• adj.
  • 一次の、第一次の、主要な、(化学)第一級の、一級の、初生の、(病名)原発性の、原発の、プライマリーの




  1. of first rank or importance or value; direct and immediate rather than secondary; "primary goals"; "a primary effect"; "primary sources"; "a primary interest"
  2. a preliminary election where delegates or nominees are chosen (同)primary_election
  3. one of the main flight feathers projecting along the outer edge of a birds wing (同)primary feather, primary quill
  4. (astronomy) a celestial body (especially a star) relative to other objects in orbit around it
  5. not derived from or reducible to something else; basic; "a primary instinct"
  6. of the field of academic study in which one concentrates or specializes; "his major field was mathematics"
  7. a commissioned military officer in the United States Army or Air Force or Marines; below lieutenant colonel and above captain
  8. a university student who is studying a particular field as the principal subject; "she is a linguistics major"
  9. the principal field of study of a student at a university; "her major is linguistics"
  10. greater in number or size or amount; "a major portion (a majority) of the population"; "Ursa Major"; "a major portion of the winnings"
  11. greater in scope or effect; "a major contribution"; "a major improvement"; "a major break with tradition"; "a major misunderstanding"
  12. have as ones principal field of study; "She is majoring in linguistics"
  13. of a scale or mode; "major scales"; "the key of D major"
  14. of full legal age
  15. of greater importance or stature or rank; "a major artist"; "a major role"; "major highways"
  16. of greater seriousness or danger; "a major earthquake"; "a major hurricane"; "a major illness"
  17. of the elder of two boys with the same family name; "Jones major"
  18. be or become completely proficient or skilled in; "She mastered Japanese in less than two years" (同)get the hang
  19. an original creation (i.e., an audio recording) from which copies can be made (同)master copy, original
  20. an officer who is licensed to command a merchant ship (同)captain, sea_captain, skipper
  21. an authority qualified to teach apprentices (同)professional
  22. directs the work of others
  23. someone who holds a masters degree from academic institution
  24. have a firm understanding or knowledge of; be on top of; "Do you control these data?" (同)control
  25. being or denoting a numerical quantity but not order; "cardinal numbers"
  26. crested thick-billed North American finch having bright red plumage in the male (同)cardinal grosbeak, Richmondena Cardinalis, Cardinalis cardinalis, redbird
  27. a variable color averaging a vivid red (同)carmine
  28. (Roman Catholic Church) one of a group of more than 100 prominent bishops in the Sacred College who advise the Pope and elect new Popes
  29. serving as an essential component; "a cardinal rule"; "the central cause of the problem"; "an example that was fundamental to the argument"; "computers are fundamental to modern industrial structure" (同)central, fundamental, key, primal
  30. capital as contrasted with the income derived from it (同)corpus, principal sum
  31. the original amount of a debt on which interest is calculated
  32. the major party to a financial transaction at a stock exchange; buys and sells for his own account (同)dealer
  33. the educator who has executive authority for a school; "she sent unruly pupils to see the principal" (同)school principal, head teacher, head
  34. (criminal law) any person involved in a criminal offense, regardless of whether the person profits from such involvement


  1. 『第一の』,『主要な』 / 『初期の』,『初等の』,初級の / 『根本的な』,基本的な,本来の,直接的な / 《名詞の前にのみ用いて》(回路・コイル・巻き・電流などが)一次の / 原色(三原色の一つ) / 《米》=primary election
  2. 『大きい』(『多い』)『ほうの』,いっそう重要な / (音階が)長調の,長音階の / 《英》《昔の学校で同姓または兄弟生徒を区別するために姓の後につけて》年長の,兄の / 《しばしばM-》陸軍(空軍)少佐 / 《米》専攻科目;専攻学生 / 《the majors》《米》=major leagues / (科目を)専攻する《+『in』+『名』》
  3. 〈C〉『主人』,支配者(人),雇主;(動物の)飼い主 / 〈C〉(…を)自由に駆使できる人,如理する能力のある人《+『of』+『名』》 / 〈C〉(…の)『大家』,『名人』,精通者;師匠《+『of』(『in, at』)+『名』(do『ing』)》 / 〈C〉(商船の)船長 / 〈C〉(学校の男の)『先生』 / 《the M-, our M-》主キリスト(Jesus Christ) / 〈C〉《しばしばM-》修士;修士号 / 〈U〉《M-》《古》…様 / 〈C〉(レコードなどの)原盤,金型,(フイル専の)原板,ネガ / 《名詞の前にのみ用いて》 / 一本立ちで仕事のできる職人の,自営の / 主要な,最上の / 腕のいい,名人の,達人の / (機械・レコードなどの)親になる,元になる / 〈人・物〉‘を'『征服する』,支配する;〈感情・欲望〉‘を'『抑える』 / 〈特技・技術など〉‘を'修得する,‘に'熟達する
  4. 『基本的な』;主要な / 深紅(しんこう)色の / 〈C〉枢機卿(教皇の最高顧問;その数は70人で深紅色の衣装をまとう) / 〈U〉深紅色 / 〈C〉=cardinal number / (また『cardinal bird』)〈C〉(北米産の)ショウジョウコウカンチョウ
  5. (重要性・地位・価値などが)『第1の』;おもな,主要な / 『長』,かしら;重要人物,主役 / 《しばしばP-》(小・中学校,高校の)『校長』;(特に《英》でcollegeの)学長,(時に)学寮長 / 《単数形で》(interest(利子),revenue(運用収益)と区別して)『元金』,基本財産

