mol

  • n.
  • モル、(学問分野の略称などで)分子の
molarmolemolecularmoleculenumerator

WordNet

  1. a small congenital pigmented spot on the skin
  2. small velvety-furred burrowing mammal having small eyes and fossorial forefeet
  3. spicy sauce often containing chocolate
  4. pertaining to large units of behavior; "such molar problems of personality as the ego functions"--R.R. Hunt
  5. grinding tooth with a broad crown; located behind the premolars (同)grinder
  6. containing one mole of a substance; "molar weight"
  7. designating a solution containing one mole of solute per liter of solution
  8. of or pertaining to the grinding teeth in the back of a mammals mouth; "molar teeth"
  9. relating to simple or elementary organization; "proceed by more and more detailed analysis to the molecular facts of perception"--G.A. Miller
  10. relating to or produced by or consisting of molecules; "molecular structure"; "molecular oxygen"; "molecular weight is the sum of all the atoms in a molecule"
  11. (physics and chemistry) the simplest structural unit of an element or compound
  12. the dividend of a fraction
  13. fit tightly, follow the contours of; "The dress molds her beautiful figure"
  14. become moldy; spoil due to humidity; "The furniture molded in the old house" (同)mildew
  15. a fungus that produces a superficial growth on various kinds of damp or decaying organic matter (同)mould
  16. loose soil rich in organic matter (同)mould
  17. a distinctive nature, character, or type; "a leader in the mold of her predecessors" (同)mould
  18. container into which liquid is poured to create a given shape when it hardens (同)mould, cast
  19. sculpture produced by molding (同)mould, molding, moulding, modeling, clay sculpture
  20. a dish or dessert that is formed in or on a mold; "a lobster mold"; "a gelatin dessert made in a mold" (同)mould

PrepTutorEJDIC

  1. モグラ
  2. ほくろ,あざ
  3. 防波堤,突堤
  4. モル,グラム分子(化学分子量をグラムで表したもの)
  5. 臼歯(きゅうし)
  6. 分子の,分子による
  7. 分子《略》『mol』) / (一般に)(…の)微量《+『of』+『名』》
  8. (分数の)分子 / 計算者

Wikipedia preview

出典(authority):フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』「2014/08/21 16:02:05」(JST)

