- lacking the requisite qualities or resources to meet a task; "inadequate training"; "the staff was inadequate"; "she was unequal to the task" (同)unequal
- not sufficient to meet a need; "an inadequate income"; "a poor salary"; "money is short"; "on short rations"; "food is in short supply"; "short on experience" (同)poor, short
- unrefined in character; "low comedy"
- an air mass of lower pressure; often brings precipitation; "a low moved in over night bringing sleet and snow" (同)depression
- a low level or position or degree; "the stock market fell to a new low"
- used of sounds and voices; low in pitch or frequency (同)low-pitched
- very low in volume; "a low murmur"; "the low-toned murmur of the surf" (同)low-toned
- in a low position; near the ground; "the branches hung low"
- less than normal in degree or intensity or amount; "low prices"; "the reservoir is low"
- literal meanings; being at or having a relatively small elevation or upward extension; "low ceilings"; "low clouds"; "low hills"; "the sun is low"; "low furniture"; "a low bow"
- a lack of competence; "pointed out the insufficiencies in my report"; "juvenile offenses often reflect an inadequacy in the parents" (同)inadequacy
- (pathology) inability of a bodily part or organ to function normally
- lack of an adequate quantity or number; "the inadequacy of unemployment benefits" (同)inadequacy, deficiency
- inadequate in amount or degree; "a deficient education"; "deficient in common sense"; "lacking in stamina"; "tested and found wanting" (同)lacking, wanting
- falling short of some prescribed norm; "substandard housing" (同)inferior, substandard
- not suitable or right or appropriate; "slightly improper to dine alone with a married man"; "improper medication"; "improper attire for the golf course"
- not conforming to legality, moral law, or social convention; "an unconventional marriage"; "improper banking practices" (同)unconventional, unlawful
- not appropriate for a purpose or occasion; "said all the wrong things" (同)wrong
- not suitable for a particular occasion etc; "noise seems inappropriate at a time of sadness"; "inappropriate shoes for a walk on the beach"; "put inappropriate pressure on them"
- not in keeping with what is correct or proper; "completely inappropriate behavior" (同)incompatible, out or keeping, unfitting
- in an inadequate manner or to an inadequate degree; "the temporary camps were inadequately equipped"
- (高さ・位置が)『低い』,低い所にある / (価格・数量・程度などが)『低い』,少ない / (身分・地位などが)『低い』,卑しい / (人格・行為などが)『卑しい』,下劣な,下品な / 《補語にのみ用いて》(体が)『弱った』;元気のない,憂うつな / (供給が)不十分な;(…が)乏しい《+『in』(『on』)+『名』》 / (音・声が)低い,小さい / (生物が)下等な / 『低く』,低い所に / (価格・程度などが)『安く』,低く / 低い声(調子)で;静かに / 最低点,最低水準
- (牛の)モーという鳴き声 / (牛が)モーと鳴く
- 『ふさわしくない』,不適当な,誤った / 無作法な(indecent);下品な,なだらな
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- Effect of vitamin D in fracture healing in a child: case report.
- Parchi P1, Andreani L, Piolanti N, Niccolai F, Cervi V, Lisanti M.Author information 11st Orthopedic Division, Department of Traslational Research and New Technology in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, via Paradisa 2, 56125, Pisa, Italy, email@example.com.AbstractIn this report, we describe the effect of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on fracture healing in a young boy with a hypovitaminosis D who had a radius refracture. The radiographic evaluation of the callus formation shows a clear effect of vitamin D on fracture healing in absence of additional variables.
- Archives of osteoporosis.Arch Osteoporos.2014 Dec;9(1):170. doi: 10.1007/s11657-013-0170-z. Epub 2014 Jan 23.
- In this report, we describe the effect of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on fracture healing in a young boy with a hypovitaminosis D who had a radius refracture. The radiographic evaluation of the callus formation shows a clear effect of vitamin D on fracture healing in absence of additional
- PMID 24452512
- A systematic review of income generation interventions, including microfinance and vocational skills training, for HIV prevention.
