• n.



  1. your basis for belief or disbelief; knowledge on which to base belief; "the evidence that smoking causes lung cancer is very compelling" (同)grounds
  2. (law) all the means by which any alleged matter of fact whose truth is investigated at judicial trial is established or disproved
  3. an indication that makes something evident; "his trembling was evidence of his fear"
  4. think logically; "The children must learn to reason"
  5. a rational motive for a belief or action; "the reason that war was declared"; "the grounds for their declaration" (同)ground
  6. the capacity for rational thought or inference or discrimination; "we are told that man is endowed with reason and capable of distinguishing good from evil" (同)understanding, intellect
  7. a fact that logically justifies some premise or conclusion; "there is reason to believe he is lying"
  8. an explanation of the cause of some phenomenon; "the reason a steady state was never reached was that the back pressure built up too slowly"
  9. decide by reasoning; draw or come to a conclusion; "We reasoned that it was cheaper to rent than to buy a house" (同)reason out, conclude
  10. be a witness to; "She witnessed the accident and had to testify in court"
  11. (law) a person who attests to the genuineness of a document or signature by adding their own signature (同)attestant, attestor, attestator
  12. someone who sees an event and reports what happened (同)witnesser, informant
  13. (law) a person who testifies under oath in a court of law
  14. testimony by word or deed to your religious faith
  15. perceive or be contemporaneous with; "We found Republicans winning the offices"; "Youll see a lot of cheating in this school"; "The 1960s saw the rebellion of the younger generation against established traditions"; "I want to see results" (同)find, see
  16. any of various water-soluble compounds capable of turning litmus blue and reacting with an acid to form a salt and water; "bases include oxides and hydroxides of metals and ammonia" (同)alkali
  17. (numeration system) the positive integer that is equivalent to one in the next higher counting place; "10 is the radix of the decimal system" (同)radix
  18. the bottom side of a geometric figure from which the altitude can be constructed; "the base of the triangle"
  19. situate as a center of operations; "we will base this project in the new lab"
  20. a place that the runner must touch before scoring; "he scrambled to get back to the bag" (同)bag
  21. installation from which a military force initiates operations; "the attack wiped out our forward bases" (同)base of operations
  22. a support or foundation; "the base of the lamp" (同)pedestal, stand
  23. (electronics) the part of a transistor that separates the emitter from the collector
  24. a flat bottom on which something is intended to sit; "a tub should sit on its own base"
  25. the principal ingredient of a mixture; "glycerinated gelatin is used as a base for many ointments"; "he told the painter that he wanted a yellow base with just a hint of green"; "everything she cooked seemed to have rice as the base"
  26. the place where you are stationed and from which missions start and end (同)home
  27. (anatomy) the part of an organ nearest its point of attachment; "the base of the skull"
  28. the bottom or lowest part; "the base of the mountain"
  29. illegitimate (同)baseborn
  30. of low birth or station (`base is archaic in this sense); "baseborn wretches with dirty faces"; "of humble (or lowly) birth" (同)baseborn, humble, lowly
  31. not adhering to ethical or moral principles; "base and unpatriotic motives"; "a base, degrading way of life"; "cheating is dishonorable"; "they considered colonialism immoral"; "unethical practices in handling public funds" (同)immoral
  32. having or showing an ignoble lack of honor or morality; "that liberal obedience without which your army would be a base rabble"- Edmund Burke; "taking a mean advantage"; "chokd with ambition of the meaner sort"- Shakespeare; "something essentially vulgar and meanspirited in politics" (同)mean, meanspirited
  33. (used of metals) consisting of or alloyed with inferior metal; "base coins of aluminum"; "a base metal"
  34. debased; not genuine; "an attempt to eliminate the base coinage"
  35. throw to the ground in order to stop play and avoid being tackled behind the line of scrimmage
  36. a connection between an electrical device and a large conducting body, such as the earth (which is taken to be at zero voltage) (同)earth
  37. (art) the surface (as a wall or canvas) prepared to take the paint for a painting
  38. a position to be won or defended in battle (or as if in battle); "they gained ground step by step"; "they fought to regain the lost ground"
  39. a relatively homogeneous percept extending back of the figure on which attention is focused
  40. hit or reach the ground (同)run aground
  41. bring to the ground; "the storm grounded the ship" (同)strand, run aground
  42. confine or restrict to the ground; "After the accident, they grounded the plane and the pilot"
  43. connect to a ground; "ground the electrical connections for safety reasons"
  44. hit a groundball; "he grounded to the second baseman"
  45. hit onto the ground
  46. instruct someone in the fundamentals of a subject
  47. place or put on the ground
  48. make or take a proof of, such as a photographic negative, an etching, or typeset
  49. a measure of alcoholic strength expressed as an integer twice the percentage of alcohol present (by volume)
  50. make resistant (to harm); "proof the materials against shrinking in the dryer"
  51. a trial photographic print from a negative
  52. any factual evidence that helps to establish the truth of something; "if you have any proof for what you say, now is the time to produce it" (同)cogent evidence
  53. (printing) an impression made to check for errors (同)test copy, trial impression
  54. a formal series of statements showing that if one thing is true something else necessarily follows from it
  55. (used in combination or as a suffix) able to withstand; "temptation-proof"; "childproof locks"
  56. activate by mixing with water and sometimes sugar or milk; "proof yeast"
  57. knead to reach proper lightness; "proof dough"
  58. set up or found; "She set up a literacy program" (同)set_up, found, launch
  59. use as a basis for; found on; "base a claim on some observation" (同)base, ground, found
  60. set up or lay the groundwork for; "establish a new department" (同)found, plant, constitute, institute
  61. bring about; "The trompe loeil-illusion establishes depth" (同)give
  62. a rule of evidence requiring that to prove the content of a writing or recording or photograph the original is required
  63. a rule that oral evidence cannot be used to contradict the terms of a written contract
  64. evidence for the prosecution in criminal proceedings
  65. supported by evidence; "their evidenced friendliness to the US"


