1. either of two saclike respiratory organs in the chest of vertebrates; serves to remove carbon dioxide and provide oxygen to the blood


  1. 《しばしば複数形で》『肺』,肺臓

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出典(authority):フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』「2016/02/22 05:19:20」(JST)

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English Journal

  • The role of conjunctival biopsy in the diagnosis of granulomatosis with polyangiitis.
  • Ursea R1, De Castro D2, Bowen TJ3, Chan CC4.
  • Journal of ophthalmic inflammation and infection.J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect.2015 Jan 23;5(1):1. doi: 10.1186/s12348-014-0033-9. eCollection 2015.
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to describe a patient who was diagnosed with granulomatosis with polyangiitis based on conjunctival biopsy. This study is a case report and review of the literature.FINDINGS: A 48-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a 2-week history of a left eye peripher
  • PMID 25632308
  • [Diagnostic value of 18F-FDG PET/CT for solitary nodular-type bronchoalveolar carcinoma.]
  • Liu WK1, Li XD, Quan JT, Ouyang X, Zheng H.
  • Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University.Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao.2015 Novemer 20;35(1):114-116.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis of solitary nodular-type bronchoalveolar carcinoma (BAC).METHODS: The clinical and radiographic data were analyzed retrospectively in 30 patients with pathologically confirmed solitary nodular-type BAC who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT exa
  • PMID 25613623
  • Numerical simulation of airflow and microparticle deposition in a synchrotron micro-CT-based pulmonary acinus model.
  • Sera T1, Uesugi K, Yagi N, Yokota H.
  • Computer methods in biomechanics and biomedical engineering.Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin.2015;18(13):1427-35. doi: 10.1080/10255842.2014.915030. Epub 2014 May 13.
  • The acinus consists of complex, branched alveolar ducts and numerous surrounding alveoli, and so in this study, we hypothesized that the particle deposition can be much influenced by the complex acinar geometry, and simulated the airflow and particle deposition (density = 1.0 g/cm(3), diameter = 1 a
  • PMID 24821393

Japanese Journal

  • An Ultrasensitive Mechanism Regulates Influenza Virus-Induced Inflammation
  • Shoemaker Jason E.,Fukuyama Satoshi,Eisfeld Amie J.,Zhao Dongming,Kawakami Eiryo,Sakabe Saori,Maemura Tadashi,Gorai Takeo,Katsura Hiroaki,Muramoto Yukiko,Watanabe Shinji,Watanabe Tokiko,Fuji Ken,Matsuoka Yukiko,Kitano Hiroaki,Kawaoka Yoshihiro
  • PLOS Pathogens 11(6), e1004856, 2015-06-05
  • … This study provides the first evidence of an ultrasensitive mechanism regulating influenza virus-induced inflammation in whole lungs and provides insight into how different virus strains can induce distinct temporal inflammation response profiles. …
  • NAID 120005625374
  • Temporal Changes in Glutaredoxin 1 and Protein S-Glutathionylation in Allergic Airway Inflammation
  • Maki Kanako,Nagai Katsura,Suzuki Masaru,Inomata Takashi,Yoshida Takayuki,Nishimura Masaharu
  • PLOS ONE 10(4), e0122986, 2015-04-14
  • … However, the temporal relationship between levels of Glrx1, protein S-glutathionylation, and glutathione in the lungs with allergic airway inflammation is not clearly understood. … Results Levels of Glrx1 in BALF were significantly elevated in the OVA 6 h (final challenge) group compared to those in the control, with concurrent increases in protein S-glutathionylation levels in the lungs, as well as total glutathione (reduced and oxidized) and oxidized glutathione in BALF. …
  • NAID 120005611268
  • Radiation-induced bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) syndrome in breast cancer patients is associated with age
  • Nemoto Murofushi Keiko,Oguchi Masahiko,Gosho Masahiko,Kozuka Takuyo,Sakurai Hideyuki
  • Radiation oncology 10, 103, 2015-04
  • … BackgroundRadiation-induced bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) syndrome is a rarely observed phenomenon characterized by infiltration of the lungs outside of the radiation field, differentiating it from radiation pneumonitis (RP).The risk factors for radiation-induced BOOP (RT-BOOP) remain unclear and controversial. …
  • NAID 120005611472

Related Links

WebMD's Lungs Anatomy Page provides a detailed image and definition of the lungs. Learn about lung function, problems, location in the body, and more. ... The lungs are a pair of spongy, air-filled organs located on either side of the ...
[Lungs] Florence & The Machine - CD・レコードの購入はオンライン通販アマゾン公式サイトで。お急ぎ便ご利用で当日・翌日にお届け。 ... 大地を揺さぶるようなドラムサウンド、印象的なハープ、クラシックでも初期J.エアプレインでも似合い ...

