- be or become completely proficient or skilled in; "She mastered Japanese in less than two years" (同)get the hang
- an original creation (i.e., an audio recording) from which copies can be made (同)master copy, original
- an officer who is licensed to command a merchant ship (同)captain, sea_captain, skipper
- an authority qualified to teach apprentices (同)professional
- directs the work of others
- someone who holds a masters degree from academic institution
- have a firm understanding or knowledge of; be on top of; "Do you control these data?" (同)control
- of the field of academic study in which one concentrates or specializes; "his major field was mathematics"
- a commissioned military officer in the United States Army or Air Force or Marines; below lieutenant colonel and above captain
- a university student who is studying a particular field as the principal subject; "she is a linguistics major"
- the principal field of study of a student at a university; "her major is linguistics"
- greater in number or size or amount; "a major portion (a majority) of the population"; "Ursa Major"; "a major portion of the winnings"
- greater in scope or effect; "a major contribution"; "a major improvement"; "a major break with tradition"; "a major misunderstanding"
- have as ones principal field of study; "She is majoring in linguistics"
- of a scale or mode; "major scales"; "the key of D major"
- of full legal age
- of greater importance or stature or rank; "a major artist"; "a major role"; "major highways"
- of greater seriousness or danger; "a major earthquake"; "a major hurricane"; "a major illness"
- of the elder of two boys with the same family name; "Jones major"
- being or denoting a numerical quantity but not order; "cardinal numbers"
- crested thick-billed North American finch having bright red plumage in the male (同)cardinal grosbeak, Richmondena Cardinalis, Cardinalis cardinalis, redbird
- a variable color averaging a vivid red (同)carmine
- (Roman Catholic Church) one of a group of more than 100 prominent bishops in the Sacred College who advise the Pope and elect new Popes
- serving as an essential component; "a cardinal rule"; "the central cause of the problem"; "an example that was fundamental to the argument"; "computers are fundamental to modern industrial structure" (同)central, fundamental, key, primal
- of first rank or importance or value; direct and immediate rather than secondary; "primary goals"; "a primary effect"; "primary sources"; "a primary interest"
- a preliminary election where delegates or nominees are chosen (同)primary_election
- one of the main flight feathers projecting along the outer edge of a birds wing (同)primary feather, primary quill
- (astronomy) a celestial body (especially a star) relative to other objects in orbit around it
- not derived from or reducible to something else; basic; "a primary instinct"
- capital as contrasted with the income derived from it (同)corpus, principal sum
- the original amount of a debt on which interest is calculated
- the major party to a financial transaction at a stock exchange; buys and sells for his own account (同)dealer
- the educator who has executive authority for a school; "she sent unruly pupils to see the principal" (同)school principal, head teacher, head
- (criminal law) any person involved in a criminal offense, regardless of whether the person profits from such involvement
- of force; of the greatest possible intensity; "by main strength"
- a principal pipe in a system that distributes water or gas or electricity or that collects sewage
- any very large body of (salt) water (同)briny
- (computer science) a computer file that is used as the authority in a given job and that is relatively permanent (同)main file
- an academic degree higher than a bachelors degree but lower than a doctors degree
- nuts of forest trees (as beechnuts and acorns) accumulated on the ground
- a vertical spar for supporting sails
- any sturdy upright pole
- nuts of forest trees used as feed for swine
- the act of making a master recording from which copies can be made; "he received a bill for mastering the concert and making 100 copies"
- becoming proficient in the use of something; having mastery of; "his mastering the art of cooking took a long time"
- 〈C〉『主人』,支配者(人),雇主;(動物の)飼い主 / 〈C〉(…を)自由に駆使できる人,如理する能力のある人《+『of』+『名』》 / 〈C〉(…の)『大家』,『名人』,精通者;師匠《+『of』(『in, at』)+『名』(do『ing』)》 / 〈C〉(商船の)船長 / 〈C〉(学校の男の)『先生』 / 《the M-, our M-》主キリスト(Jesus Christ) / 〈C〉《しばしばM-》修士;修士号 / 〈U〉《M-》《古》…様 / 〈C〉(レコードなどの)原盤,金型,(フイル専の)原板,ネガ / 《名詞の前にのみ用いて》 / 一本立ちで仕事のできる職人の,自営の / 主要な,最上の / 腕のいい,名人の,達人の / (機械・レコードなどの)親になる,元になる / 〈人・物〉‘を'『征服する』,支配する;〈感情・欲望〉‘を'『抑える』 / 〈特技・技術など〉‘を'修得する,‘に'熟達する
- 『大きい』(『多い』)『ほうの』,いっそう重要な / (音階が)長調の,長音階の / 《英》《昔の学校で同姓または兄弟生徒を区別するために姓の後につけて》年長の,兄の / 《しばしばM-》陸軍(空軍)少佐 / 《米》専攻科目;専攻学生 / 《the majors》《米》=major leagues / (科目を)専攻する《+『in』+『名』》
- 『基本的な』;主要な / 深紅(しんこう)色の / 〈C〉枢機卿(教皇の最高顧問;その数は70人で深紅色の衣装をまとう) / 〈U〉深紅色 / 〈C〉=cardinal number / (また『cardinal bird』)〈C〉(北米産の)ショウジョウコウカンチョウ
