• adj.
  • 局在型の、局在的な、局在性の、限局性の
circumscribedfocallocallocalizationlocalized typelocally



  1. made local or oriented locally; "a decentralized and localized political authority" (同)localised
  2. confined or restricted to a particular location; "the localized infection formed a definite abscess" (同)localised
  3. relating to or applicable to or concerned with the administration of a city or town or district rather than a larger area; "local taxes"; "local authorities"
  4. public transport consisting of a bus or train that stops at all stations or stops; "the local seemed to take forever to get to New York"
  5. affecting only a restricted part or area of the body; "local anesthesia"
  6. of or belonging to or characteristic of a particular locality or neighborhood; "local customs"; "local schools"; "the local citizens"; "a local point of view"; "local outbreaks of flu"; "a local bus line"
  7. of or relating to a focus; "focal length"
  8. having or localized centrally at a focus; "focal point"; "focal infection"
  9. by a particular locality; "it was locally decided"
  10. to a restricted area of the body; "apply this medicine topically" (同)topically
  11. a determination of the place where something is; "he got a good fix on the target" (同)localisation, location, locating, fix
  12. concentrate on a particular place or spot; "The infection has localized in the left eye" (同)localise, focalize, focalise
  13. restrict something to a particular area (同)localise


  1. 『一地方の』,ある土地の,(特に)自分の住んでいる土地の;地方に特有な / (全体からみて)『部分的な』,局部の,狭い部分の / 《米》各駅停車の / 《話》《しばしば複数形で》その土地に住んでいる人々 / 《米話》(新聞の)地方記事 / 《話》(各駅停車の)列車,電車,バス / 《米》(労働組合などの)支部
  2. 低カロリーの
  3. 焦点の
  4. 地方的に,局部的に;近くに

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出典(authority):フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』「2017/06/17 21:29:53」(JST)

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English Journal

  • Recent developments in time-of-flight PET.
  • Vandenberghe S1, Mikhaylova E2, D'Hoe E2, Mollet P2, Karp JS3.
  • EJNMMI physics.EJNMMI Phys.2016 Dec;3(1):3. doi: 10.1186/s40658-016-0138-3. Epub 2016 Feb 16.
  • While the first time-of-flight (TOF)-positron emission tomography (PET) systems were already built in the early 1980s, limited clinical studies were acquired on these scanners. PET was still a research tool, and the available TOF-PET systems were experimental. Due to a combination of low stopping po
  • PMID 26879863
  • Wilson-Cowan Equations for Neocortical Dynamics.
  • Cowan JD1, Neuman J2, van Drongelen W3.
  • Journal of mathematical neuroscience.J Math Neurosci.2016 Dec;6(1):1. doi: 10.1186/s13408-015-0034-5. Epub 2016 Jan 4.
  • In 1972-1973 Wilson and Cowan introduced a mathematical model of the population dynamics of synaptically coupled excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the neocortex. The model dealt only with the mean numbers of activated and quiescent excitatory and inhibitory neurons, and said nothing about fluctua
  • PMID 26728012
  • Sunlight-Induced Coloration of Silk.
  • Yao Y1,2, Tang B3,4, Chen W1, Sun L1,2, Wang X5,6.
  • Nanoscale research letters.Nanoscale Res Lett.2016 Dec;11(1):293. doi: 10.1186/s11671-016-1506-6. Epub 2016 Jun 14.
  • Silk fabrics were colored by gold nanoparticles (NPs) that were in situ synthesized through the induction of sunlight. Owing to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of gold NPs, the treated silk fabrics presented vivid colors. The photo-induced synthesis of gold NPs was also realized on we
  • PMID 27297220
  • Facile Synthesis of Smart Nanocontainers as Key Components for Construction of Self-Healing Coating with Superhydrophobic Surfaces.
  • Liang Y1, Wang M2, Wang C2, Feng J2, Li J1, Wang L1, Fu J3,4.
  • Nanoscale research letters.Nanoscale Res Lett.2016 Dec;11(1):231. doi: 10.1186/s11671-016-1444-3. Epub 2016 Apr 28.
  • SiO2-imidazoline nanocomposites (SiO2-IMI) owning high loading capacity of corrosion inhibitor, 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (HMID), and a special acid/alkali dual-stimuli-accelerated release property have been synthesized via a one-step modified Stöber method. SiO2-IMI were uniformly di
  • PMID 27121439

