avium



UpToDate Contents

全文を閲覧するには購読必要です。 To read the full text you will need to subscribe.

English Journal

  • Free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds in cherry (Prunus avium L.).
  • Wen YQ1, He F1, Zhu BQ2, Lan YB1, Pan QH1, Li CY3, Reeves MJ4, Wang J5.Author information 1Center for Viticulture & Enology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China.2College of Biological Sciences and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China.3Beijing BiYeTianHu Ecological Agriculture Co., Ltd., Beijing 101401, China.4Center for Viticulture & Enology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China; Institute of Food, Nutrition and Human Health, Massey University, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand.5Center for Viticulture & Enology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China. Electronic address: jun_wang@cau.edu.cn.AbstractThis paper reports the occurrence of both free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds in three sweet cherry cultivars ('Hongdeng', 'Hongyan' and 'Rainier'), with 97 compounds being identified in the three cultivars. The major free volatile compounds found were hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. The major bound volatile compounds found were benzyl alcohol, geraniol, 2-phenylethanol. Also 4-vinylphenol was found in cherry fruit for the first time, and has a relatively high concentration of the glycosidically-bound form in 'Rainier'. Odour activity values (OAVs) were determined for both free and bound volatiles, with 18 compounds having an OAV above 1. The highest OAVs for three cultivars were (E)-β-ionone, hexanal, decanal and (E)-2-hexenal with the highest being over 800 for (E)-β-ionone in 'Honyang'. From these results, it was concluded that the aroma compounds present were similar in all three cultivars, but there was significant variation found in their levels and hence contribution to the aroma of these cultivars.
  • Food chemistry.Food Chem.2014 Jun 1;152:29-36. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.11.092. Epub 2013 Nov 27.
  • This paper reports the occurrence of both free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds in three sweet cherry cultivars ('Hongdeng', 'Hongyan' and 'Rainier'), with 97 compounds being identified in the three cultivars. The major free volatile compounds found were hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexen-1
  • PMID 24444903
  • Salicylanilide pyrazinoates inhibit in vitro multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, atypical mycobacteria and isocitrate lyase.
  • Krátký M1, Vinšová J2, Novotná E3, Stolaříková J4.Author information 1Department of Inorganic and Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Charles University in Prague, Heyrovského 1203, 500 05 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic. Electronic address: martin.kratky@faf.cuni.cz.2Department of Inorganic and Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Charles University in Prague, Heyrovského 1203, 500 05 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic. Electronic address: jarmila.vinsova@faf.cuni.cz.3Department of Biochemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Charles University in Prague, Heyrovského 1203, 500 05 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic. Electronic address: eva.novotna@faf.cuni.cz.4Laboratory for Mycobacterial Diagnostics and Tuberculosis, Regional Institute of Public Health in Ostrava, Partyzánské náměstí 7, 702 00 Ostrava, Czech Republic. Electronic address: jirina.stolarikova@zu.cz.AbstractThe development of antimicrobial agents represents an up-to-date topic. This study investigated in vitro antimycobacterial activity, mycobacterial isocitrate lyase inhibition and cytotoxicity of salicylanilide pyrazinoates. They may be considered being mutual prodrugs of both antimycobacterial active salicylanilides and pyrazinoic acid (POA), an active metabolite of pyrazinamide, in which these esters are likely hydrolysed without presence of pyrazinamidase/nicotinamidase. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the esters were within the range 0.5-8μmol/l for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 1-32μmol/l for nontuberculous mycobacteria (Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium kansasii). All esters showed a weak inhibition (8-17%) of isocitrate lyase at the concentration of 10μmol/l. The most active pyrazinoates showed MICs for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis strains in the range of 0.125-2μmol/l and no cross-resistance with clinically used drugs, thus being the most in vitro efficacious salicylanilide esters with 4-chloro-2-{[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]carbamoyl}phenyl pyrazine-2-carboxylate superiority (MICs⩽0.25μmol/l). This promising activity is likely due to an additive or synergistic effect of released POA and salicylanilides. Selectivity indexes for the most active salicylanilide pyrazinoates ranged up to 64, making some derivatives being attractive candidates for the next research; 4-bromo-2-{[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]carbamoyl}phenyl pyrazine-2-carboxylate showed the most convenient toxicity profile.
  • European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences.Eur J Pharm Sci.2014 Mar 12;53:1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ejps.2013.12.001. Epub 2013 Dec 10.
  • The development of antimicrobial agents represents an up-to-date topic. This study investigated in vitro antimycobacterial activity, mycobacterial isocitrate lyase inhibition and cytotoxicity of salicylanilide pyrazinoates. They may be considered being mutual prodrugs of both antimycobacterial activ
  • PMID 24333643
  • Bovine CLEC7A genetic variants and their association with seropositivity in Johne's disease ELISA.
  • Pant SD1, Verschoor CP1, Schenkel FS1, You Q1, Kelton DF2, Karrow NA3.Author information 1Centre for Genetic Improvement of Livestock, Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada.2Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada.3Centre for Genetic Improvement of Livestock, Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada. Electronic address: nkarrow@uoguelph.ca.AbstractMycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in cattle causes significant economic losses to the dairy and beef industries resulting from reduced productivity, premature culling and mortality. Bovine Dectin-1, an important pattern recognition molecule that is able to generate a proinflammatory response by acting alongside Toll like receptor (TLR) signaling, is known to co-operate with TLR2 to specifically activate a macrophage proinflammatory response against mycobacterial infections. Therefore, the goal of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene encoding bovine Dectin-1 (CLEC7A) and to assess their association with susceptibility to MAP infection in dairy cattle. Blood and milk samples, collected from commercial dairy operations, were tested for MAP infection using blood and milk ELISAs and a resource population consisting of 197 infected and 242 healthy cattle was constructed. Pooled DNA was used for sequencing and eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified. Identified SNPs were genotyped on the resource population using the iPLEX MassARRAY system and statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression fitting the additive and dominance effects of each SNP in the model. Out of a total of eight identified SNPs, five were successfully genotyped, and three out of these five SNPs were found to be in complete linkage. Statistical analysis revealed a strong association between a non-synonymous SNP c.589A>G (p=0.008), and MAP infection status of the resource population inferred by seropositivity in MAP antibody specific ELISAs. This SNP c.589A>G was located in the geneic region that encodes the carbohydrate recognition domain of bovine Dectin-1. Therefore, further investigation of its functional relevance is warranted.
  • Gene.Gene.2014 Mar 10;537(2):302-7. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2013.12.020. Epub 2014 Jan 3.
  • Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in cattle causes significant economic losses to the dairy and beef industries resulting from reduced productivity, premature culling and mortality. Bovine Dectin-1, an important pattern recognition molecule that is able to generate a proinfla
  • PMID 24393710