- 『第一の』,『主要な』 / 『初期の』,『初等の』,初級の / 『根本的な』,基本的な,本来の,直接的な / 《名詞の前にのみ用いて》(回路・コイル・巻き・電流などが)一次の / 原色(三原色の一つ) / 《米》=primary election
- (重要性・地位・価値などが)『第1の』;おもな,主要な / 『長』,かしら;重要人物,主役 / 《しばしばP-》(小・中学校,高校の)『校長』;(特に《英》でcollegeの)学長,(時に)学寮長 / 《単数形で》(interest(利子),revenue(運用収益)と区別して)『元金』,基本財産
- 《名詞の前にのみ用いて》『おもな,主要な』 / 〈C〉《通例複数形で》(水道・ガスなどの)本管;主電線;(鉄道の)本線,幹線 / 〈U〉《the~》《詩》大海,大海原(おおうなばら)
- 『マスト』,帆柱 / (装飾用の)高い柱;(無電用・起重機用の)鉄塔
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- Transglutaminase 2 reprogramming of glucose metabolism in mammary epithelial cells via activation of inflammatory signaling pathways.
- Kumar S1, Donti TR, Agnihotri N, Mehta K.Author information 1Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.AbstractAberrant glucose metabolism characterized by high levels of glycolysis, even in the presence of oxygen, is an important hallmark of cancer. This metabolic reprogramming referred to as the Warburg effect is essential to the survival of tumor cells and provides them with substrates required for biomass generation. Molecular mechanisms responsible for this shift in glucose metabolism remain elusive. As described herein, we found that aberrant expression of the proinflammatory protein transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is an important regulator of the Warburg effect in mammary epithelial cells. Mechanistically, TG2 regulated metabolic reprogramming by constitutively activating nuclear factor (NF)-κB, which binds to the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α promoter and induces its expression even under normoxic conditions. TG2/NF-κB-induced increase in HIF-1α expression was associated with increased glucose uptake, increased lactate production and decreased oxygen consumption by mitochondria. Experimental suppression of TG2 attenuated HIF-1α expression and reversed downstream events in mammary epithelial cells. Moreover, downregulation of p65/RelA or HIF-1α expression in these cells restored normal glucose uptake, lactate production, mitochondrial respiration and glycolytic protein expression. Our results suggest that aberrant expression of TG2 is a master regulator of metabolic reprogramming and facilitates metabolic alterations in epithelial cells even under normoxic conditions. A TG2-induced shift in glucose metabolism helps breast cancer cells to survive under stressful conditions and promotes their metastatic competence.
- International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer.Int J Cancer.2014 Jun 15;134(12):2798-807. doi: 10.1002/ijc.28623. Epub 2014 Jan 30.
- Aberrant glucose metabolism characterized by high levels of glycolysis, even in the presence of oxygen, is an important hallmark of cancer. This metabolic reprogramming referred to as the Warburg effect is essential to the survival of tumor cells and provides them with substrates required for biomas
- PMID 24477458
- A proinvasive role for the Ca(2+) -activated K(+) channel KCa3.1 in malignant glioma.
- Turner KL1, Honasoge A, Robert SM, McFerrin MM, Sontheimer H.Author information 1Department of Neurobiology and Center for Glial Biology in Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Alabama.AbstractGlioblastoma multiforme are highly motile primary brain tumors. Diffuse tissue invasion hampers surgical resection leading to poor patient prognosis. Recent studies suggest that intracellular Ca(2+) acts as a master regulator for cell motility and engages a number of downstream signals including Ca(2+) -activated ion channels. Querying the REepository of Molecular BRAin Neoplasia DaTa (REMBRANDT), an annotated patient gene database maintained by the National Cancer Institute, we identified the intermediate conductance Ca(2+) -activated K(+) channels, KCa3.1, being overexpressed in 32% of glioma patients where protein expression significantly correlated with poor patient survival. To mechanistically link KCa3.1 expression to glioma invasion, we selected patient gliomas that, when propagated as xenolines in vivo, present with either high or low KCa3.1 expression. In addition, we generated U251 glioma cells that stably express an inducible knockdown shRNA to experimentally eliminate KCa3.1 expression. Subjecting these cells to a combination of in vitro and in situ invasion assays, we demonstrate that KCa3.1 expression significantly enhances glioma invasion and that either specific pharmacological inhibition with TRAM-34 or elimination of the channel impairs invasion. Importantly, after intracranial implantation into SCID mice, ablation of KCa3.1 with inducible shRNA resulted in a significant reduction in tumor invasion into surrounding brain in vivo. These results show that KCa3.1 confers an invasive phenotype that significantly worsens a patient's outlook, and suggests that KCa3.1 represents a viable therapeutic target to reduce glioma invasion. GLIA 2014;62:971-981.