- Kennedy CE1, Fonner VA, O'Reilly KR, Sweat MD.Author information 1a Department of International Health, Social and Behavioral Interventions Program , Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health , Baltimore , MD , USA.AbstractIncome generation interventions, such as microfinance or vocational skills training, address structural factors associated with HIV risk. However, the effectiveness of these interventions on HIV-related outcomes in low- and middle-income countries has not been synthesized. The authors conducted a systematic review by searching electronic databases from 1990 to 2012, examining secondary references, and hand-searching key journals. Peer-reviewed studies were included in the analysis if they evaluated income generation interventions in low- or middle-income countries and provided pre-post or multi-arm measures on behavioral, psychological, social, care, or biological outcomes related to HIV prevention. Standardized forms were used to abstract study data in duplicate and study rigor was assessed. Of the 5218 unique citations identified, 12 studies met criteria for inclusion. Studies were geographically diverse, with six conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, three in South or Southeast Asia, and three in Latin America and the Caribbean. Target populations included adult women (N = 6), female sex workers/bar workers (N = 3), and youth/orphans (N = 3). All studies targeted females except two among youth/orphans. Study rigor was moderate, with two group-randomized trials and two individual-randomized trials. All interventions except three included some form of microfinance. Only a minority of studies found significant intervention effects on condom use, number of sexual partners, or other HIV-related behavioral outcomes; most studies showed no significant change, although some may have had inadequate statistical power. One trial showed a 55% reduction in intimate partner violence (adjusted risk ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.23-0.91). No studies measured incidence/prevalence of HIV or sexually transmitted infections among intervention recipients. The evidence that income generation interventions influence HIV-related behaviors and outcomes is inconclusive. However, these interventions may have important effects on outcomes beyond HIV prevention. Further studies examining not only HIV-related outcomes but also causal pathways and intermediate variables, are needed. Additional studies among men are also needed.
- AIDS care.AIDS Care.2014 Jun;26(6):659-73. doi: 10.1080/09540121.2013.845287. Epub 2013 Oct 9.
- Income generation interventions, such as microfinance or vocational skills training, address structural factors associated with HIV risk. However, the effectiveness of these interventions on HIV-related outcomes in low- and middle-income countries has not been synthesized. The authors conducted a sy
- PMID 24107189
- The circadian rest-activity rhythm, a potential safety pharmacology endpoint of cancer chemotherapy.
- Ortiz-Tudela E1, Iurisci I, Beau J, Karaboue A, Moreau T, Rol MA, Madrid JA, Lévi F, Innominato PF.Author information 1Department of Physiology Chronobiology Laboratory, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain; INSERM, UMRS776, Biological Rhythms and Cancers, Villejuif, France.AbstractThe robustness of the circadian timing system (CTS) was correlated to quality of life and predicted for improved survival in cancer patients. However, chemotherapy disrupted the CTS according to dose and circadian timing in mice. A continuous and repeated measures longitudinal design was implemented here to characterize CTS dynamics in patients receiving a fixed circadian-based chemotherapy protocol. The rest-activity rhythm of 49 patients with advanced cancer was monitored using a wrist actigraph for 13 days split into four consecutive spans of 3-4 days each, i.e., before, during, right after and late after a fixed chronotherapy course. The relative amount of activity in bed vs. out of bed (I<O, main endpoint), the autocorrelation coefficient r24, the relative 24-hr amplitude (Amp), interdaily stability (IS) and intradaily variability (IV) were compared according to study span. Circadian disruption (I<O ≤ 97.5%) resulted from the administration of the fixed chronotherapy protocols, with all five rest-activity rhythm parameters being worsened in the whole group of patients (p < 0.05). Mean parameter values subsequently recovered to near baseline values. The occurrence of circadian disruption on chemotherapy was associated with a higher risk of clinically relevant fatigue (p = 0.028) or body weight loss (p = 0.05). Four CTS dynamic patterns characterized treatment response including no change (9.5% of the patients); improvement (14.3%); alteration and complete recovery (31%) or sustained deterioration (45%), possibly due to inadequate chronotherapy dosing and/or timing. Improved clinical tolerability could result from the minimization of circadian disruption through the personalization of chronotherapy delivery.
- International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer.Int J Cancer.2014 Jun 1;134(11):2717-25. doi: 10.1002/ijc.28587. Epub 2013 Nov 25.
