• 逆らって、対抗して、反対して、(病気などに)備えて



  1. express or raise an objection or protest or criticism or express dissent; "She never objected to the amount of work her boss charged her with"; "When asked to drive the truck, she objected that she did not have a drivers license"
  2. a tangible and visible entity; an entity that can cast a shadow; "it was full of rackets, balls and other objects" (同)physical object
  3. (computing) a discrete item that provides a description of virtually anything known to a computer; "in object-oriented programming, objects include data and define its status, its methods of operation and how it interacts with other objects"
  4. (grammar) a constituent that is acted upon; "the object of the verb"
  5. the focus of cognitions or feelings; "objects of thought"; "the object of my affection"
  6. be averse to or express disapproval of; "My wife objects to modern furniture"
  7. the other one of a complementary pair; "the opposite sex"; "the two chess kings are set up on squares of opposite colors"
  8. of leaves etc; growing in pairs on either side of a stem; "opposite leaves" (同)paired
  9. altogether different in nature or quality or significance; "the medicines effect was opposite to that intended"; "it is said that opposite characters make a union happiest"- Charles Reade
  10. being directly across from each other; facing; "And I on the opposite shore will be, ready to ride and spread the alarm"- Longfellow; "we lived on opposite sides of the street"; "at opposite poles"
  11. moving or facing away from each other; "looking in opposite directions"; "they went in opposite directions"
  12. very opposed in nature or character or purpose; "acts contrary to our code of ethics"; "the facts point to a contrary conclusion"
  13. a logical relation such that two propositions are contraries if both cannot be true but both can be false
  14. exact opposition; "public opinion to the contrary he is not guilty"
  15. resistant to guidance or discipline; "Mary Mary quite contrary"; "an obstinate child with a violent temper"; "a perverse mood"; "wayward behavior" (同)obstinate, perverse, wayward
  16. of words or propositions so related that both cannot be true but both may be false; "`hot and `cold are contrary terms"
  17. be the rival of, be in competition with; "we are rivaling for first place in the race"
  18. the contestant you hope to defeat; "he had respect for his rivals"; "he wanted to know what the competition was doing" (同)challenger, competitor, competition, contender
  19. a terrorist organization in South Africa formed in 1996 to fight drug lords; evolved into a vigilante group with anti-western views closely allied with Qibla; is believed to have ties to Islamic extremists in the Middle East; is suspected of conducting bo (同)PAGAD
  20. a terrorist group organized by Osama bin Laden in 1998 that provided an umbrella organization for al-Qaeda and other militant groups in Egypt and Algeria and Pakistan and Bangladesh
  21. prepare mentally or emotionally for something unpleasant (同)steel onself for, brace oneself for, prepare for
  22. as fast as possible; before a deadline; "it was a race against the clock" (同)against time
  23. anew; "she tried again"; "they rehearsed the scene again" (同)once again, once more, over again


  1. …『に対して』,に逆らって(in opposition to);…に不利に / 《保護を表す動詞と共に》…『から』 / …『にぶつかって』,に向かって / …『にもたれて』,に寄りかかって / (災難・事故・万一の場合など)『に備えて』,を避けるように / …『を背景として』,と対照して / …と交換に,と引き換えに
  2. (見たり,触れたりできる)『物』,物体 / (…の)『対象となる人』(『物』,『事』),(…の)的《+『of』+『名』》 / (…の)『目的』,目当て(aim)《+『of』(『in』)+『名』(do『ing』)》 / (文法で)『目的語』 / (…に)『反対する』,異議を唱える《+『to』(『against』)+『名』(a person's do『ing』,『wh-節』)》 / (…を)いやに思う《+『to』(『against』)+『名』(a person's do『ing』,『wh』‐『節』)》 / 《『object』+『that節』》…‘だと'反対して言う
  3. (位置が)『向こう側の』,反対側の,向かい合わせの / (動く方向が)反対の / (性質上)『正反対の』,相入れない / (…の)『正反対の人』(『物』),相入れないもの《+『of』+『名』》 / …に向かい合って
  4. 『板抵の』,相いれない / 逆の,逆方向の;意に反した / 《話》ひねくれた,強情な,意地の悪い(perverse) / 〈C〉 / 《the~》『正反対』; / 《しばしば複随形で》相反するもの;相反する性質 / (…の)反対に,逆に,(…に)反して《+『to』+『名』〈事〉,+『with』+『名』〈人〉》
  5. (…の)『競争相手』,『ライバル』,好敵手,匹敵する人(物)《+『for』+『名』》,(…における)競争相手《+『in』+『名』》 / 競争する,対坑する / (…において)…‘と'『競争する』《+『名』+『in』+『名』(do『ing』)》 / 《おもに米》(…において)…‘に'『匹敵する』,‘と'肩を並べる《+『名』+『in』+『名』(do『ing』)》
  6. 『再び』,もう一度(once more);《否定語とともに用いて》二度と(…しない) / 『また元の所へ』,元のように / さらにそれだけ,…の倍も / 《しばしばthen, and thenに続いて》その上に(besides),さらに(furthermore) / 《しばしばand, and thenに続いて》また一方,ところが