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UpToDate Contents

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English Journal

  • Impact of binge alcohol on mortality among people who inject drugs.
  • Johnson C1, Dong H1, Ahamad K2, Hayashi K3, Milloy MJ3, Kerr T3, Wood E3.
  • Addictive behaviors reports.Addict Behav Rep.2015 Dec 1;2:28-32.
  • INTRODUCTION: While the impacts of illicit drug use on mortality have been well described, the impact of poly-substance that includes alcohol has received less attention. We examined the impact of binge alcohol use on mortality among a cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) in a Canadian setting.M
  • PMID 26097893
  • Timing and causes of death in septic shock.
  • Daviaud F1, Grimaldi D, Dechartres A, Charpentier J, Geri G, Marin N, Chiche JD, Cariou A, Mira JP, Pène F.
  • Annals of intensive care.Ann Intensive Care.2015 Dec;5(1):58. doi: 10.1186/s13613-015-0058-8. Epub 2015 Jun 20.
  • BACKGROUND: Most studies about septic shock report a crude mortality rate that neither distinguishes between early and late deaths nor addresses the direct causes of death. We herein aimed to determine the modalities of death in septic shock.METHODS: This was a 6-year (2008-2013) monocenter retrospe
  • PMID 26092499
  • Lower bone mineral density in Somali women living in Sweden compared with African-Americans.
  • Demeke T1, El-Gawad GA, Osmancevic A, Gillstedt M, Landin-Wilhelmsen K.
  • Archives of osteoporosis.Arch Osteoporos.2015 Dec;10(1):208. doi: 10.1007/s11657-015-0208-5. Epub 2015 Feb 19.
  • Vitamin D deficiency can lead to osteomalacia. Bone mineral density was lower in Somali women, living in Sweden, in relation to both the American and the African-American reference populations. The majority, 73 %, had vitamin D deficiency, and supplementation should be considered to prevent from ost
  • PMID 25693756
  • Comparison between remote sensing and a dynamic vegetation model for estimating terrestrial primary production of Africa.
  • Ardö J1.
  • Carbon balance and management.Carbon Balance Manag.2015 Mar 31;10:8. eCollection 2015.
  • BACKGROUND: Africa is an important part of the global carbon cycle. It is also a continent facing potential problems due to increasing resource demand in combination with climate change-induced changes in resource supply. Quantifying the pools and fluxes constituting the terrestrial African carbon c
  • PMID 25960765