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English Journal

  • Improved the slow digestion property of maize starch using partially β-amylolysis.
  • Miao M1, Xiong S2, Jiang B2, Jiang H2, Cui SW3, Zhang T2.Author information 1State Key Laboratory of Food Science & Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, PR China. Electronic address: miaoming@jiangnan.edu.cn.2State Key Laboratory of Food Science & Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, PR China.3State Key Laboratory of Food Science & Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, PR China; Food Research Program, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 93 Stone Road West, Guelph, Ont. N1G 5C9, Canada.AbstractIn this study, partial β-amylolysis was used to modulate the starch fine structure responsible for the slow digestion property of starch. Normal maize starch modified using β-amylase for 2h showed an increase of slowly digestible starch from 11.16% to 24.38%. The β-amylase treatment increased the amylose content from 28.4% to 32.5%, decreased the molecular weight from 32.5×10(7) to 3.8×10(5)g/mol and increased the number of shorter chains (DP<13) from 25.5% to 41.1%, accompanied by a reduction of longer chains (DP>13). (1)H NMR spectra showed an increase of α-1,6 linkages from 7.4% to 10.1% in the enzyme treated starches. Both the increase in the amount of shorter chains and the increase in α-1,6 linkages were attributed to the slow digestion property of starch. These results suggest that starches treated with partial β-amylolysis retain a branched structure and slow digestibility.
  • Food chemistry.Food Chem.2014 Jun 1;152:128-32. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.11.148. Epub 2013 Dec 1.
  • In this study, partial β-amylolysis was used to modulate the starch fine structure responsible for the slow digestion property of starch. Normal maize starch modified using β-amylase for 2h showed an increase of slowly digestible starch from 11.16% to 24.38%. The β-amylase treatment increased the
  • PMID 24444916
  • A comparative study of the antioxidant scavenging activity of green tea, black tea and coffee extracts: A kinetic approach.
  • Anissi J1, El Hassouni M2, Ouardaoui A3, Sendide K4.Author information 1Al Akhawayn University, School of Science and Engineering, Laboratory of Biotechnology, Av. Hassan II, P.O. Box 104, Ifrane, Morocco; Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, Faculté des Sciences Dhar el Mehrez, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie, Unité de Biotechnologie des Microorganismes, Fés, Morocco.2Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, Faculté des Sciences Dhar el Mehrez, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie, Unité de Biotechnologie des Microorganismes, Fés, Morocco.3Al Akhawayn University, School of Science and Engineering, Laboratory of Biotechnology, Av. Hassan II, P.O. Box 104, Ifrane, Morocco.4Al Akhawayn University, School of Science and Engineering, Laboratory of Biotechnology, Av. Hassan II, P.O. Box 104, Ifrane, Morocco. Electronic address: k.sendide@aui.ma.AbstractThe antioxidant activities of three beverages, coffee, black tea and green tea, along with their major components, were investigated in terms of their reaction with the stable radical 2,2'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). We used a kinetic approach in parallel with quantification methods based on a fixed end-point to determine the scavenging efficiency of compounds abundant in these beverages during their reaction with DPPH using a stopped-flow spectrophotometer-based method. Ascorbic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, tannic acid, and caffeic acid were selected as model antioxidants to study in coffee, black tea and green tea. We applied a second-order model to demonstrate similarities in the kinetics behavior of beverages and related compounds. Our findings showed the slopes k2(')((mol/L)(-1)s(-1)) and k2max(')((mol/L)(1)s(-1)) exhibited similar and correlated values; we suggest the variation in k2(') as a function of time is more informative about antioxidant properties than reaction with DPPH alone. We also used IC100 to test the reliability of the relative stoichiometry using a new comparative parameter "n", which was calculated as: n=c0DPPHIC100 (mol/L(mol/L)(-1), (mol/L)mlmg(-1) or molg(-1)).
  • Food chemistry.Food Chem.2014 May 1;150:438-47. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.11.009. Epub 2013 Nov 13.
  • The antioxidant activities of three beverages, coffee, black tea and green tea, along with their major components, were investigated in terms of their reaction with the stable radical 2,2'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). We used a kinetic approach in parallel with quantification methods based on a
  • PMID 24360473
  • Evaluation of thiosemicarbazone derivative as chelating agent for the simultaneous removal and trace determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in food and water samples.
  • Koduru JR1, Lee KD2.Author information 1Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 139-701, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: reddyjchem@gmail.com.2Department of Nanomaterial Chemistry, Dongguk University, Gyeongju 780-714, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: kdlee@dongguk.ac.kr.AbstractIn the present investigation, prepared N-ethyl-3-carbazolecarbaxaldehyde-3-thiosemicarbazone (ECCT) and employed for the simultaneous removal and determination of trace amounts of Cd(II) and Pb(II) from food and water samples. Cd(II) and Pb(II) gave yellow and orange colored complexes with ECCT in acetate buffer at pH 6.0 with λmax, 380 and 440nm, respectively. Both complexes were easily extractable into kerosene at 1:1(M:L) composition. It was in accordance with Beer's law in the range of 0.0-12.0 and 0.0-10.0μgmL(-1) with 0.999 and 0.997 correlation coefficient for Cd(II) and Pb(II) complexes, respectively, indicated a good linearity between the two variables. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity were found to be 0.740×10(4)Lmol(-1)cm(-1), 1.52×10(-3)μgcm(-2) for Cd(II) and 1.809×10(4)L mol(-1)cm(-1), 1.15×10(-3)μgcm(-2) for Pb(II). The precision and accuracy of the method was checked for both metal ions by finding the relative standard deviations (n=8), which were 0.689% and 0.443%, with detection limits of 0.00151μgL(-1) and 0.00264μgL(-1) for Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively. Further validation using certified reference material, NIST 1568b, resulted in determined concentrations of 0.028±0.253μgg(-1) for Cd(II) and 0.046±0.325μgg(-1) for Pb(II). These determined values agree well with the certified values in the reference materials. The interfering effects of various cations and anions were also studied. The proposed method performance was also evaluated in terms of Student 'T' test and Variance 'F' test, which indicated the significance of the present method parameters, as an inter comparison of the experimental values using ICP-OES.
  • Food chemistry.Food Chem.2014 May 1;150:1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.10.104. Epub 2013 Nov 1.
  • In the present investigation, prepared N-ethyl-3-carbazolecarbaxaldehyde-3-thiosemicarbazone (ECCT) and employed for the simultaneous removal and determination of trace amounts of Cd(II) and Pb(II) from food and water samples. Cd(II) and Pb(II) gave yellow and orange colored complexes with ECCT in a
  • PMID 24360411

