- the act of hostile groups opposing each other; "the government was not ready for a confrontation with the unions"; "the invaders encountered stiff opposition" (同)opposition
- a focussed comparison; bringing together for a careful comparison
- a hostile disagreement face-to-face (同)encounter, showdown, face-off
- a bold challenge
- discord resulting from a clash of ideas or opinions
- turn so as to face; turn the face in a certain direction; "Turn and face your partner now"
- a vertical surface of a building or cliff
- the general outward appearance of something; "the face of the city is changing"
- the side upon which the use of a thing depends (usually the most prominent surface of an object); "he dealt the cards face down"
- the striking or working surface of an implement
- the front of the human head from the forehead to the chin and ear to ear; "he washed his face"; "I wish I had seen the look on his face when he got the news" (同)human face
- a part of a person that is used to refer to a person; "he looked out at a roomful of faces"; "when he returned to work he met many new faces"
- status in the eyes of others; "he lost face"
- the part of an animal corresponding to the human face
- be opposite; "the facing page"; "the two sofas face each other"
- cover the front or surface of; "The building was faced with beautiful stones"
- line the edge (of a garment) with a different material; "face the lapels of the jacket"
- turn so as to expose the face; "face a playing card"
- be face to face with; "The child screamed when he confronted the man in the Halloween costume"
- oppose, as in hostility or a competition; "You must confront your opponent"; "Jackson faced Smith in the boxing ring"; "The two enemies finally confronted each other" (同)face
- deal with (something unpleasant) head on; "You must confront your problems"; "He faced the terrible consequences of his mistakes" (同)face up, face
- present somebody with something, usually to accuse or criticize; "We confronted him with the evidence"; "He was faced with all the evidence and could no longer deny his actions"; "An enormous dilemma faces us" (同)face, present
- be the rival of, be in competition with; "we are rivaling for first place in the race"
- the contestant you hope to defeat; "he had respect for his rivals"; "he wanted to know what the competition was doing" (同)challenger, competitor, competition, contender
- be against; express opposition to; "We oppose the ban on abortion"
- be resistant to; "The board opposed his motion" (同)controvert, contradict
- contrast with equal weight or force (同)counterbalance
- the relation between opposed entities (同)oppositeness
- a direction opposite to another
- a contestant that you are matched against (同)opponent, opposite
- a body of people united in opposing something
- of or relating to confrontation
- 〈C〉『顔』 / 〈C〉表情,顔つき / 〈C〉(物の)『表面』(surface),(建物の)正面(front),(貨幣・カードなどの)表《+『of』+『名』》 / 〈C〉(…の)外観,様子《+『of』+『名』》 / 〈U〉面目,面子(めんつ) / 〈C〉(多角面体の)面 / 〈C〉(活字・版の)面(印刷する部分);(活字の)書体 / 〈C〉(鉱山の)採掘現場 / …‘に'『面する』,‘の'ほうを向く / (…のほうに)…‘を'向ける《+『名』+『toward』+『名』》 / 〈人が〉〈危険など〉‘に'直面する,立ち向かう,対抗する;〈危険などが〉〈人〉‘に'迫る / 〈事実・現実など〉‘を'直視する,認める / (…で)〈壁など〉‘に'上塗り(上張り)をする《+『名』+『with』+『名』》 / (ある場所・方角に)面する,向く《+『on』(『to』,『toward』)+『名』》
- 〈人が〉〈危険・問題・相手など〉‘に'立ち向かう,ぶっかっていく / 〈危険・問題・相手・物などが〉…‘の'前に立ちはだがる,に向かい合って立つ / (…と)…'を'直面させる,対決させる《+『名』+『with』+『名』》
- (…の)『競争相手』,『ライバル』,好敵手,匹敵する人(物)《+『for』+『名』》,(…における)競争相手《+『in』+『名』》 / 競争する,対坑する / (…において)…‘と'『競争する』《+『名』+『in』+『名』(do『ing』)》 / 《おもに米》(…において)…‘に'『匹敵する』,‘と'肩を並べる《+『名』+『in』+『名』(do『ing』)》
- …‘に'『反対する』,抵抗する(object to) / (…に)…‘を'対照させる,対抗させる《+『名』+『to』+『名』(do『ing』)》
- 〈U〉〈C〉(…に)『反対すること』,(…に対する)反対,対立,抵抗,敵対《+『to』+『名』(a person's do『ing』)》 / 《時にO-》《the~》野党,反対党
- …『に対して』,に逆らって(in opposition to);…に不利に / 《保護を表す動詞と共に》…『から』 / …『にぶつかって』,に向かって / …『にもたれて』,に寄りかかって / (災難・事故・万一の場合など)『に備えて』,を避けるように / …『を背景として』,と対照して / …と交換に,と引き換えに
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- Do the coach and athlete have the same «picture» of the situation? Distributed Situation Awareness in an elite sport context.