  1. 『証拠』,証拠物件 / 印,徴侯,形跡(indication)・(証拠をあげて)…‘を'証明する・「in evidence」で「証拠(証人)として」
  2. 〈C〉〈U〉『理由』,わけ,根拠 / 〈U〉『理性』,判断力;道理 / 『論理的に孝える』 / (人に)道理を悟らせる《+『with』+『名』〈人〉》 / …‘を'論理的に孝える《+『out』+『名,』+『名』+『out』》 / 《『reason』+『that節』》…‘と'推論する / 〈人〉‘に'道理を悟らせて(…)させる(しないようにする)《+『名』+『into』(『out of』+『名』(do『ing』)》
  3. 〈C〉(また eyewitness)(…の)『目撃者』《+of(to)+名》 / 〈C〉(法廷などの)『証人』,証言者 / 〈C〉(契約・結婚などの)保証人,立会人;(文書の)連署人《+to+名》 / 〈U〉《文》(特に法廷での)証言 / 〈C〉(…の)証拠[となるもの]《+to+名》 / …‘を'『目撃する』,まのあたりに見る / 〈文書〉‘に'証人として署名する;…‘に'立ち会う / …‘の'証拠になる,‘を'証明する,示す / (…を)証言する,(…の)証拠になる《+to+名(doing)》
  4. basisの複数形
  5. 《文》(人や人の行動・孝えが)『卑しい』,下劣な / (金属が)質の劣った;(貨幣が)粗悪な
  6. 『基礎』,根拠 / 『基部』,基底,土台 / 『根拠地』,基地 / (野球の)塁,ベース / 主成分;塩基(酸と反応シテ塩(官)を生じる化合物) / (数学で図形の)底;底辺;基線 / (…に)…‘の'『基礎をおく』《+『名』+『on』(『upon』)+『名』》
  7. 〈U〉《the~》『地面』,地表 / 〈U〉『土』,土壌;『土地』 / 〈C〉《しばしば複数形で》(特定の目的のための)『場所』 / 《複数形で》(建物の回りの)『庭』,庭園;『構内』,屋敷 / 〈C〉《しばしば複数形で》『根拠』(basis),理由(reason) / 〈U〉(確保すべき)立場,意見;地歩 / 〈U〉(研究などの)分野,範囲;話題,問題 / 〈C〉(図案・塗りなどの)下地 / 〈U〉海底,水底 / 《複数形で》(コーヒーなどの)おり,かす / 〈U〉《米》(電気装置の)アース / …‘を'地上に置く / (…に)〈主義・信念など〉‘を'基づかせる,立脚させる《+名+on+名(doing)》 / 〈人〉‘に'(…の)基礎(初歩)を教え込む《+名+in+名》 / 〈飛行機〉‘を'離陸させない / 〈人〉‘を'飛行勤務をやめさせる,地上勤務にする / 〈船〉‘を'座礁させる / 《米》〈電線など〉‘を'接地する,アースする(《英》earth) / 〈物が〉地面に落ちる(届く〉 / 〈船が〉座礁する / (野球で)ゴロを打つ
  8. grindの過去・過去分詞 / 粉にした,ひいた / すった,磨いた
  9. 〈U〉『証拠』,証明;〈C〉『証拠となるもの』,証拠品 / 〈C〉(真実性・品質などの)試験,吟味 / 〈U〉アルコール性飲料の標準強度 / 〈C〉〈U〉校正刷り(proof sheet);試し刷り,(写真の)試し焼き / 《補語にのみ用いて》(…に)耐えられる,負けない《+『against』+『名』》 / (アルコール飲料など)標準強度の / …‘を'校正する / (…に対して)…‘を'耐久性にする;…‘を'耐水性にする《+『名』+『against』+『名』》
  10. …‘を'『設立する』,創設する / (ある場所・識業などに,…として)〈人・自分〉‘を'落ち着かせる,安定させる《+『名』+『in』(『as』)+『名』》 / 〈法律など〉‘を'制定する / 〈ある慣習・事実など〉‘を'『確立する』,世に認めさせる / 〈事実など〉‘を'証明する,立証する
  11. 訴追免除証言,共犯証言