Japanese Journal

  • Development of Copolymer Gel-Silica Composite with High Hexavalent Nitrogen-donor Ligand Content for the Establishment of Practical Gel-liquid Extraction Process
  • Third Law Entropy of Barium Molybdate
  • Reduction Kinetics of Zinc Powder from Brass Converter Slag by Pyrometallurgical Method Using Hydrogen Gas

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★リンクテーブル★
リンク元100Cases 76」「molar」「molecular」「numerator」「molecule
拡張検索osmolyte」「Gram-negative chemolithotrophic bacteria」「hypoosmolar state due to sodium depletion」「thermoluminescence
関連記事mold

100Cases 76」

  [★]

☆case76 頭痛
glossary
傾眠 drowsiness 正常病的の区別なく眠り込む場合に用いられる
意識不鮮明 confusion 周囲に対する認識や理解は低下し、思考清明さや記憶正確さが失われる
錯乱 confusion 夢幻様状態より見当識障害思考滅裂が見られる状態(PSY.40)
MA = Master of Arts 文学修士
 The Master of Arts (BrE: MA, UsE: M.A.) is awarded in Arts, Humanities, Theology and Social Sciences (Wikipedia)
graduate student 大学院生
rousable adj. 覚醒できる、目を覚ますことができる
rouse vt. ~の目を覚まさせる、呼び起こす。喚起する、鼓舞する、奮起させる。(感情を)起こさせる、かき立てる
lateralize vt. (生理)(大脳が)(左右半球に心的機能差がある、左右差がある。(器官機能活動などが)大脳の(左右いずれかの)片側優位下にある。(医学)(障害などが)大脳の片半球にあると診断される
乳頭浮腫 papilledema 原因を問わず視神経乳頭腫脹している状態
うっ血乳頭 choked disc 脳圧亢進による乳頭浮腫
症例
24歳、男性 精神学の修士過程を専攻している大学院生
主訴:激しい頭痛
現病歴頭部全体に痛みがある。2回嘔吐傾眠錯乱が認められるようになった。明るい光を嫌う()he finds bright lights uncomfortable
既往歴病気既往はない。アレルギーはない。タバコ1日10本。アルコール24 unit/week(缶ビール(350ml)13.7本/週)。薬は服用してない。
家族歴:彼女と同居。3歳と4歳の子供がいる。
診察 examination
 見た感じ紅潮しており、調子が悪そう。体温:39.2℃。項部硬直あり(he has stiffness on passice flexion of his neck)。皮疹なし。副鼻腔圧痛なし。鼓膜所見は正常脈拍:120/分。血圧:98/74 mmHg心血管系胸部腹部に異常所見なし(normal)。意識レベル低下。命令に応じて覚醒する(JCS10?)。局所神経症状認めない。眼底所見正常
検査 investigation
 血液検査
  白血球上昇血清Na:低下。血清尿素:上昇血清クレアチニン上昇血液培養検査
 画像検査
  胸部X線:異常所見なし。頭部CT正常
 心電図洞性頻脈
 腰椎穿刺
  髄液所見:混濁白血球:増多。蛋白:増多。糖:低下(普通の人の血糖100mg/dLと考える。→ 1g/L → 1/180 mol/L → 5.56 mmol/L。グラム染色結果待ち
■Q
 診断鑑別診断管理
■A
 細菌性髄膜炎髄膜炎クモ膜下出血、経験的抗菌薬投与
解説
(第1パラグラフ)細菌性髄膜炎
・(症状)突然発症。激しい頭痛嘔吐錯乱羞明項部硬直
・低血圧白血球増多、腎機能低下 → ウイルス性よりむしろ細菌性感染示唆する。 ← 重症敗血症敗血症ショックかな?(私見)
・(髄膜炎菌の種類)
テーブル挿入 髄膜炎
・(疫学)HIM. 2621 (多分、全患者中(←私見))
 Streptococcus pneumoniae ~50%
 Neisseria meningitidis ~25%、
 group B streptococci ~15%
 Listeria monocytogenes ~10%
 Haemophilus influenzae type B <10%