- Macquet AC1, Stanton NA2.Author information 1French National Institute of Sport, Expertise and Performance (INSEP), Paris, France. Electronic address: email@example.comSouthampton University, UK.AbstractAthletes and their coach interpret the training situations differently and this can have important implications for the development of an elite athlete's performance. It is argued that, from a schema-theoretic perspective, the difference in these interpretations needs to be better understood. A post-performance, self-confrontation, interview was conducted with a number of athletes and their coaches. The interviews revealed differences between the athlete and their coach in the information they are aware of. In comparison with athletes, coaches more frequently compared the phenotype with genotype schemata rather than just describing the phenotype schemata. Results suggest SA information elements showed some common ground but also revealed some important differences between the athlete and coach. The awareness was directed externally towards the environment and internally, towards the individual, depending on his/her role. The investigation showed that the schemata used to 'frame' the information elements were different, but compatible, between athlete and coach.
- Applied ergonomics.Appl Ergon.2014 May;45(3):724-33. doi: 10.1016/j.apergo.2013.09.014. Epub 2013 Oct 8.
- Athletes and their coach interpret the training situations differently and this can have important implications for the development of an elite athlete's performance. It is argued that, from a schema-theoretic perspective, the difference in these interpretations needs to be better understood. A post
- PMID 24112774
- Human Natural Killer Cells Acting as Phagocytes Against Candida albicans and Mounting an Inflammatory Response That Modulates Neutrophil Antifungal Activity.
- Voigt J, Hünniger K, Bouzani M, Jacobsen ID, Barz D, Hube B, Löffler J, Kurzai O.Author information Septomics Research Centre, Friedrich Schiller University and Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology-Hans Knoell Institute.AbstractBackground. Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes with potent cytotoxic activity. Whereas activity of NK cells has been demonstrated against the fungal pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus and Cryptococcus neoformans, little was known about their interaction with Candida albicans. Methods. Primary human NK cells were isolated from buffy coats, primed with a cytokine cocktail and used for confrontation assays with C. albicans. Interaction was monitored and quantified using live cell imaging, confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. Human NK cells actively recognized C. albicans, resulting in degranulation and secretion of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon γ, and tumor necrosis factor α . Uniquely, activation of NK cells was triggered by actin-dependent phagocytosis. Antifungal activity of NK cells against C. albicans could be detected and mainly attributed to secreted perforin. However, NK cells were unable to inhibit filamentation of C. albicans. Human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) counteracted the proinflammatory reaction of NK cells by preventing direct contact between NK cells and the fungal pathogen. Activation of PMNs was enhanced in the presence of NK cells, resulting in increased fungicidal activity. Conclusions. Our results show a unique pattern of NK cell interaction with C. albicans, which involves direct proinflammatory activation and modulation of PMN activity. For the first time, phagocytosis of a pathogen is shown to contribute to NK cell activation.
- The Journal of infectious diseases.J Infect Dis.2014 Feb;209(4):616-26. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jit574. Epub 2013 Oct 25.
- Background. Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes with potent cytotoxic activity. Whereas activity of NK cells has been demonstrated against the fungal pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus and Cryptococcus neoformans, little was known about their interaction with Candida albicans. Methods.�
- PMID 24163416
- iPractice: Piloting the Effectiveness of a Tablet-Based Home Practice Program in Aphasia Treatment.