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出典(authority):フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』「2016/07/20 01:22:46」(JST)

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English Journal

  • Oxidative Stress, Synaptic Dysfunction, and Alzheimer's Disease.
  • Tönnies E1, Trushina E1,2.
  • Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD.J Alzheimers Dis.2017 Dec 3. doi: 10.3233/JAD-161088. [Epub ahead of print]
  • PMID 28059794
  • Production of (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid by Arxula adeninivorans.
  • Biernacki M1, Riechen J2, Hähnel U1, Roick T2, Baronian K3, Bode R4, Kunze G5.
  • AMB Express.AMB Express.2017 Dec;7(1):4. doi: 10.1186/s13568-016-0303-z. Epub 2017 Jan 3.
  • PMID 28050847
  • Protocols for the obvious: Where does it start, and stop?
  • Girbes ARJ1, Marik PE2.
  • Annals of intensive care.Ann Intensive Care.2017 Dec;7(1):42. doi: 10.1186/s13613-017-0264-7. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
  • PMID 28411337
  • Antithrombin use and 28-day in-hospital mortality among severe-burn patients: an observational nationwide study.
  • Tagami T1,2, Matsui H3, Moroe Y4, Fukuda R4, Shibata A4, Tanaka C4, Unemoto K4, Fushimi K5, Yasunaga H3.
  • Annals of intensive care.Ann Intensive Care.2017 Dec;7(1):18. doi: 10.1186/s13613-017-0244-y. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
  • PMID 28220452

Japanese Journal

  • A Case of Massive Hemoptysis with a Fungus Ball-like Shadow in an Old Tuberculosis Cavity That was Shown to be a Clot by Bronchoscopy
  • A Pilot Study of Tranilast for Cardiomyopathy of Muscular Dystrophy
  • Is the Proportion of Carbohydrate Intake Associated with the Incidence of Diabetes Complications?—An Analysis of the Japan Diabetes Complications Study
  • 僧帽弁に対する新しいカテーテル治療 : 最新のエビデンスと今後の展望 (第1土曜特集 SHD(心構造疾患)治療UPDATE) -- (新しいインターベンション)

