• n.
  • 疾患:本来の生理機能が働きになり、従って生存に不利な状態 (PSY. 9)
  • the state of being physically or mentally ill

  • 注意
disease <> illness <> disorder



  1. impairment of normal physiological function affecting part or all of an organism (同)unwellness, malady, sickness
  2. with difficulty or inconvenience; scarcely or hardly; "we can ill afford to buy a new car just now"
  3. unfavorably or with disapproval; "tried not to speak ill of the dead"; "thought badly of him for his lack of concern" (同)badly
  4. (`ill is often used as a combining form) in a poor or improper or unsatisfactory manner; not well; "he was ill prepared"; "it ill befits a man to betray old friends"; "the car runs badly"; "he performed badly on the exam"; "the team played poorly"; "ill-fitting clothes"; "an ill-conceived plan" (同)badly, poorly
  5. presaging ill fortune; "ill omens"; "ill predictions"; "my words with inauspicious thunderings shook heaven"- P.B.Shelley; "a dead and ominous silence prevailed"; "a by-election at a time highly unpropitious for the Government" (同)inauspicious, ominous
  6. affected by an impairment of normal physical or mental function; "ill from the monotony of his suffering" (同)sick
  7. distressing; "ill manners"; "of ill repute"
  8. indicating hostility or enmity; "you certainly did me an ill turn"; "ill feelings"; "ill will"
  9. resulting in suffering or adversity; "ill effects"; "its an ill wind that blows no good"
  10. bring disorder to (同)disarray
  11. a physical condition in which there is a disturbance of normal functioning; "the doctor prescribed some medicine for the disorder"; "everyone gets stomach upsets from time to time" (同)upset
  12. a disturbance of the peace or of public order
  13. deeply affected by a strong feeling; "sat completely still, sick with envy"; "she was sick with longing"
  14. people who are sick; "they devote their lives to caring for the sick"
  15. an impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning
  16. calmness without winds (同)windlessness


  1. (心身の)『病気』,不健康
  2. 《補語にのみ用いて》『病気で』,気分が悪い(sick) / 《名詞の前にのみ用いて》不十分な,好ましくない;正常でない / 《名詞の前にのみ用いて》不運な,不吉な / 《名詞の前にのみ用いて》(道徳的に)『悪い』,邪悪な,敵意(悪意)のある;不きげんな / 《名詞の前にのみ用いて》『有害な』,悪い,損害を与える / 『悪く』,不正に;残酷に / 『意地悪く』,不親切に;不満足に,不十分に / ほとんど…ない(scarcely) / 《分詞と共に複合語を作って》悪く,まずく,不完全に / 〈U〉 / 悪,罪悪 / 〈U〉危害,災難 / 〈C〉《しばしば複数形》苦しみ(悩み)の種,不幸,病気
  3. 〈U〉『無秩序』,混乱,乱雑(confusion) / 《しばしば複数形で》(社会的・政治的な)粉争,騒動 / 〈C〉(肉体的・精神的な)不調,異常,障害 / …‘の'秩序を乱す / 〈心身〉‘に'異常を起こさせる
  4. (人が)『病気の』;(部屋などが)病人の[ための];(顔色などが)病気を示す(思わせる) / 《名詞的に》《the ~;複数扱い》病人 / 《補語にのみ用いて》《おもに英》(…で)むかついて,吐き気を催して,気分が悪い《+『at(『with』,『from』+『名』(do『ing』)》 / 《補語にのみ用いて》(…に)『うんざりして』,あきあきして,いや気がさして;(…に)しゃくにさわって,腹が立って《+『of』+『名』(do『ing』)》 / 《補語にのみ用いて》(…に)『がっかりして』,落胆して《+『at』(『about』)+『名』(do『ing』)》 / 《補語にのみ用いて》(…を)熱望して,こがれて《+『for』+『名』》 / 病的な,異常心理の;気味の悪い
  5. (体の)『病気』,疾患 / (精神・道徳などの)病気,病弊
  6. 女性の話術芸人 =diseur
  7. 静けさ,静寂

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出典(authority):フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』「2015/09/03 05:42:17」(JST)

