- relating to or showing a difference; "differential treatment"
- a quality that differentiates between similar things
- involving or containing one or more derivatives; "differential equation"
- unfair treatment of a person or group on the basis of prejudice (同)favoritism, favouritism
- the cognitive process whereby two or more stimuli are distinguished (同)secernment
- marked by the ability to see or make fine distinctions; "discriminate judgments"; "discriminate people"
- recognize or perceive the difference (同)know apart
- treat differently on the basis of sex or race (同)separate, single_out
- distinguish; "I could not discriminate the different tastes in this complicated dish"
- in a differential manner; "Hubel and Wiesel have found cells that respond differentially according to the direction in which a stimulus is moved across the retina"
- the part of calculus that deals with the variation of a function with respect to changes in the independent variable (or variables) by means of the concepts of derivative and differential (同)method of fluxions
- a bevel gear that permits rotation of two shafts at different speeds; used on the rear axle of automobiles to allow wheels to rotate at different speeds on curves (同)differential
- counting the number of specific types of white blood cells found in 1 cubic millimeter of blood; may be included as part of a complete blood count
- the branch of psychology that studies measurable differences between individuals
- an analog computer designed to solve differential equations
- distinguishing characteristics (especially in different species of a genus)
- 『差別的な』 / 微分の / 差動の / 〈C〉差別額,運賃差 / 〈U〉微分 / 〈C〉〈U〉(また『differential gear』)差動歯車,差動装置
- 区別(識別)すること / (…に対する)差別待遇《+『against』+『名』》 / 識別力,鋭く見分ける力
- (…と)…‘を'『見分ける』,識別する《+『名』+『from』+『名』》 / (…間の)『差異を見分ける』,識別する《+『between』+『名』》 / (…を)分け隔てする,差別待遇する《+『against』+『名』》
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- Bilateral femoral neck insufficiency fractures secondary to vitamin D deficiency and concurrent corticosteroid use--a case report.
- Carter T1, Nutt J, Simons A.Author information 1Department of Orthogeriatrics, Birmingham Heartlands Hospital, Birmingham, UK, email@example.com.AbstractWe present a rare case of a 67-year-old Indian female who was found to have bilateral insufficiency of the neck of femur fractures secondary to osteomalacia from vitamin D deficiency, with her symptoms exacerbated by a course of oral steroids prescribed for suspected polymyalgia rheumatica.
- Archives of osteoporosis.Arch Osteoporos.2014 Dec;9(1):172. doi: 10.1007/s11657-014-0172-5. Epub 2014 Feb 11.
- We present a rare case of a 67-year-old Indian female who was found to have bilateral insufficiency of the neck of femur fractures secondary to osteomalacia from vitamin D deficiency, with her symptoms exacerbated by a course of oral steroids prescribed for suspected polymyalgia rheumatica.INTRODUCT
- PMID 24515953
- Investigation into physical-chemical variables affecting the manufacture and dissolution of wet-milled clarithromycin nanoparticles.
- Shahbazi Niaz M1, Traini D, Young PM, Ghadiri M, Rohanizadeh R.Author information 1Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran .AbstractA critical problem associated with poor water-soluble drugs is their low and variable bioavailability, which is derived from the slow dissolution and erratic absorption. Nano-formulation has been identified as one approach to enhance the rate and extent of drug absorption for compounds that demonstrate limited water solubility. This study aimed to investigate the physico-chemical variables that affect the manufacture, dissolution and consequent bioavailability of wet-milled clarithromycin (CLA) nanoparticles, a macrolide antibiotic. CLA nanoparticles were prepared using wet milling method followed by freeze-drying. Different stabilizer systems, consisting of surfactants and polymers alone or their combinations were studied to determine the optimum conditions for producing nano-sized CLA particles. In vitro characterizations of the CLA nanoparticles were performed using dynamic light scattering, X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and dissolution efficiency test. Results showed that in general the wet milling process did not modify the crystallinity of the CLA nanoparticles. The poloxamers and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) stabilizers resulted in nanoparticles with the smallest particle size and best dissolution rates. Furthermore, poloxamers F68 and F127, and PVA stabilizers demonstrated the best performance in increasing dissolution efficacy.
- Pharmaceutical development and technology.Pharm Dev Technol.2014 Dec;19(8):911-21. doi: 10.3109/10837450.2013.840844. Epub 2013 Oct 4.