Japanese Journal

  • 肺Mycobacterium avium complex症における治療期間の妥当性 : 臨床データから見た妥当な期間とは (第86回総会シンポジウム MAC症の研究・臨床の最前線)
  • MAC症診断における血清診断法(妥当性と臨床データ) (第86回総会シンポジウム MAC症の研究・臨床の最前線)

Related Links

[infections caused by M. avium complex] 分類学上極めて近縁のM. aviumとM. intracellulareの2菌種が原因菌となる感染症を指す。わが国の非定型抗酸菌症の70%前後を占める。日和見感染症の傾向が大きく,M. kansasii感染症に ...
The Avium team had a awesome weekend providing Medical Cover for the […] 06/05/2014 By iain Resus Training with Cairngorm Ski Patrol Great resus training last week with the Cairngorm Ski Patrol, put through […] 01/10/2013 ...


Related Pictures

Prunus aviumPrunus avium fruit Prunus avium , synoniem: Cerasus aviumPlant form: Prunus avium. ~ By Robert Vid Illustration Prunus avium0.jpgHome Bomen Sierbomen Prunus avium Plena



★リンクテーブル★
リンク元100Cases 33
拡張検索Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex」「Mycobacterium avium complex感染症」「Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare」「Mycobacterium avium complex」「Bordetella avium

100Cases 33」

  [★]