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English Journal

  • Systemic interleukin-6 levels reflect illness course and prognosis of patients with spontaneous nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.
  • Muroi C, Seule M, Sikorski C, Dent W, Keller E.SourceNeurocritical Care Unit, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland,
  • Acta neurochirurgica. Supplement.Acta Neurochir Suppl.2013;115:77-80.
  • Background: Patients with nonaneurysmal -subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) show either perimesencephal (pm)SAH or nonperimesencephalic (non-pm)SAH, with hemorrhage extending into adjacent cisterns. Patients with non-pmSAH have higher risk for a complicated clinical course with cerebral vasospasm (CVS) a
  • PMID 22890649
  • Modeling relapse situations in the human laboratory.
  • Sinha R.SourceDepartment of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, 34 Park Street Room S110, New Haven, CT, 06519, USA,
  • Current topics in behavioral neurosciences.Curr Top Behav Neurosci.2013;13:379-402.
  • It is well known that alcoholism is a chronic relapsing illness. While stress significantly impacts alcoholism risk, there is also evidence that increasing levels of alcohol use affect peripheral and central stress and reward pathways thereby setting up a reciprocal relationship among the effects of
  • PMID 21769721
  • Predictors and mediators of add-on mirtazapine-induced cognitive enhancement in schizophrenia - A path model investigation.
  • Stenberg JH, Terevnikov V, Joffe M, Tiihonen J, Chukhin E, Burkin M, Joffe G.SourceHelsinki University Central Hospital (HUCH), Helsinki, PO Box 750, FI-00029 HUCH, Finland. Electronic address:
  • Neuropharmacology.Neuropharmacology.2013 Jan;64(1):248-53. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2012.06.028. Epub 2012 Jun 26.
  • We aimed to evaluate predictors and mediators of enhancing effect of adjunctive mirtazapine on cognition in schizophrenia. Patients with difficult-to-treat schizophrenia received either mirtazapine (n = 19) or placebo (n = 18) in a double-blind fashion for six weeks. Mirtazapine outperformed pla
  • PMID 22750079

Japanese Journal

  • Current Perspective : Possibility of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids for the Prevention and Treatment of Neuropsychiatric Illnesses
  • Hashimoto Michio,Maekawa Motoko,Katakura Masanori [他]
  • Journal of pharmacological sciences 124(3), 294-300, 2014-03
  • NAID 40020026270
  • 人間幸福学から観た「病いと癒し」
  • 精神保健福祉におけるスピリチュアリティへのアプローチ : 欧米の文献からの一考察
  • 身体疾患に対する治療同意能力 (特集 精神科臨床における身体疾患への対応)
  • 加藤 佑佳,成本 迅
  • 臨床精神医学 43(3), 331-339, 2014-03
  • NAID 40019995712

Related Links

illnessとは。意味や和訳。[名][U][C]病気, 不健康;気分がすぐれないこと, 不快. ⇒SICKNESS[類語]feign illness仮病をつかうa serious illness重い病気( ×a heavy illnessは不可)have a slight [minor] illness軽い病気だdie of (an ...
illness / ˈɪl nɪs / Show Spelled [il-nis] Show IPA noun 1. unhealthy condition; poor health; indisposition; sickness. 2. Obsolete, wickedness. Origin: 1490–1500; ill + -ness Synonyms 1. ailment, affliction, infirmity. ...
Illness. 3,155 likes · 137 talking about this. “Illness” is a story about the tragic fate of Timothy, a thirteen-year-old boy with a terrible mental illness, and the ever-growing fear of his parents. ... Movie “Illness” is a story about the tragic ...

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Illness!Posted by Kiyah at 12:40 AM 3 comments Illnesscritical illness insurancewoman calls her boss one morning and Posted by Rakhee Chaturvedi on November 22 Sally and SamCritical Illness

リンク元100Cases 33」「disease」「disorder」「疾患」「sickness
拡張検索mental illness」「influenza-like illness」「schizophreniform illness