- Glia.Glia.2014 Jun;62(6):971-81. doi: 10.1002/glia.22655. Epub 2014 Mar 2.
- Glioblastoma multiforme are highly motile primary brain tumors. Diffuse tissue invasion hampers surgical resection leading to poor patient prognosis. Recent studies suggest that intracellular Ca(2+) acts as a master regulator for cell motility and engages a number of downstream signals including Ca(
- PMID 24585442
- Analysis of differential gene expression profiles in Caenorhabditis elegans knockouts for the v-SNARE master protein 1.
- Rodriguez A1, McKay K, Graham M, Dittrich J, Holgado AM.Author information 1Department of Biological Sciences, Southwestern Oklahoma State University, Weatherford, Oklahoma.AbstractAt chemical synapses, neurons communicate information to other cells by secreting neurotransmitters or neuropeptides into the synaptic cleft, which then bind to receptors on the target cell. Preliminary work performed in our laboratory has shown that mutant nematodes lacking a protein called VSM-1 have increased synaptic density compared with the wild type. Consequently, we hypothesized that genes expressed in vsm-1 mutants mediate enhanced synaptogenesis. To identify these genes of interest, we utilized microarray technology and quantitative PCR. To this end, first we isolated the total RNA from young-adult wild-type and vsm-1 mutant Caenorhabditis elegans. Next, we synthesized cDNA from reverse transcription of the isolated RNA. Hybridization of the cDNA to a microarray was performed to facilitate gene expression profiling. Finally, fluorescently labeled microarrays were analyzed, and the identities of induced and repressed genes were uncovered in the open-source software Magic Tool. Analyses of microarray experiments performed using three independent biological samples per strain and three technical replicas and dye swaps showed induction of genes coding for major sperm proteins and repression of SPP-2 in vsm-1 mutants. Microarray results were also validated and quantified by using quantitative PCR. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Journal of neuroscience research.J Neurosci Res.2014 Jun;92(6):772-82. doi: 10.1002/jnr.23353. Epub 2014 Feb 25.
- At chemical synapses, neurons communicate information to other cells by secreting neurotransmitters or neuropeptides into the synaptic cleft, which then bind to receptors on the target cell. Preliminary work performed in our laboratory has shown that mutant nematodes lacking a protein called VSM-1 h
- PMID 24615917
- Linear noise approximation for stochastic oscillations of intracellular calcium.
- Cantini L1, Cianci C2, Fanelli D3, Massi E1, Barletti L1.Author information 1Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica "U. Dini", University of Florence, Viale Morgagni 67/A, 50139 Florence, Italy.2Dipartimento di Sistemi e Informatica and INFN, University of Florence, Via S. Marta 3, 50139 Florence, Italy.3Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, University of Florence and INFN, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence, Italy.AbstractA stochastic model of intracellular calcium oscillations is analytically studied. The governing master equation is expanded under the linear noise approximation and a closed prediction for the power spectrum of fluctuations analytically derived. A peak in the obtained power spectrum profile signals the presence of stochastic, noise induced oscillations which extend also outside the region where a deterministic limit cycle is predicted to occur.
- Journal of theoretical biology.J Theor Biol.2014 May 21;349:92-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jtbi.2014.01.035. Epub 2014 Feb 3.
- A stochastic model of intracellular calcium oscillations is analytically studied. The governing master equation is expanded under the linear noise approximation and a closed prediction for the power spectrum of fluctuations analytically derived. A peak in the obtained power spectrum profile signals
- PMID 24503287
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- ニュース特集 国税庁「役員給与に関するQ&A」の射程は役員給与の期中減額、定期同額判定で重要解釈
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- cardinal、chief、chiefly、foremost、in itself、main、mainly、major、master、mostly、original、originally、predominant、predominantly、primary、principal、principally、proper