☆case33 頭痛と混乱
glossary
accompany
vt.
(人)と同行する、(人)に随行する。(もの)に付随する。~と同時に起こる。~に加える(添える、同封する)(with)
slurred n. 不明瞭
強直間代痙攣 tonic-clonic convulsion
 意識消失とともに全身随意筋強直痙攣が生じ(強直痙攣tonic convulsion)、次いで全身の筋の強直弛緩とが律動的に繰り返される時期(間代痙攣clonic convulsion)を経て、発作後もうろう状態を呈する一連発作
症例
28歳、女性 黒人 南アフリカ 手術室看護師 ロンドン住在
主訴頭痛と混乱
現病歴過去3週間で頭痛が続いており、ひどくなってきた。現在頭痛持続しており、頭全体が痛い。友人曰く「過去六ヶ月で体重が10kg減っていて、最近、混乱してきたようだ」。発話不明瞭救急室にいる間に強直間代痙攣を起こした。
診察 examination
やせている。55kg。38.5℃。口腔カンジダ症(oral candidiasis)。リンパ節腫脹無し。心血管呼吸器系、消化器系正常。痙攣前における神経検査では時間場所、人の見当識無し。神経局所症状無し(no focal neurological sign)。眼底両側に乳頭浮腫有り。
検査 investigation
血算:白血球増多
血液生化学ナトリウム低下
CT供覧
キーワード着目するポイント
口腔カンジダ症(oral candidiasis)
頭痛精神症状強直間代痙攣
・眼底両側に乳頭浮腫
CT所見
・低ナトリウム血症は二次的なもの
アプローチ
口腔カンジダ症(oral candidiasis) → 細胞免疫低下状態(DM免疫抑制AIDSなど) or 常在細菌叢の攪乱(長期抗菌薬の使用)
 ・The occurrence of thrush in a young, otherwise healthy-appearing person should prompt an investigation for underlying HIV infection.(HIM.1254)
 ・More commonly, thrush is seen as a nonspecific manifestation of severe debilitating illness.(HIM.1254)
精神症状強直間代痙攣 → 一次的、あるいは二次的な脳の疾患がありそう
頭痛 → 漠然としていて絞れないが、他の症状からして機能性頭痛ではなく症候性頭痛っぽい。
・眼底両側に乳頭浮腫 → 脳圧亢進徴候 → 原因は・・・脳腫瘍、ことにテント下腫瘍側頭葉腫瘍クモ膜下出血、脳水腫など、そのほか、眼窩内病変、低眼圧などの局所的要因、悪性高血圧、血液疾患大量出血肺気腫などの全身的要因 (vindicate本のp342も参考になる)
 ・頭痛脳圧亢進 → 頭蓋内圧占拠性病変脳炎(IMD.274)
CT所見 → ringform病変脳浮腫脳圧亢進
・低ナトリウム血症 → 脳ヘルニア続発して起こることがあるらしい。実際には下垂体トキソプラズマによる病変形成されることにより起こりうる。
・そのほか出身地、体重減少もHIVを疑わせる点
パターン認識HIV + 精神症状 + てんかん発作(強直間代痙攣) + 脳圧亢進 + CT所見 = 一番ありそうなのはToxoplasma gondiiによるトキソプラズマ脳症 cerebral toxoplasosis (トキソプラズマ脳炎 toxoplasmic encephalitis)
Toxoplasma gondii
 原虫 胞子原虫
(感染予防学 080521のプリント、CASES p,92、HIM p.1305-)
疫学:西洋では30-80%の成人トキソプラズマ感染既往がある・・・うぇ(CASES)。日本では10%前後(Wikipedia)。
生活環
 ・終宿主ネコネコ小腸上皮細胞で有性・無性生殖 糞便オーシスト排泄
 ・中間宿主ヒト.ブタを含むほ乳類と鳥類無性生殖増殖シスト形成
   急性期増殖盛んな急増虫体tachyzoiteシスト内の緩増虫体bradyzoite
病原病因 phathogenesis
 ・緩増虫体(bradyzoite)、接合子嚢(oocyst)
感染経路
 1. オーシスト経口摂取
 2. 中間宿主の生肉中のシスト経口摂取
 3. 初感染妊婦からの経胎盤感染。既感染なら胎盤感染しないらしい(HIM.1306)
 (4)移植臓器、輸血確率は低い(at low rate)(HIM.1306)
病態
 1. 先天性トキソプラズマ症 congenital toxoplasmosis
   ①網脈絡膜炎、 ②水頭症、 ③脳内石灰化、 ④精神運動障害
 2. 後天性トキソプラズマ症 acquired toxoplasmosis
  (1) 健常者
   ・多くは不顕性感染発熱リンパ節腫脹、皮疹(rash)
   ・(少数例)筋肉痛、暈疼痛、腹痛、斑状丘疹状皮疹(maculopapular rash)、脳脊髄炎、混乱(HIM.1308)
   ・(まれ)肺炎心筋炎脳症心膜炎多発筋炎
   ・網膜脈絡叢瘢痕や、脳に小さい炎症性病変を残すことあり(CASES)。