Japanese Journal

  • 数字は語る 原油価格の下落は日本経済にはプラス さらなる金融緩和は不要 27.5% : ドバイ原油価格の11月の下落率(対前年同月比) : 「IMF Primary Commodity Prices」のドバイ原油のスポット価格(月平均)を基に算出
  • 須田 美矢子
  • 週刊ダイヤモンド 103(1), 30, 2015-12-27
  • NAID 40020303028
  • Determinants of community structure in the global plankton interactome.
  • Lima-Mendez Gipsi,Faust Karoline,Henry Nicolas,Decelle Johan,Colin Sébastien,Carcillo Fabrizio,Chaffron Samuel,Ignacio-Espinosa J Cesar,Roux Simon,Vincent Flora,Bittner Lucie,Darzi Youssef,Wang Jun,Audic Stéphane,Berline Léo,Bontempi Gianluca,Cabello Ana M,Coppola Laurent,Cornejo-Castillo Francisco M,d'Ovidio Francesco,De Meester Luc,Ferrera Isabel,Garet-Delmas Marie-José,Guidi Lionel,Lara Elena,Pesant Stéphane,Royo-Llonch Marta,Salazar Guillem,Sánchez Pablo,Sebastian Marta,Souffreau Caroline,Dimier Céline,Picheral Marc,Searson Sarah,Kandels-Lewis Stefanie,Tara Oceans coordinators,Gorsky Gabriel,Not Fabrice,Ogata Hiroyuki,Speich Sabrina,Stemmann Lars,Weissenbach Jean,Wincker Patrick,Acinas Silvia G,Sunagawa Shinichi,Bork Peer,Sullivan Matthew B,Karsenti Eric,Bowler Chris,de Vargas Colomban,Raes Jeroen
  • Science 348(6237), 2015-05-22
  • … We identified interactions among grazers, primary producers, viruses, and (mainly parasitic) symbionts and validated network-generated hypotheses using microscopy to confirm symbiotic relationships. …
  • NAID 120005608039
  • Dispersion and coalescence of oil droplets by ultrasound and application for solvent extraction of gallium
  • Yasuda Keiji,Nguyen Tam,Okura Risa,Nakayama Shingo,Asakura Yoshiyuki,Jin Jiye
  • Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(7S1), 07HE03, 2015-05-20
  • … The demulsification time decreased with increasing ultrasonic frequency and power because the primary and secondary acoustic forces of droplets become stronger. …
  • NAID 150000110847
  • On the Fermi-level pinning of InN grown surfaces
  • Le Binh,Zhao Songrui,Tran Nhung,Szkopek Thomas,Mi Zetian
  • Appl. Phys. Express 8(6), 061001, 2015-05-20
  • … Furthermore, this suggests that defects and incorporation of impurities on the grown surfaces of InN are the primary causes of the commonly measured accumulation of electrons and Fermi-level pinning. …
  • NAID 150000110733

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更新履歴 14.12.29 TOP更新 14.10.23 TOP更新 14.5.1 M3アリガトウゴザイマシタ! 14.4.25 TOP更新 about master : yuiko url : banner : Primary/2014秋M3 11th album/From GardeN yuiko 2nd works chronicle ...
primaryとは。意味や和訳。[形]((通例限定))1 (順位・重要性などが)首位の,第一位の,主な,主要なa primary suspect第一容疑者one's primary goals in life人生の主要目的of primary concern [interest]いちばん関心のある.2 (順序が ...
こんにちは、店長の菅谷しのです。Primaryのベビーギフトはすべて自社で縫製から仕上げまでをしています。手作りのあたたかさをお伝えできたらいいな・・・と思っております 店長日記はこちら >>

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 Color Wheel & Wonders of 3 Primary ColorsPrimary Colours:Primary-Color-SchemePrimary Colors Three – Primary and Secondary ColorsFile:Democratic Primary Results 2008.pngColor 101 – Primary, Secondary and What are the primary colors of light

リンク元100Cases 33」「主要」「cardinal」「primarily」「major
拡張検索primary hyperkalemic periodic paralysis