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evidenceとは。意味や和訳。[名]1 [U](…の)証拠,根拠,証明((of, for ..., to do, that節))reliable evidence確かな証拠a strong piece of evidence強力な証拠We need stronger evidence to convict him.彼を有罪とするにはより強い証拠が必要 ...
evidence 【他動】~の証人になる、~を証言[証明]する、~を証拠だてる 【名... - アルクがお届けする進化するオンライン英和・和英辞書データベース。一般的な単語や連語から、イディオム、専門用語、スラングまで幅広く収録。
プログレッシブ英和中辞典(第4版) - /évdns/[名]1 [U](…の)証拠, 根拠, 証明((of, for ..., to do, that節))reliable evidence|確かな証拠a strong piece of evidence|強力な証拠We need stronger evidence to convict him.|彼を ...

リンク元100Cases 33」「demonstrate」「establish」「prove」「certify
拡張検索experimental evidence」「evidence-based psychotherapy」「evidence-based medicine

100Cases 33」


☆case33 頭痛と混乱
slurred n. 不明瞭
強直間代痙攣 tonic-clonic convulsion
 意識消失とともに全身随意筋強直痙攣が生じ(強直痙攣tonic convulsion)、次いで全身の筋の強直弛緩とが律動的に繰り返される時期(間代痙攣clonic convulsion)を経て、発作後もうろう状態を呈する一連発作
28歳、女性 黒人 南アフリカ 手術室看護師 ロンドン住在
診察 examination
やせている。55kg。38.5℃。口腔カンジダ症(oral candidiasis)。リンパ節腫脹無し。心血管呼吸器系、消化器系正常。痙攣前における神経検査では時間場所、人の見当識無し。神経局所症状無し(no focal neurological sign)。眼底両側に乳頭浮腫有り。
検査 investigation
口腔カンジダ症(oral candidiasis)
口腔カンジダ症(oral candidiasis) → 細胞免疫低下状態(DM免疫抑制AIDSなど) or 常在細菌叢の攪乱(長期抗菌薬の使用)
 ・The occurrence of thrush in a young, otherwise healthy-appearing person should prompt an investigation for underlying HIV infection.(HIM.1254)
 ・More commonly, thrush is seen as a nonspecific manifestation of severe debilitating illness.(HIM.1254)
精神症状強直間代痙攣 → 一次的、あるいは二次的な脳の疾患がありそう
頭痛 → 漠然としていて絞れないが、他の症状からして機能性頭痛ではなく症候性頭痛っぽい。
・眼底両側に乳頭浮腫 → 脳圧亢進徴候 → 原因は・・・脳腫瘍、ことにテント下腫瘍側頭葉腫瘍クモ膜下出血、脳水腫など、そのほか、眼窩内病変、低眼圧などの局所的要因、悪性高血圧、血液疾患大量出血肺気腫などの全身的要因 (vindicate本のp342も参考になる)
 ・頭痛脳圧亢進 → 頭蓋内圧占拠性病変脳炎(IMD.274)
CT所見 → ringform病変脳浮腫脳圧亢進
・低ナトリウム血症 → 脳ヘルニア続発して起こることがあるらしい。実際には下垂体トキソプラズマによる病変形成されることにより起こりうる。
パターン認識HIV + 精神症状 + てんかん発作(強直間代痙攣) + 脳圧亢進 + CT所見 = 一番ありそうなのはToxoplasma gondiiによるトキソプラズマ脳症 cerebral toxoplasosis (トキソプラズマ脳炎 toxoplasmic encephalitis)
Toxoplasma gondii
 原虫 胞子原虫
(感染予防学 080521のプリント、CASES p,92、HIM p.1305-)
 ・終宿主ネコネコ小腸上皮細胞で有性・無性生殖 糞便オーシスト排泄
病原病因 phathogenesis
 1. オーシスト経口摂取
 2. 中間宿主の生肉中のシスト経口摂取
 3. 初感染妊婦からの経胎盤感染。既感染なら胎盤感染しないらしい(HIM.1306)
 (4)移植臓器、輸血確率は低い(at low rate)(HIM.1306)
 1. 先天性トキソプラズマ症 congenital toxoplasmosis
   ①網脈絡膜炎、 ②水頭症、 ③脳内石灰化、 ④精神運動障害
 2. 後天性トキソプラズマ症 acquired toxoplasmosis
  (1) 健常者
   ・(少数例)筋肉痛、暈疼痛、腹痛、斑状丘疹状皮疹(maculopapular rash)、脳脊髄炎、混乱(HIM.1308)
   ・急性感染症状は数週間で消失 筋肉中枢神経系緩増虫体残存
   AIDSでは、トキソプラズマ脳炎が指標疾患 AIDS-defineing illness(CASES)
 (日本)アセチルスピラマイシンファンシダール(感染予防学 080521)
トキソプラズマ脳炎 toxoplasmic encephalitisトキソプラズマ脳症 cerebral toxoplasosis
 (CT,MRI)多発性両側性ring-enhancing lesion、特に灰白質-白質境界、大脳基底核脳幹小脳が冒されやすい(CASES)
このCTcerebral toxoplasmosis特徴的かは不明
 AIDSWBC(leukocyte)の数はどうなるんだろう???AIDSの初診患者ではWBCが低い人が多いらしいし()、HIVCD4+ T cellmacrophage感染して殺すから、これによってB cellは減るだろうし、CD8+ T cellも若干減少するだろうからWBCは減るんじゃないか?!好中球AIDSとは関係ない?好中球は他の感染症に反応性増加している?ちなみに、好酸球寄生虫(原虫)の感染のために増える傾向にあるらしい(HIMのどこか)。
スルファメトキサゾールトリメトプリム合剤 sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim mixture
A CD4+ T-cell count below 200 cells/μl (or a CD4+ T-cell percentage of total lymphocytes of less than 14%).
or he/she has one of the following defining illnesses:
People who are not infected with HIV may also develop these conditions; this does not mean they have AIDS. However, when an individual presents laboratory evidence against HIV infection, a diagnosis of AIDS is ruled out unless the patient has not:
HIM = Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 17th Edition
CASES = 100 Cases in Clinical Medicine Second edition
IMD = 内科診断学第2版



