIM p.1305-)
疫学:西洋では30-80%の成人トキソプラズマ感染既往がある・・・うぇ(CASES)。日本では10%前後(Wikipedia)。
生活環
 ・終宿主ネコネコ小腸上皮細胞で有性・無性生殖 糞便オーシスト排泄
 ・中間宿主ヒト.ブタを含むほ乳類と鳥類無性生殖増殖シスト形成
   急性期増殖盛んな急増虫体tachyzoiteシスト内の緩増虫体bradyzoite
病原病因 phathogenesis
 ・緩増虫体(bradyzoite)、接合子嚢(oocyst)
感染経路
 1. オーシスト経口摂取
 2. 中間宿主の生肉中のシスト経口摂取
 3. 初感染妊婦からの経胎盤感染。既感染なら胎盤感染しないらしい(HIM.1306)
 (4)移植臓器、輸血確率は低い(at low rate)(HIM.1306)
病態
 1. 先天性トキソプラズマ症 congenital toxoplasmosis
   ①網脈絡膜炎、 ②水頭症、 ③脳内石灰化、 ④精神運動障害
 2. 後天性トキソプラズマ症 acquired toxoplasmosis
  (1) 健常者
   ・多くは不顕性感染発熱リンパ節腫脹、皮疹(rash)
   ・(少数例)筋肉痛、暈疼痛、腹痛、斑状丘疹状皮疹(maculopapular rash)、脳脊髄炎、混乱(HIM.1308)
   ・(まれ)肺炎心筋炎脳症心膜炎多発筋炎
   ・網膜脈絡叢瘢痕や、脳に小さい炎症性病変を残すことあり(CASES)。
   ・急性感染症状は数週間で消失 筋肉中枢神経系緩増虫体残存
  (2)HIV感染者、臓器移植例、がん化学療法例
   シスト緩増虫体急増虫体播種性の多臓器感染
   AIDSでは、トキソプラズマ脳炎が指標疾患 AIDS-defineing illness(CASES)
治療
 (日本)アセチルスピラマイシンファンシダール(感染予防学 080521)
トキソプラズマ脳炎 toxoplasmic encephalitisトキソプラズマ脳症 cerebral toxoplasosis
症状
 発熱頭痛、混乱m、痙攣認知障害、局所神経徴候(不全片麻痺歯垢脳神経損傷視野欠損、感覚喪失)(CASES)
・画像検査
 (CT,MRI)多発性両側性ring-enhancing lesion、特に灰白質-白質境界、大脳基底核脳幹小脳が冒されやすい(CASES)
鑑別診断(臨床症状画像診断所見で)
 リンパ腫、結核、転移性脳腫瘍(CASES)
病歴と画像所見からの鑑別診断
 リンパ腫、結核、転移性腫瘍
このCTcerebral toxoplasmosis特徴的かは不明
最後に残る疑問
 AIDSWBC(leukocyte)の数はどうなるんだろう???AIDSの初診患者ではWBCが低い人が多いらしいし()、HIVCD4+ T cellmacrophage感染して殺すから、これによってB cellは減るだろうし、CD8+ T cellも若干減少するだろうからWBCは減るんじゃないか?!好中球AIDSとは関係ない?好中球は他の感染症に反応性増加している?ちなみに、好酸球寄生虫(原虫)の感染のために増える傾向にあるらしい(HIMのどこか)。
スルファジアジン
sulfadiazine
ピリメタミン
pyrimethamine
葉酸拮抗剤である。
サルファ剤と併用され、抗トキソプラズマ薬、抗ニューモシチス・カリニ薬として相乗的に働く。
ST合剤
SMX-TMP
スルファメトキサゾールトリメトプリム合剤 sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim mixture
AIDS定義(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CDC_Classification_System_for_HIV_Infection_in_Adults_and_Adolescents)
A CD4+ T-cell count below 200 cells/μl (or a CD4+ T-cell percentage of total lymphocytes of less than 14%).
or he/she has one of the following defining illnesses:
People who are not infected with HIV may also develop these conditions; this does not mean they have AIDS. However, when an individual presents laboratory evidence against HIV infection, a diagnosis of AIDS is ruled out unless the patient has not:
AND
AIDSのステージング
参考文献
HIM = Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 17th Edition
CASES = 100 Cases in Clinical Medicine Second edition
IMD = 内科診断学第2版

human being」

  [★]

Homo sapienshumanhuman racehumanityperson

人間」

  [★]

personhuman being
ヒト人類人物

人物」

  [★]

person
人間

disabled person」

  [★]

handicappedphysical disabilityphysically handicapped person

personal computer」

  [★] パーソナルコンピュータパソコン

microcomputerPC

personality inventory」

  [★]

人格目録性格検査