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出典(authority):フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』「2013/04/15 17:33:56」(JST)

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English Journal

  • The influence of organization tenure on nurses' perceptions of multiple work process improvement initiatives.
  • Edwardson N1, Gregory S, Gamm L.
  • Health care management review.Health Care Manage Rev.2016 Jul 1. [Epub ahead of print]
  • BACKGROUND: A nurse's optimism or skepticism toward an organization-mandated change initiative largely depends on their experience with similar change initiatives and their unit's and organization's track record with previous change efforts. Thus, depending on the context, organization tenure can wo
  • PMID 26131609
  • Antioxidant effects of gastrointestinal digested purple carrot extract on the human cells of colonic mucosa.
  • Olejnik A1, Rychlik J2, Kidoń M3, Czapski J3, Kowalska K2, Juzwa W2, Olkowicz M2, Dembczyński R2, Moyer MP4.
  • Food chemistry.Food Chem.2016 Jan 1;190:1069-77. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.06.080. Epub 2015 Jun 23.
  • Purple carrot (PC) is a potential dietary constituent, which represents a valuable source of antioxidants and can modulate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the gastrointestinal tract. Antioxidant capacity of a PC extract subjected to digestion process simulated in the artificial alimentary
  • PMID 26213078
  • Relationship between antioxidant status and oxidative stability in lamb meat reinforced with dietary rosemary diterpenes.
  • Ortuño J1, Serrano R1, Jordán MJ2, Bañón S3.
  • Food chemistry.Food Chem.2016 Jan 1;190:1056-63. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.06.060. Epub 2015 Jun 20.
  • The relationship between the antioxidant status of fresh meat and oxidative stability of chilled-packed meat obtained from lambs fed on a diet supplemented with two different doses of a rosemary extract containing carnosic acid and carnosol was studied. The incorporation of rosemary extract in the l
  • PMID 26213076
  • Inhibitory effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) polyphenol extracts on the bacterial growth and survival of clinical isolates of pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.
  • Pagliarulo C1, De Vito V2, Picariello G2, Colicchio R3, Pastore G1, Salvatore P4, Volpe MG5.
  • Food chemistry.Food Chem.2016 Jan 1;190:824-31. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.06.028. Epub 2015 Jun 10.
  • In the present study major polyphenols of pomegranate arils and peel by-products were extracted in 50% (v/v) aqueous ethanol, characterized and used in microbiological assays in order to test antimicrobial activity against clinically isolated human pathogenic microorganisms. Total concentration of p
  • PMID 26213044