- The robustness of the circadian timing system (CTS) was correlated to quality of life and predicted for improved survival in cancer patients. However, chemotherapy disrupted the CTS according to dose and circadian timing in mice. A continuous and repeated measures longitudinal design was implemented
- PMID 24510611
- Greek pregnant women demonstrate inadequate micronutrient intake despite supplement use.
- Hatzopoulou K1, Filis V, Grammatikopoulou MG, Kotzamanidis C, Tsigga M.Author information 1Department of Human Nutrition & Dietetics, Alexander Technological Educational Institute, GR-57400 Thessaloniki, Greece.AbstractABSTRACT Background/Aim: Maternal diet is important in the outcome of pregnancy and the health of the children. The present cross-sectional study aimed to assess the use of dietary supplements during pregnancy and define the maternal characteristics associated with supplement use. Methods: The diet of 100 childbearing women was recorded for three consecutive days and micronutrient supplementation was added to the dietary intake and the median values were used in the analyses. Results: The majority of the participants (92%) consumed at least one supplement. Supplementation of folic acid (FA) was significantly lower during the third trimester compared to the second (p ≤ .007). Higher intake of Ca and Fe supplements was observed in the second trimester (p ≤ .001). The use of supplements contributed to an attenuated consumption of all reported micronutrients (Mg, Ca, FA, and Fe, p ≤ .001). The principal components analysis revealed that the most important factor contributing to supplementation was primiparity. Conclusions: Overall, a high prevalence of micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy was observed without ensuring adequacy in the micronutrient intake. The increased rates of supplement users might be the result of an act for balancing diet in unplanned pregnancies.
- Journal of dietary supplements.J Diet Suppl.2014 Jun;11(2):155-65. doi: 10.3109/19390211.2013.859210.
- ABSTRACT Background/Aim: Maternal diet is important in the outcome of pregnancy and the health of the children. The present cross-sectional study aimed to assess the use of dietary supplements during pregnancy and define the maternal characteristics associated with supplement use. Methods: The diet
- PMID 24670119
- 生野 雅也,小林 光男,後藤 芳樹 [他],一之瀬 和夫,小久保 邦雄
- 工学院大学研究報告 (118), 61-66, 2015-04-30
- … Our results show the piping-structure to be the most vulnerable to the Z-axis vibration,and specifically that the support-points numbers now commonly adopted are most inadequate, thus needing urgentlyto be increased. …
- NAID 110009896023
- 我が国における過去30年間の飲料水を介した健康危機事例の解析 (1983〜2012年)
- 岸田 直裕,松本 悠,山田 俊郎 [他],浅見 真理,秋葉 道宏
- 保健医療科学 64(2), 70-80, 2015-04
- 目的:我が国における飲料水を介した健康危機の発生実態を明らかとすることを目的とした.方法: 1983年 1 月から2012年12月までの30年間を対象期間とし,期間中に発生した飲料水を介した健康危機事例を収集し,健康危機の発生傾向について分析を行った.結果:過去30年間に飲料水を介した健康危機事例は約590件発生しており,化学物質が原因の事例が最も多かったが,明らかな健康被害が発生した事例では,原 …
- NAID 110009917258
- 金庭 久美子
- 日本語教育方法研究会誌 22(1), 92-93, 2015-03-28
- … And it was found that the written material contained inadequate greetings, irrelevant content in e-mails, inappropriate sentences in the first or last line of magazine articles. …
- NAID 110009919183
- 孫 莉
- 日本語教育方法研究会誌 22(1), 84-85, 2015-03-28
- … Therefore, CJLLs are hindered from both conversation management and keeping other interlocutors engaged in discussion given their inadequate application of connective expressions. …
- NAID 110009919179
- dearth、deficient、deficit、dysfunction、failing、failure、hypofunction、imperfecta、in short、inadequate、incompetence、insufficient、insufficiently、lack、low、malfunction、paucity、poorly、regurgitation、scanty、scarce、scarcity、short、shortage、shortness、stun
- dearth、deficient、deficit、in short、inadequate、insufficiency、insufficiently、lack、low、paucity、poorly、scanty、scarce、scarcity、short、shortage、shortness
- improperly, inadequacy, inadequate, inadequately, inappropriately, independent, irrespective, unconnected, unrelated
- adjustment sleep disorder、dyssomnia