  • v.
  • 論証/証明/立証する。(事物などが)~の証拠となる
  • (機械など)の実地説明/演習説明をする。(商品を)実物宣伝する。(実例で)明らかにする、(模型・実験などで)(具体的に)説明する。
  • (感情・意思などを)はっきりと表示/表明する。
ergonovine, acetylcholine, other vasoconstrictor medications, and hyperventilation have been used to provoke and demonstrate focal coronary stenosis to establish the diagnosis.(HIM.1531)
  • vi.
argueattestcertificationcertifycorroboratedemonstrationdepictdisplaydocumentestablishevidenceexhibitgivehallmarkindicateindicativepoint outpresentproofproveprovenreflectshowsignifysubstantiatesubstantiationsuggesttestifyverificationverify




  • vt.
  • 確立する、設置/設立する、開設/創立する、(制度・法律などを)制定する(constitute)
  • 安定させる。(人を)(場所・地位・職業に)定着させる、つかせる
  • (先例・習慣・所信・要求・名声などを)確立する、不動のものとする、一般に確認させる、樹立する。(事実・理論などを)確証/立証する。
  • (教会を)国教会にする
  • (植)(新品種などを)定着させる

  • vi.




  • vt.
  • 立証/証明する。試す。実験する、(器材を)試験する
  • vi.
  • (~であることが)わかる、(to be)(~と)判明する(=turn out)、立証/証明される
Endovascular cooling and other surface automatic devices have proved to be more accurate methods for temperature regulation than conventional surface cooling techniques.
argueattestcertificationcertifydemonstratedemonstrationestablishevidencefindhallmarkproofprovenrealizeseetestifyturn outunderstandverificationverify




  • v.
  • 証明する、保証する、認定する、認可する


experimental evidence」


experimental result

evidence-based psychotherapy」

  [★] EBPT 治療効果のエビデンスが示されている精神療法

evidence-based medicine」

  [★] 根拠に基づく医学, EBM