100Cases 33」


☆case33 頭痛と混乱
slurred n. 不明瞭
強直間代痙攣 tonic-clonic convulsion
 意識消失とともに全身随意筋強直痙攣が生じ(強直痙攣tonic convulsion)、次いで全身の筋の強直弛緩とが律動的に繰り返される時期(間代痙攣clonic convulsion)を経て、発作後もうろう状態を呈する一連発作
28歳、女性 黒人 南アフリカ 手術室看護師 ロンドン住在
診察 examination
やせている。55kg。38.5℃。口腔カンジダ症(oral candidiasis)。リンパ節腫脹無し。心血管呼吸器系、消化器系正常。痙攣前における神経検査では時間場所、人の見当識無し。神経局所症状無し(no focal neurological sign)。眼底両側に乳頭浮腫有り。
検査 investigation
口腔カンジダ症(oral candidiasis)
口腔カンジダ症(oral candidiasis) → 細胞免疫低下状態(DM免疫抑制AIDSなど) or 常在細菌叢の攪乱(長期抗菌薬の使用)
 ・The occurrence of thrush in a young, otherwise healthy-appearing person should prompt an investigation for underlying HIV infection.(HIM.1254)
 ・More commonly, thrush is seen as a nonspecific manifestation of severe debilitating illness.(HIM.1254)
精神症状強直間代痙攣 → 一次的、あるいは二次的な脳の疾患がありそう
頭痛 → 漠然としていて絞れないが、他の症状からして機能性頭痛ではなく症候性頭痛っぽい。
・眼底両側に乳頭浮腫 → 脳圧亢進徴候 → 原因は・・・脳腫瘍、ことにテント下腫瘍側頭葉腫瘍クモ膜下出血、脳水腫など、そのほか、眼窩内病変、低眼圧などの局所的要因、悪性高血圧、血液疾患大量出血肺気腫などの全身的要因 (vindicate本のp342も参考になる)
 ・頭痛脳圧亢進 → 頭蓋内圧占拠性病変脳炎(IMD.274)
CT所見 → ringform病変脳浮腫脳圧亢進
・低ナトリウム血症 → 脳ヘルニア続発して起こることがあるらしい。実際には下垂体トキソプラズマによる病変形成されることにより起こりうる。
パターン認識HIV + 精神症状 + てんかん発作(強直間代痙攣) + 脳圧亢進 + CT所見 = 一番ありそうなのはToxoplasma gondiiによるトキソプラズマ脳症 cerebral toxoplasosis (トキソプラズマ脳炎 toxoplasmic encephalitis)
Toxoplasma gondii
 原虫 胞子原虫
(感染予防学 080521のプリント、CASES p,92、HIM p.1305-)
 ・終宿主ネコネコ小腸上皮細胞で有性・無性生殖 糞便オーシスト排泄
病原病因 phathogenesis
 1. オーシスト経口摂取
 2. 中間宿主の生肉中のシスト経口摂取
 3. 初感染妊婦からの経胎盤感染。既感染なら胎盤感染しないらしい(HIM.1306)
 (4)移植臓器、輸血確率は低い(at low rate)(HIM.1306)
 1. 先天性トキソプラズマ症 congenital toxoplasmosis
   ①網脈絡膜炎、 ②水頭症、 ③脳内石灰化、 ④精神運動障害
 2. 後天性トキソプラズマ症 acquired toxoplasmosis
  (1) 健常者
   ・(少数例)筋肉痛、暈疼痛、腹痛、斑状丘疹状皮疹(maculopapular rash)、脳脊髄炎、混乱(HIM.1308)
   ・急性感染症状は数週間で消失 筋肉中枢神経系緩増虫体残存
   AIDSでは、トキソプラズマ脳炎が指標疾患 AIDS-defineing illness(CASES)
 (日本)アセチルスピラマイシンファンシダール(感染予防学 080521)
トキソプラズマ脳炎 toxoplasmic encephalitisトキソプラズマ脳症 cerebral toxoplasosis
 (CT,MRI)多発性両側性ring-enhancing lesion、特に灰白質-白質境界、大脳基底核脳幹小脳が冒されやすい(CASES)
このCTcerebral toxoplasmosis特徴的かは不明
 AIDSWBC(leukocyte)の数はどうなるんだろう???AIDSの初診患者ではWBCが低い人が多いらしいし()、HIVCD4+ T cellmacrophage感染して殺すから、これによってB cellは減るだろうし、CD8+ T cellも若干減少するだろうからWBCは減るんじゃないか?!好中球AIDSとは関係ない?好中球は他の感染症に反応性増加している?ちなみに、好酸球寄生虫(原虫)の感染のために増える傾向にあるらしい(HIMのどこか)。
スルファメトキサゾールトリメトプリム合剤 sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim mixture
A CD4+ T-cell count below 200 cells/μl (or a CD4+ T-cell percentage of total lymphocytes of less than 14%).
or he/she has one of the following defining illnesses:
People who are not infected with HIV may also develop these conditions; this does not mean they have AIDS. However, when an individual presents laboratory evidence against HIV infection, a diagnosis of AIDS is ruled out unless the patient has not:
HIM = Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 17th Edition
CASES = 100 Cases in Clinical Medicine Second edition
IMD = 内科診断学第2版



  • n.
疾患illnessより厳密な概念。「ある臓器に明確な障害が確認され、それによって症状が出ているとはっきり説明できる場合」 (PSY.9)
特定の原因、病態生理、症状、経過、予後、病理組織所見が全てそろった場合 (PSY.9)
  • something that is very wrong with people's attitudes, way of life or with society.
ailailmentdisease entitydisorderillillnessmaladysicksickness
  • 注意




  • 障害:個人的苦痛や機能の障害があるので「疾病」とは言えるものの、その背景にある臓器障害がもう一つはっきりしない場合に用いられる。(PSY.9)
  • n.
  • an untidy state; a lack of order or organization (⇔order)
  • violent behaviour of large groups of people
  • an illness that cause a part of the body to stop functioning correctly
  • 注意
disease <> illness <> disorder
  • vt.
  • 乱す、乱雑にする。(人)の(心身の)調子を狂わせる。
  • vi.




disease, disorder, disturbance, illness, sickness, malady



  • n.
  • 不健康。病気。吐き気、むかつき、悪心、嘔吐。胃の不調
ailailmentdiseaseillillnessout ofsickupset


mental illness」


mental disorderpsychiatric diseasepsychiatric disorder

influenza-like illness」


schizophreniform illness」


schizophreniform disorder