- Kurland J, Wilkins AR, Stokes P.Author information Department of Communication Disorders, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts.AbstractThe current study investigated the effectiveness of a home practice program based on the iPad (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA), implemented after 2 weeks of intensive language therapy, for maintaining and augmenting treatment gains in people with chronic poststroke aphasia. Five of eight original participants completed the 6-month home practice program in which they autonomously practiced retrieving words for objects and actions. Half of these words had been trained and half were untrained during therapy. Practice included tasks such as naming to confrontation, repeating from a video model, and picture/word matching presented on an iPad. All participants maintained advances made on words trained during the intensive treatment and additionally were able to learn new words by practicing daily over a 6-month period. The iPad and other tablet devices have great potential for personalized home practice to maintain and augment traditional aphasia rehabilitation. It appears that motivation to use the technology and adequate training are more important factors than age, aphasia type or severity, or prior experience with computers.
- Seminars in speech and language.Semin Speech Lang.2014 Feb;35(1):51-64. doi: 10.1055/s-0033-1362991. Epub 2014 Jan 21.
- The current study investigated the effectiveness of a home practice program based on the iPad (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA), implemented after 2 weeks of intensive language therapy, for maintaining and augmenting treatment gains in people with chronic poststroke aphasia. Five of eight original partici
- PMID 24449465
- Effects of social defeat on sleep and behaviour: Importance of the confrontational behaviour.
- Kinn Rød AM1, Murison R2, Mrdalj J3, Milde AM4, Jellestad FK5, Overnes LA6, Grønli J7.Author information 1Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Jonas Liesvei 91, 5009 Bergen, Norway. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.orgDepartment of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Jonas Liesvei 91, 5009 Bergen, Norway. Electronic address: email@example.comDepartment of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Jonas Liesvei 91, 5009 Bergen, Norway. Electronic address: Jelena.Mrdalj@psybb.uib.no.4Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Jonas Liesvei 91, 5009 Bergen, Norway. Electronic address: Anne.Milde@psybp.uib.no.5Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Jonas Liesvei 91, 5009 Bergen, Norway. Electronic address: Finn.Jellestad@psybp.uib.no.6Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Jonas Liesvei 91, 5009 Bergen, Norway. Electronic address: Leif.Overnes@student.uib.no.7Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Jonas Liesvei 91, 5009 Bergen, Norway; Norwegian Competence Centre for Sleep Disorders, Haukeland University Hospital, Jonas Liesvei 65, 5009 Bergen, Norway. Electronic address: Janne.Gronli@psybp.uib.no.AbstractWe studied the short- and long-term effects of a double social defeat (SD) on sleep parameters, EEG power, behaviour in the open field emergence test, corticosterone responsiveness, and acoustic startle responses. Pre-stress level of corticosterone were assessed before all rats were surgically implanted with telemetric transmitters for sleep recording, and allowed 3 weeks of recovery. Rats in the SD group (n=10) were exposed to 1 hour SD on two consecutive days, while control rats (n=10) were left undisturbed. Telemetric sleep recordings were performed before SD (day -1), day 1 post SD, and once weekly for 3 weeks thereafter. The open field emergence test was performed on day 9 and weekly for 2 weeks thereafter. Blood samples for measures of corticosterone responsiveness were drawn after the last emergence test (day 23). Acoustic startle responses were tested on day 24 post SD. Overall, SD rats as a group were not affected by the social conflict. Effects of SD seemed, however, to vary according to the behaviours that the intruder displayed during the social confrontation with the resident. Compared to those SD rats showing quick submission (SDS, n=5), SD rats fighting the resident during one or both SD confrontations before defeat (SDF, n=5) showed more fragmented slow wave sleep, both in SWS1 and SWS2. They also showed longer latency to leave the start box and spent less time in the open field arena compared to SDS rats. In the startle test, SDF rats failed to show response decrement at the lowest sound level. Our results indicate that how animals behave during a social confrontation is more important than exposure to the SD procedure itself, and that rapid submission during a social confrontation might be more adaptive than fighting back.
- Physiology & behavior.Physiol Behav.2014 Jan 25. pii: S0031-9384(14)00013-4. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.01.010. [Epub ahead of print]
- We studied the short- and long-term effects of a double social defeat (SD) on sleep parameters, EEG power, behaviour in the open field emergence test, corticosterone responsiveness, and acoustic startle responses. Pre-stress level of corticosterone were assessed before all rats were surgically impla
- PMID 24472325
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