Related Pictures

Lungs - spirometryRestrictive Lung DiseaseLUNGSHow do Lung nodules form from RA?Polmoni Lungs polmoni SVG 509(K)Respiratory anatomy; drawing shows right

リンク元100Cases 33

100Cases 33」


☆case33 頭痛と混乱
slurred n. 不明瞭
強直間代痙攣 tonic-clonic convulsion
 意識消失とともに全身随意筋強直痙攣が生じ(強直痙攣tonic convulsion)、次いで全身の筋の強直弛緩とが律動的に繰り返される時期(間代痙攣clonic convulsion)を経て、発作後もうろう状態を呈する一連発作
28歳、女性 黒人 南アフリカ 手術室看護師 ロンドン住在
診察 examination
やせている。55kg。38.5℃。口腔カンジダ症(oral candidiasis)。リンパ節腫脹無し。心血管呼吸器系、消化器系正常。痙攣前における神経検査では時間場所、人の見当識無し。神経局所症状無し(no focal neurological sign)。眼底両側に乳頭浮腫有り。
検査 investigation
口腔カンジダ症(oral candidiasis)
口腔カンジダ症(oral candidiasis) → 細胞免疫低下状態(DM免疫抑制AIDSなど) or 常在細菌叢の攪乱(長期抗菌薬の使用)
 ・The occurrence of thrush in a young, otherwise healthy-appearing person should prompt an investigation for underlying HIV infection.(HIM.1254)
 ・More commonly, thrush is seen as a nonspecific manifestation of severe debilitating illness.(HIM.1254)
精神症状強直間代痙攣 → 一次的、あるいは二次的な脳の疾患がありそう
頭痛 → 漠然としていて絞れないが、他の症状からして機能性頭痛ではなく症候性頭痛っぽい。
・眼底両側に乳頭浮腫 → 脳圧亢進徴候 → 原因は・・・脳腫瘍、ことにテント下腫瘍側頭葉腫瘍クモ膜下出血、脳水腫など、そのほか、眼窩内病変、低眼圧などの局所的要因、悪性高血圧、血液疾患大量出血肺気腫などの全身的要因 (vindicate本のp342も参考になる)
 ・頭痛脳圧亢進 → 頭蓋内圧占拠性病変脳炎(IMD.274)
CT所見 → ringform病変脳浮腫脳圧亢進
・低ナトリウム血症 → 脳ヘルニア続発して起こることがあるらしい。実際には下垂体トキソプラズマによる病変形成されることにより起こりうる。
パターン認識HIV + 精神症状 + てんかん発作(強直間代痙攣) + 脳圧亢進 + CT所見 = 一番ありそうなのはToxoplasma gondiiによるトキソプラズマ脳症 cerebral toxoplasosis (トキソプラズマ脳炎 toxoplasmic encephalitis)
Toxoplasma gondii
 原虫 胞子原虫
(感染予防学 080521のプリント、CASES p,92、HIM p.1305-)
 ・終宿主ネコネコ小腸上皮細胞で有性・無性生殖 糞便オーシスト排泄
病原病因 phathogenesis
 1. オーシスト経口摂取
 2. 中間宿主の生肉中のシスト経口摂取
 3. 初感染妊婦からの経胎盤感染。既感染なら胎盤感染しないらしい(HIM.1306)
 (4)移植臓器、輸血確率は低い(at low rate)(HIM.1306)
 1. 先天性トキソプラズマ症 congenital toxoplasmosis
   ①網脈絡膜炎、 ②水頭症、 ③脳内石灰化、 ④精神運動障害
 2. 後天性トキソプラズマ症 acquired toxoplasmosis
  (1) 健常者
   ・(少数例)筋肉痛、暈疼痛、腹痛、斑状丘疹状皮疹(maculopapular rash)、脳脊髄炎、混乱(HIM.1308)
   ・急性感染症状は数週間で消失 筋肉中枢神経系緩増虫体残存
   AIDSでは、トキソプラズマ脳炎が指標疾患 AIDS-defineing illness(CASES)
 (日本)アセチルスピラマイシンファンシダール(感染予防学 080521)
トキソプラズマ脳炎 toxoplasmic encephalitisトキソプラズマ脳症 cerebral toxoplasosis
 (CT,MRI)多発性両側性ring-enhancing lesion、特に灰白質-白質境界、大脳基底核脳幹小脳が冒されやすい(CASES)
このCTcerebral toxoplasmosis特徴的かは不明
 AIDSWBC(leukocyte)の数はどうなるんだろう???AIDSの初診患者ではWBCが低い人が多いらしいし()、HIVCD4+ T cellmacrophage感染して殺すから、これによってB cellは減るだろうし、CD8+ T cellも若干減少するだろうからWBCは減るんじゃないか?!好中球AIDSとは関係ない?好中球は他の感染症に反応性増加している?ちなみに、好酸球寄生虫(原虫)の感染のために増える傾向にあるらしい(HIMのどこか)。
スルファメトキサゾールトリメトプリム合剤 sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim mixture
A CD4+ T-cell count below 200 cells/μl (or a CD4+ T-cell percentage of total lymphocytes of less than 14%).
or he/she has one of the following defining illnesses:
People who are not infected with HIV may also develop these conditions; this does not mean they have AIDS. However, when an individual presents laboratory evidence against HIV infection, a diagnosis of AIDS is ruled out unless the patient has not:
HIM = Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 17th Edition
CASES = 100 Cases in Clinical Medicine Second edition
IMD = 内科診断学第2版