- A critical problem associated with poor water-soluble drugs is their low and variable bioavailability, which is derived from the slow dissolution and erratic absorption. Nano-formulation has been identified as one approach to enhance the rate and extent of drug absorption for compounds that demonstr
- PMID 24093825
- Differential toxicological response to positively and negatively charged nanoparticles in the rat brain.
- Knudsen KB1, Northeved H, Ek PK, Permin A, Andresen TL, Larsen S, Wegener KM, Lam HR, Lykkesfeldt J.Author information 1Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen , Copenhagen , Denmark.AbstractWe investigated the potential for systemic and local toxicity after administration of empty nanosized anionic and cationic PEGylated-micelles and non-PEGylated liposomes, without a ligand attached, intended for use in drug-delivery systems. The particles were administered to 5-6-week-old male rats by three intravenous (IV) administrations over a period of one week at a dose of 100 mg/kg bodyweight or after a single intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection at a dose of 50 µg. The particles were stable and well characterised with respect to size and zeta potential. ICV administration of cationic particles was associated with histological changes near the injection site (hippocampus). Here, we detected focal infiltration with phagocytic cells, loss of neurons and apoptotic cell death, which were not observed after administration of the vehicle. No significant difference was found after IV or ICV administration of the anionic micelles with regard to haematology, clinical chemistry parameters or at the pathological examinations, as compared to control animals. Our study suggests that ICV delivery of cationic particles to the brain tissue is associated with toxicity at the injection site.
- Nanotoxicology.Nanotoxicology.2014 Nov;8(7):764-74. doi: 10.3109/17435390.2013.829589.
- We investigated the potential for systemic and local toxicity after administration of empty nanosized anionic and cationic PEGylated-micelles and non-PEGylated liposomes, without a ligand attached, intended for use in drug-delivery systems. The particles were administered to 5-6-week-old male rats b
- PMID 23889261
- Solid dispersions of the penta-ethyl ester prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA): formulation design and optimization studies.
- Yang YT1, Di Pasqua AJ, Zhang Y, Sueda K, Jay M.Author information 1Division of Molecular Pharmaceutics, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , Chapel Hill, NC , USA.AbstractThe penta-ethyl ester prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), which exists as an oily liquid, was incorporated into a solid dispersion for oral administration by the solvent evaporation method using blends of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), Eudragit® RL PO and α-tocopherol. D-optimal mixture design was used to optimize the formulation. Formulations that had a high concentration of both Eudragit® RL PO and α-tocopherol exhibited low water absorption and enhanced stability of the DTPA prodrug. Physicochemical properties of the optimal formulation were evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro release of the prodrug was evaluated using the USP Type II apparatus dissolution method. DSC studies indicated that the matrix had an amorphous structure, while FTIR spectrometry showed that DTPA penta-ethyl ester and excipients did not react with each other during formation of the solid dispersion. Dissolution testing showed that the optimized solid dispersion exhibited a prolonged release profile, which could potentially result in a sustained delivery of DTPA penta-ethyl to enhance bioavailability. In conclusion, DTPA penta-ethyl ester was successfully incorporated into a solid matrix with high drug loading and improved stability compared to prodrug alone.
- Pharmaceutical development and technology.Pharm Dev Technol.2014 Nov;19(7):806-12. doi: 10.3109/10837450.2013.836216. Epub 2013 Sep 19.
- The penta-ethyl ester prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), which exists as an oily liquid, was incorporated into a solid dispersion for oral administration by the solvent evaporation method using blends of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), Eudragit® RL PO and α-tocopherol. D-optimal mix
- PMID 24047113
- Preparation of LaB6 Powders via Calciothermic Reduction using Mechanochemistry and Acid Leaching
- Ağaoğulları Duygu,Balcı Özge,Öveçoğlu M. Lütfi,Duman İsmail
- KONA Powder and Particle Journal advpub(0), 2016
- … Characterization investigations were carried out by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), particle size analyzer (PSA), stereomicroscope (SM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope/energy dispersive spectrometer (TEM/EDS) and atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). …
- NAID 130005064513
- AN APPROACH OF DIFFERENTIAL CAPACITOR SENSOR FOR LANDSLIDE MONITORING
- Motakabber S. M. A.,Ibrahimy M. I.