   ・急性感染症状は数週間で消失 筋肉中枢神経系緩増虫体残存
  (2)HIV感染者、臓器移植例、がん化学療法例
   シスト緩増虫体急増虫体播種性の多臓器感染
   AIDSでは、トキソプラズマ脳炎が指標疾患 AIDS-defineing illness(CASES)
治療
 (日本)アセチルスピラマイシンファンシダール(感染予防学 080521)
トキソプラズマ脳炎 toxoplasmic encephalitisトキソプラズマ脳症 cerebral toxoplasosis
症状
 発熱頭痛、混乱m、痙攣認知障害、局所神経徴候(不全片麻痺歯垢脳神経損傷視野欠損、感覚喪失)(CASES)
・画像検査
 (CT,MRI)多発性両側性ring-enhancing lesion、特に灰白質-白質境界、大脳基底核脳幹小脳が冒されやすい(CASES)
鑑別診断(臨床症状画像診断所見で)
 リンパ腫、結核、転移性脳腫瘍(CASES)
病歴と画像所見からの鑑別診断
 リンパ腫、結核、転移性腫瘍
このCTcerebral toxoplasmosis特徴的かは不明
最後に残る疑問
 AIDSWBC(leukocyte)の数はどうなるんだろう???AIDSの初診患者ではWBCが低い人が多いらしいし()、HIVCD4+ T cellmacrophage感染して殺すから、これによってB cellは減るだろうし、CD8+ T cellも若干減少するだろうからWBCは減るんじゃないか?!好中球AIDSとは関係ない?好中球は他の感染症に反応性増加している?ちなみに、好酸球寄生虫(原虫)の感染のために増える傾向にあるらしい(HIMのどこか)。
スルファジアジン
sulfadiazine
ピリメタミン
pyrimethamine
葉酸拮抗剤である。
サルファ剤と併用され、抗トキソプラズマ薬、抗ニューモシチス・カリニ薬として相乗的に働く。
ST合剤
SMX-TMP
スルファメトキサゾールトリメトプリム合剤 sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim mixture
AIDS定義(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CDC_Classification_System_for_HIV_Infection_in_Adults_and_Adolescents)
A CD4+ T-cell count below 200 cells/μl (or a CD4+ T-cell percentage of total lymphocytes of less than 14%).
or he/she has one of the following defining illnesses:
People who are not infected with HIV may also develop these conditions; this does not mean they have AIDS. However, when an individual presents laboratory evidence against HIV infection, a diagnosis of AIDS is ruled out unless the patient has not:
AND
AIDSのステージング
参考文献
HIM = Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 17th Edition
CASES = 100 Cases in Clinical Medicine Second edition
IMD = 内科診断学第2版

Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex」

  [★]

マイコバクテリウム・アビウム・イントラセルラーレ複合体マイコバクテリウム・アビウムコンプレックス

Mycobacterium avium complexMycobacterium avium-intracellulareMycobacterium intracellulare

Mycobacterium avium complex感染症」

  [★]

Mycobacterium avium complex infection
マイコバクテリウム・アビウムコンプレックス感染マイコバクテリウム・アビウムコンプレックス感染症

Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare」

  [★]

マイコバクテリウム・アビウム・イントラセルラーレ

Mycobacterium avium complexMycobacterium avium-intracellulare complexMycobacterium intracellulare

Mycobacterium avium complex」

  [★] マイコバクテリウム・アビウムコンプレックス MAC

Bordetella avium」

  [★]

ボルデテラ・アビウム