Japanese Journal

  • 耐震診断による上部構造評点を用いた木造在来軸組構法住宅の地震特性能評価
  • 岩西 正晴,岩井 哲
  • 広島工業大学紀要. 研究編 42, 191-197, 39479-00-00
  • … The wall-fulfillment ratio shows an amount of existing bearing-wall with an effective length against the wall required by the Building Code. … The diagnosis grade-point for superstructure of wooden house corresponds to the wall-fulfillment ratio, that is, the safety factor of the load-carrying capacity against the external force such as an earthquake or a wind. …
  • NAID 120005403279
  • 森の哲学--南方熊楠の環境保護活動
  • 三村 泰臣
  • 広島工業大学研究紀要 33, 259-267, 36192-00-00
  • … In order to solve the environment problem, this writer believes that we need to get to know well someone who had committed himself to protesting against forest destruction. … Kumagusu Minakata's protest against the shrine mergers was studied. … He is a well known as an ecologist, having committed himself to the protest against the shrine mergers proposed by the Meiji Government; …
  • NAID 120005403193
  • Accuracy of specimen-specific nonlinear finite element analysis for evaluation of radial diaphysis strength in cadaver material
  • MATSUURA Yusuke,マツウラ ユウスケ,松浦 佑介,KUNIYOSHI Kazuki,クニヨシ カズキ,國吉 一樹,SUZUKI Takane,スズキ タカネ,鈴木 崇根,OGAWA Yasufumi,SUKEGAWA Koji,ROKKAKU Tomoyuki,ロッカク トモユキ,六角 智之,THORESON Andrew Ryan,AN Kai-Nan,TAKAHASHI Kazuhisa,タカハシ カズヒサ,高橋 和久
  • … The results were verified against biomechanical test data. …
  • NAID 120005617336
  • Aquatic adaptation and the evolution of smell and taste in whales
  • Kishida Takushi,Thewissen JGM,Hayakawa Takashi,Imai Hiroo,Agata Kiyokazu
  • Zoological Letters 1, 2015-12
  • … We provide the whole-genome sequence of a mysticete and show that mysticetes lack the dorsal domain of the OB, an area known to induce innate avoidance behavior against odors of predators and spoiled foods. …
  • NAID 120005555476

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リンク元100Cases 33」「object」「反対」「opposite」「oppose