- International journal of GEOMATE : geotechnique, construction materials and environment 9(1・2), 1534-1537, 2015-09
- NAID 40020537623
- Differential-phase-contrast knife-edge scan method for precise evaluation of X-ray nanobeam
- Takeuchi Akihisa,Suzuki Yoshio,Uesugi Kentaro
- Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(9), 092401, 2015-08-28
- … A differential-phase-contrast knife-edge scan method is proposed to precisely evaluate X-ray nanofocusing beam profiles. …
- NAID 150000111283
- Temperature dependence of forward characteristics for ultrahigh-voltage SiC p–i–n diodes with a long carrier lifetime
- Kaji Naoki,Suda Jun,Kimoto Tsunenobu
- Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(9), 098004, 2015-08-26
- … After enhancement of carrier lifetimes in i-layers, nearly ideal forward characteristics (differential on-resistance = 1.1–5.5 mΩ … The differential on-resistance exhibited a slight increase at elevated temperatures, which can mainly be ascribed to the increase in substrate resistance. …
- NAID 150000111284
- differential 【名】 差、差異、格差 差動、差動装置 《数学》微分 【形】 区別... - アルクがお届けする進化するオンライン英和・和英辞書データベース。一般的な単語や連語から、イディオム、専門用語、スラングまで幅広く収録。
- :a difference between people or things: a gear or an arrangement of gears in a vehicle that allows one wheel to turn faster than another when the vehicle is going ... 1: of, relating to, or constituting a difference <differential birth rates in ...
- Only by taking infinitesimally small units for observation (the differential of history, that is, the individual tendencies of men) and attaining to the art of integrating them (that is, finding the sum of these infinitesimals) can we hope to ...
- ☆case14 複視
- diplopia n. 複視
- 筋力低下、筋無力、筋脱力 muscle weakness, muscular weakness
- vt. sinkのpp.
- 3,4-ジアミノピリジン 3,4-diaminopyridine 3,4-DAP K+チャネル阻害薬;ランバート・イートン筋無力症治療
- 43-year-old woman
- cheif complaint: diplopia
- present history: diplopia and holding her head up ; more marked in the evenings, for the last 3 months. difficulty of chewing. voice has become quieter. weight loss (3kg / 6months). non-smoker. drinks about 15 units/week. no regular medication.
- past history: no significant previous medical illnesses.
- family history: lives with her husband and three children.
- ・診察 examination
- looks well.
- organ systems: normal; cardiovascular, respiratory, and abdominal systems.
- muscle power; grossly normal. decrease after testing a movement repetitively.
- motor function: normal; tone, coordination, reflexes and sensation.
- bilateral ptosis. exacerbated by prolonged upward gaze
- eye: normal; pupillary reflexes, eye movements, and funduscopy
- diagnosis: myathenia gravis
- differential diagnoses:
- 上位and/or下位運動ニューロン motor neurone disease 運動ニューロン疾患：線維束性攣縮。進行例では筋力低下
- 筋 muscular dystrophy 筋ジストロフィー：ある種の筋肉が選択的に筋力低下する。家族歴がある。
- 筋 dystrophia myotonica 強直性筋ジストロフィー：咬筋、側頭筋、胸鎖乳突筋の筋萎縮、四肢遠位端の筋萎縮。顔貌が特徴的(前頭部脱毛、無表情、窪んだ頬)。家族歴ある。筋電図が診断に有用(急降下爆撃音)。
- 筋 polymyositis 多発筋炎：普通は皮疹と関節痛が出現。CKが上昇。筋生検が診断に有用
- 筋 myopathy ミオパチー：甲状腺中毒性ミオパチー、甲状腺機能低下症によるミオパチー、クッシング症候群によるミオパチー、アルコール性のミオパチー
- 神経筋接合部？ non-metastatic associations of malignancy (paraneoplastic syndrome(傍腫瘍性症候群 = 腫瘍随伴症候群)のこと)：胸腺腫の症例の10%に重症筋無力症がみられる。ランバート・イートン筋無力症症候群は小細胞癌と関連がある。
- Treatment with penicillamine (used for scleroderma or rheumatoid arthritis) may result in true autoimmune MG, but the weakness is usually mild, and recovery occurs within weeks or months after discontinuing its use.
- Aminoglycoside antibiotics or procainamide can cause exacerbation of weakness in myasthenic patients; very large doses can cause neuromuscular weakness in normal individuals.
- HIM = Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 17th Edition
- CASES = 100 Cases in Clinical Medicine Second edition
- IMD = 内科診断学第2版
- differential scanning type