100Cases 33」


☆case33 頭痛と混乱
slurred n. 不明瞭
強直間代痙攣 tonic-clonic convulsion
 意識消失とともに全身随意筋強直痙攣が生じ(強直痙攣tonic convulsion)、次いで全身の筋の強直弛緩とが律動的に繰り返される時期(間代痙攣clonic convulsion)を経て、発作後もうろう状態を呈する一連発作
28歳、女性 黒人 南アフリカ 手術室看護師 ロンドン住在
診察 examination
やせている。55kg。38.5℃。口腔カンジダ症(oral candidiasis)。リンパ節腫脹無し。心血管呼吸器系、消化器系正常。痙攣前における神経検査では時間場所、人の見当識無し。神経局所症状無し(no focal neurological sign)。眼底両側に乳頭浮腫有り。
検査 investigation
口腔カンジダ症(oral candidiasis)
口腔カンジダ症(oral candidiasis) → 細胞免疫低下状態(DM免疫抑制AIDSなど) or 常在細菌叢の攪乱(長期抗菌薬の使用)
 ・The occurrence of thrush in a young, otherwise healthy-appearing person should prompt an investigation for underlying HIV infection.(HIM.1254)
 ・More commonly, thrush is seen as a nonspecific manifestation of severe debilitating illness.(HIM.1254)
精神症状強直間代痙攣 → 一次的、あるいは二次的な脳の疾患がありそう
頭痛 → 漠然としていて絞れないが、他の症状からして機能性頭痛ではなく症候性頭痛っぽい。
・眼底両側に乳頭浮腫 → 脳圧亢進徴候 → 原因は・・・脳腫瘍、ことにテント下腫瘍側頭葉腫瘍クモ膜下出血、脳水腫など、そのほか、眼窩内病変、低眼圧などの局所的要因、悪性高血圧、血液疾患大量出血肺気腫などの全身的要因 (vindicate本のp342も参考になる)
 ・頭痛脳圧亢進 → 頭蓋内圧占拠性病変脳炎(IMD.274)
CT所見 → ringform病変脳浮腫脳圧亢進
・低ナトリウム血症 → 脳ヘルニア続発して起こることがあるらしい。実際には下垂体トキソプラズマによる病変形成されることにより起こりうる。
パターン認識HIV + 精神症状 + てんかん発作(強直間代痙攣) + 脳圧亢進 + CT所見 = 一番ありそうなのはToxoplasma gondiiによるトキソプラズマ脳症 cerebral toxoplasosis (トキソプラズマ脳炎 toxoplasmic encephalitis)
Toxoplasma gondii
 原虫 胞子原虫
(感染予防学 080521のプリント、CASES p,92、HIM p.1305-)
 ・終宿主ネコネコ小腸上皮細胞で有性・無性生殖 糞便オーシスト排泄
病原病因 phathogenesis
 1. オーシスト経口摂取
 2. 中間宿主の生肉中のシスト経口摂取
 3. 初感染妊婦からの経胎盤感染。既感染なら胎盤感染しないらしい(HIM.1306)
 (4)移植臓器、輸血確率は低い(at low rate)(HIM.1306)
 1. 先天性トキソプラズマ症 congenital toxoplasmosis
   ①網脈絡膜炎、 ②水頭症、 ③脳内石灰化、 ④精神運動障害
 2. 後天性トキソプラズマ症 acquired toxoplasmosis
  (1) 健常者
   ・(少数例)筋肉痛、暈疼痛、腹痛、斑状丘疹状皮疹(maculopapular rash)、脳脊髄炎、混乱(HIM.1308)
   ・急性感染症状は数週間で消失 筋肉中枢神経系緩増虫体残存
   AIDSでは、トキソプラズマ脳炎が指標疾患 AIDS-defineing illness(CASES)
 (日本)アセチルスピラマイシンファンシダール(感染予防学 080521)
トキソプラズマ脳炎 toxoplasmic encephalitisトキソプラズマ脳症 cerebral toxoplasosis
 (CT,MRI)多発性両側性ring-enhancing lesion、特に灰白質-白質境界、大脳基底核脳幹小脳が冒されやすい(CASES)
このCTcerebral toxoplasmosis特徴的かは不明
 AIDSWBC(leukocyte)の数はどうなるんだろう???AIDSの初診患者ではWBCが低い人が多いらしいし()、HIVCD4+ T cellmacrophage感染して殺すから、これによってB cellは減るだろうし、CD8+ T cellも若干減少するだろうからWBCは減るんじゃないか?!好中球AIDSとは関係ない?好中球は他の感染症に反応性増加している?ちなみに、好酸球寄生虫(原虫)の感染のために増える傾向にあるらしい(HIMのどこか)。
スルファメトキサゾールトリメトプリム合剤 sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim mixture
A CD4+ T-cell count below 200 cells/μl (or a CD4+ T-cell percentage of total lymphocytes of less than 14%).
or he/she has one of the following defining illnesses:
People who are not infected with HIV may also develop these conditions; this does not mean they have AIDS. However, when an individual presents laboratory evidence against HIV infection, a diagnosis of AIDS is ruled out unless the patient has not:
HIM = Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 17th Edition
CASES = 100 Cases in Clinical Medicine Second edition
IMD = 内科診断学第2版






  • adj.
  • 主要な、基本的な
  • n.
basicbasicallycardinal numberchiefelementalessentialessentiallyforemostfundamentalfundamentallymainmainlymajormasterprimarilyprimaryprincipalprincipally




  • adv.
  • 第一に、一次的に、主に、主要に、本来
cardinalchiefchieflyforemostin itselfmainmainlymajormastermostlyoriginaloriginallypredominantpredominantlyprimaryprincipalprincipallyproper




  • adj.
  • 主要な、主な、専攻する、メジャーな


primary hyperkalemic periodic paralysis」



familial hyperkalemic periodic paralysishyperkalemic periodic paralysis