100Cases 33」


☆case33 頭痛と混乱
slurred n. 不明瞭
強直間代痙攣 tonic-clonic convulsion
 意識消失とともに全身随意筋強直痙攣が生じ(強直痙攣tonic convulsion)、次いで全身の筋の強直弛緩とが律動的に繰り返される時期(間代痙攣clonic convulsion)を経て、発作後もうろう状態を呈する一連発作
28歳、女性 黒人 南アフリカ 手術室看護師 ロンドン住在
診察 examination
やせている。55kg。38.5℃。口腔カンジダ症(oral candidiasis)。リンパ節腫脹無し。心血管呼吸器系、消化器系正常。痙攣前における神経検査では時間場所、人の見当識無し。神経局所症状無し(no focal neurological sign)。眼底両側に乳頭浮腫有り。
検査 investigation
口腔カンジダ症(oral candidiasis)
口腔カンジダ症(oral candidiasis) → 細胞免疫低下状態(DM免疫抑制AIDSなど) or 常在細菌叢の攪乱(長期抗菌薬の使用)
 ・The occurrence of thrush in a young, otherwise healthy-appearing person should prompt an investigation for underlying HIV infection.(HIM.1254)
 ・More commonly, thrush is seen as a nonspecific manifestation of severe debilitating illness.(HIM.1254)
精神症状強直間代痙攣 → 一次的、あるいは二次的な脳の疾患がありそう
頭痛 → 漠然としていて絞れないが、他の症状からして機能性頭痛ではなく症候性頭痛っぽい。
・眼底両側に乳頭浮腫 → 脳圧亢進徴候 → 原因は・・・脳腫瘍、ことにテント下腫瘍側頭葉腫瘍クモ膜下出血、脳水腫など、そのほか、眼窩内病変、低眼圧などの局所的要因、悪性高血圧、血液疾患大量出血肺気腫などの全身的要因 (vindicate本のp342も参考になる)
 ・頭痛脳圧亢進 → 頭蓋内圧占拠性病変脳炎(IMD.274)
CT所見 → ringform病変脳浮腫脳圧亢進
・低ナトリウム血症 → 脳ヘルニア続発して起こることがあるらしい。実際には下垂体トキソプラズマによる病変形成されることにより起こりうる。
パターン認識HIV + 精神症状 + てんかん発作(強直間代痙攣) + 脳圧亢進 + CT所見 = 一番ありそうなのはToxoplasma gondiiによるトキソプラズマ脳症 cerebral toxoplasosis (トキソプラズマ脳炎 toxoplasmic encephalitis)
Toxoplasma gondii
 原虫 胞子原虫
(感染予防学 080521のプリント、CASES p,92、HIM p.1305-)
 ・終宿主ネコネコ小腸上皮細胞で有性・無性生殖 糞便オーシスト排泄
病原病因 phathogenesis
 1. オーシスト経口摂取
 2. 中間宿主の生肉中のシスト経口摂取
 3. 初感染妊婦からの経胎盤感染。既感染なら胎盤感染しないらしい(HIM.1306)
 (4)移植臓器、輸血確率は低い(at low rate)(HIM.1306)
 1. 先天性トキソプラズマ症 congenital toxoplasmosis
   ①網脈絡膜炎、 ②水頭症、 ③脳内石灰化、 ④精神運動障害
 2. 後天性トキソプラズマ症 acquired toxoplasmosis
  (1) 健常者
   ・(少数例)筋肉痛、暈疼痛、腹痛、斑状丘疹状皮疹(maculopapular rash)、脳脊髄炎、混乱(HIM.1308)
   ・急性感染症状は数週間で消失 筋肉中枢神経系緩増虫体残存
   AIDSでは、トキソプラズマ脳炎が指標疾患 AIDS-defineing illness(CASES)
 (日本)アセチルスピラマイシンファンシダール(感染予防学 080521)
トキソプラズマ脳炎 toxoplasmic encephalitisトキソプラズマ脳症 cerebral toxoplasosis
 (CT,MRI)多発性両側性ring-enhancing lesion、特に灰白質-白質境界、大脳基底核脳幹小脳が冒されやすい(CASES)
このCTcerebral toxoplasmosis特徴的かは不明
 AIDSWBC(leukocyte)の数はどうなるんだろう???AIDSの初診患者ではWBCが低い人が多いらしいし()、HIVCD4+ T cellmacrophage感染して殺すから、これによってB cellは減るだろうし、CD8+ T cellも若干減少するだろうからWBCは減るんじゃないか?!好中球AIDSとは関係ない?好中球は他の感染症に反応性増加している?ちなみに、好酸球寄生虫(原虫)の感染のために増える傾向にあるらしい(HIMのどこか)。
スルファメトキサゾールトリメトプリム合剤 sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim mixture
A CD4+ T-cell count below 200 cells/μl (or a CD4+ T-cell percentage of total lymphocytes of less than 14%).
or he/she has one of the following defining illnesses:
People who are not infected with HIV may also develop these conditions; this does not mean they have AIDS. However, when an individual presents laboratory evidence against HIV infection, a diagnosis of AIDS is ruled out unless the patient has not:
HIM = Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 17th Edition
CASES = 100 Cases in Clinical Medicine Second edition
IMD = 内科診断学第2版



  • n.
  • 物、物体。物件
  • (動作・感情などの)対象、的。(文法)目的語
  • おかしなもの、みっともないやつ、いやな人/もの
  • 目的(purpose)。目標(goal)、ねらい。動機

  • vi.
  • 不服である、反感を持つ、いやだ。反対する、異議/不服を唱える、抗議する(to, against)
  • vt.
  • 反対理由として持ち出す、~と言って反対する







  • 逆の、反対の、正反対の、対生の、対立性の
adverseadverselyagainstallelismallelomorphismbackwardcontraryconverseconverselydichotomydisagreedisagreementinverseinverselyobjectobjectionopposeopposite phyllotaxisoppositelyoppositionretroreverse




  • vt.
  • ~に対抗(対立)する、反対(敵対)する、妨害する
  • 妨害物としておく、反対(対立)させる。対峙させる
  • 向かい合わせる
  • vi.
  • 反対(対立)する。対抗する。