Japanese Journal

  • 専門医試験をめざす症例問題トレーニング 骨・軟部腫瘍
  • 播广谷 勝三
  • 整形外科 = Orthopedic surgery 66(1), 70-75, 2015-01
  • NAID 40020306104
  • Co-localization of iron binding on silica with p62/sequestosome1 (SQSTM1) in lung granulomas of mice with acute silicosis
  • Shimizu Yasuo,Dobashi Kunio,Nagase Hiroyuki,Ohta Ken,Sano Takaaki,Matsuzaki Shinichi,Ishii Yoshiki,Satoh Takahiro,Koka Masashi,Yokoyama Akihito,Ohkubo Takeru,Ishii Yasuyuki,Kamiya Tomihiro
  • Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, 2015
  • … Fas- and p62-expressing histiocytes were co-localized in granulomas with silica particles that showed an increase of iron levels on silica particles in mouse lungs. …
  • NAID 130004704980
  • Synthesis and Optical-electronic Properties of a Novel Star-shaped Benzodithiophene Molecule
  • Sheng Ruiying,Liu Qian,Qiu Meng,Gu Chuantao,Zhou Yuanhang,Ren Junzhen,Sun Mingliang,Yang Renqiang
  • Chemistry Letters, 2015
  • … DFT results show that the electron density of the HOMO and LUMO are localized on the thiophene and BDT groups. …
  • NAID 130004703987
  • Nano-scale identification of extracellular organic substances at microbe-mineral interface by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM)
  • Mitsunobu Satoshi,Zhu Ming,Takeichi Yasuo,Ohigashi Takuji,Suga Hiroki,Makita Hiroko,Sakata Masahiro,Ono Kanta,Mase Kazuhiko,Takahashi Yoshio
  • Chemistry Letters, 2015
  • … STXM-based carbon and oxygen near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) directly showed that polysaccharides were localized within 150 nm of the bacteria-pyrite boundary, and that sessile bioleaching bacteria produced polysaccharides-abundant extracellular biomolecules on the pyrite grain. …
  • NAID 130004701548

Related Links

Culture & Economy[edit]. Localization or localisation, represented as a numeronym as L10n, may refer to: The process of economic localisation is the opposite to economic globalisation. Language localisation, the process of translating a ...
lo·cal·ized (l k -l zd ). adj. 1. Restricted to a particular place. 2. Medicine Restricted or limited to a specific body part or region: localized pain and numbness. Thesaurus Legend: Synonyms Related Words Antonyms. Adj. 1. localized - confined ...
Synonyms for localized at Thesaurus.com with free online thesaurus, antonyms, and definitions. Dictionary and Word of the Day.

Related Pictures

Localized Convective Lifting Localized Localized-Demodectic-MangeLocalized+scleroderma+picturesScleroderma, Localized; Dermatosclerosis Diagnosis: Localized Pustular Psoriasis of Arc Shaped Bone Loss in Localized Scleroderma, Localized; Dermatosclerosis  Victory Localized Tornado MAWO CARDS

リンク元100Cases 76」「local」「focal」「局在性」「locally
拡張検索nonlocalized」「localized infection

100Cases 76」


☆case76 頭痛
傾眠 drowsiness 正常病的の区別なく眠り込む場合に用いられる
意識不鮮明 confusion 周囲に対する認識や理解は低下し、思考清明さや記憶正確さが失われる
錯乱 confusion 夢幻様状態より見当識障害思考滅裂が見られる状態(PSY.40)
MA = Master of Arts 文学修士
 The Master of Arts (BrE: MA, UsE: M.A.) is awarded in Arts, Humanities, Theology and Social Sciences (Wikipedia)
graduate student 大学院生
rousable adj. 覚醒できる、目を覚ますことができる
rouse vt. ~の目を覚まさせる、呼び起こす。喚起する、鼓舞する、奮起させる。(感情を)起こさせる、かき立てる
lateralize vt. (生理)(大脳が)(左右半球に心的機能差がある、左右差がある。(器官機能活動などが)大脳の(左右いずれかの)片側優位下にある。(医学)(障害などが)大脳の片半球にあると診断される
乳頭浮腫 papilledema 原因を問わず視神経乳頭腫脹している状態
うっ血乳頭 choked disc 脳圧亢進による乳頭浮腫
24歳、男性 精神学の修士過程を専攻している大学院生
現病歴頭部全体に痛みがある。2回嘔吐傾眠錯乱が認められるようになった。明るい光を嫌う()he finds bright lights uncomfortable
既往歴病気既往はない。アレルギーはない。タバコ1日10本。アルコール24 unit/week(缶ビール(350ml)13.7本/週)。薬は服用してない。
診察 examination
 見た感じ紅潮しており、調子が悪そう。体温:39.2℃。項部硬直あり(he has stiffness on passice flexion of his neck)。皮疹なし。副鼻腔圧痛なし。鼓膜所見は正常脈拍:120/分。血圧:98/74 mmHg心血管系胸部腹部に異常所見なし(normal)。意識レベル低下。命令に応じて覚醒する(JCS10?)。局所神経症状認めない。眼底所見正常
検査 investigation
  髄液所見:混濁白血球:増多。蛋白:増多。糖:低下(普通の人の血糖100mg/dLと考える。→ 1g/L → 1/180 mol/L → 5.56 mmol/L。グラム染色結果待ち
・低血圧白血球増多、腎機能低下 → ウイルス性よりむしろ細菌性感染示唆する。 ← 重症敗血症敗血症ショックかな?(私見)
テーブル挿入 髄膜炎
・(疫学)HIM. 2621 (多分、全患者中(←私見))
 Streptococcus pneumoniae ~50%
 Neisseria meningitidis ~25%、
 group B streptococci ~15%
 Listeria monocytogenes ~10%
 Haemophilus influenzae type B <10%
Neisseria meningitidis全身性脈管皮疹(点状出血紫斑)が特徴的(generalized vasculitic rash)
 ・the most severe headaches are experienced in meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage and classic migraine.
  ・meningitis単回発作(single episode)。症状は時間単位で出現
  ・subarachnoid hemorrhage単回発作(single episode)。突然発症(突発完成?)。硝子体出血を認めることがある。
  ・classic migraine:繰り返す(数回/年~1回/週。平均月2回。発作は4-72時間継続)
髄膜刺激急性発熱をきたした多くの病態でみられる(acute febrile conditions)。特に子供。 ← そうなの?
頚部硬直頚部脊椎の局所感染症でも起こる。 ← パーキンソン病などによる筋トーヌスの異常亢進も除外しよう
・(細菌性)髄膜炎が疑われたら、確定診断する前に適切抗菌薬投与(empirical treatment)。 → 数時間の経過死亡することがある。
乳頭浮腫がない、あるいは占拠性病変示唆する片側性の神経徴候(lateralized neurological signs)がある患者では(CT結果を待たずに)腰椎穿刺をすぐにやるべき(CASES) ← どういう事?
局在性の神経徴候(localized neurological sign)がある場合はまずCTを撮るべき(CASES)。 → the dangers of coning ← 鉤ヘルニアの事?
 ・意識が低下しているのでそれなりの看護(must be nursed)。アヘン剤による鎮痛生理食塩水による低ナトリウム血症の補正。低血圧補正するためにinotrope(a drug with positive inotropic effects, e.g. dobutamine, digitalis, milrinone )も必要かもしれない。(100CASES)
 ・感受性のある抗菌薬投与(大量静注、髄液移行性の高いもの)、髄液所見の正常化・CRP 陰転後、1週間抗菌薬投与して治療終了対症療法として脳圧亢進には高張脳圧降下薬(マンニトールなど)を投与。(IMD.1042)
・(意訳)誰が3-4歳の世話をしていたのか分からないけど、子供検査すべき。髄膜炎菌か原因菌が不明だったら、リファンピシンによる予防的治療髄膜炎球菌に対する予防接種をすべき。 ← 日本ではどうなんでしょうか。
□350ml アルコール5%
350x0.05/10=1.75 unit
莢膜を有し、髄膜炎を起こす細菌 → 莢膜を有することで血液中補体などを介した貪食を免れ、血行性クモ膜下腔まで到達しうる。
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Haemophilus influenzae type b
Neisseria meningitidis
 感染症による全身性炎症反応症候群(SIRS)をセプシス(sepsis, 広義の敗血症?)とする
  1. 体温>38℃ or 体温<36℃
  2. 心拍数>90bpm
  3. 呼吸数>20回/min or PaCO2<32mmHg
  4. (白血球数>12,000/ul or 白血球数<4,000/ul) or ( 幼若好中球>10% ) ← ここでいう幼若好中球とは桿状好中球のことである。
 1. 全身性炎症反応症候群 systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS
 2. 敗血症 sepsis
 3. 重症敗血症 severe sepsis
 4. 敗血症ショック septic shock
 5. 多臓器機能障害症候群 multiorgan dysfunction syndrome MODS
 6. 多臓器不全 multiorgan failure MOF
HIM = Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 17th Edition
PSY = 標準精神医学 第3版
CASES = 100 Cases in Clinical Medicine Second edition
IMD = 内科診断学第2版



  • adj.
  • 局所性の、局所的な、局所の、局在性の、地方の、地域の




  • adj.
  • 焦点の、焦点を通る
  • (病変が)限局性の、局所の、病巣の、巣状の
circumscribeddefinitefocal pointfocallyfocifocuslocallocalizedlocallynidalnidustopicaltopically







  • adv.
  • 局所的に、局在的に、局所性に




  • 非局在化の

localized infection」





  • v.
  • 局在化させる、限局化する、局在させる