Neisseria meningitidis全身性脈管皮疹(点状出血紫斑)が特徴的(generalized vasculitic rash)
(第2パラグラフ)鑑別診断
・激しい頭痛
 ・the most severe headaches are experienced in meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage and classic migraine.
  ・meningitis単回発作(single episode)。症状は時間単位で出現
  ・subarachnoid hemorrhage単回発作(single episode)。突然発症(突発完成?)。硝子体出血を認めることがある。
  ・classic migraine:繰り返す(数回/年~1回/週。平均月2回。発作は4-72時間継続)
髄膜刺激急性発熱をきたした多くの病態でみられる(acute febrile conditions)。特に子供。 ← そうなの?
頚部硬直頚部脊椎の局所感染症でも起こる。 ← パーキンソン病などによる筋トーヌスの異常亢進も除外しよう
・他の髄膜炎:脳脊髄液所見で鑑別する
(第3パラグラフ)経験的治療
・(細菌性)髄膜炎が疑われたら、確定診断する前に適切抗菌薬投与(empirical treatment)。 → 数時間の経過死亡することがある。
・ペニシリンアレルギーがなければ、ceftriaxoneかceftaximeの静脈内投与一般的治療法
(第4パラグラフ)腰椎穿刺
乳頭浮腫がない、あるいは占拠性病変示唆する片側性の神経徴候(lateralized neurological signs)がある患者では(CT結果を待たずに)腰椎穿刺をすぐにやるべき(CASES) ← どういう事?
局在性の神経徴候(localized neurological sign)がある場合はまずCTを撮るべき(CASES)。 → the dangers of coning ← 鉤ヘルニアの事?
(第5パラグラフ)細菌性髄膜炎管理
診断CSF検査(グラム染色、髄液培養(確定診断感受性試験)
管理
 ・意識が低下しているのでそれなりの看護(must be nursed)。アヘン剤による鎮痛生理食塩水による低ナトリウム血症の補正。低血圧補正するためにinotrope(a drug with positive inotropic effects, e.g. dobutamine, digitalis, milrinone )も必要かもしれない。(100CASES)
 ・感受性のある抗菌薬投与(大量静注、髄液移行性の高いもの)、髄液所見の正常化・CRP 陰転後、1週間抗菌薬投与して治療終了対症療法として脳圧亢進には高張脳圧降下薬(マンニトールなど)を投与。(IMD.1042)
(第6パラグラフ)家族構成を考えた治療
・(意訳)誰が3-4歳の世話をしていたのか分からないけど、子供検査すべき。髄膜炎菌か原因菌が不明だったら、リファンピシンによる予防的治療髄膜炎球菌に対する予防接種をすべき。 ← 日本ではどうなんでしょうか。
□350ml アルコール5%
350x0.05/10=1.75 unit
莢膜を有し、髄膜炎を起こす細菌 → 莢膜を有することで血液中補体などを介した貪食を免れ、血行性クモ膜下腔まで到達しうる。
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Haemophilus influenzae type b
Neisseria meningitidis
敗血症
定義
 感染症による全身性炎症反応症候群(SIRS)をセプシス(sepsis, 広義の敗血症?)とする
 感染症の病原体は、一般細菌(グラム陽性菌・陰性菌)、真菌寄生虫ウイルスなど
 皮膚粘膜の傷とか、種々の臓器にある感染巣から、細菌リンパ流から血中に入り、全身播種されて、新たに転移性感染巣をつくり、重篤全身症状を引き起こす。
全身性炎症反応症候群の診断基準
 下記項目のうち2項目以上が当てはまる
  1. 体温>38℃ or 体温<36℃
  2. 心拍数>90bpm
  3. 呼吸数>20回/min or PaCO2<32mmHg
  4. (白血球数>12,000/ul or 白血球数<4,000/ul) or ( 幼若好中球>10% ) ← ここでいう幼若好中球とは桿状好中球のことである。
敗血症の周辺疾患概念
 1. 全身性炎症反応症候群 systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS
  発熱白血球増加などの全身炎症徴候によって特徴づけられる病態(SIRS診断基準に合致する病態)
 2. 敗血症 sepsis
  SIRS感染結果である場合
 3. 重症敗血症 severe sepsis
  主要臓器障害を伴う敗血症
 4. 敗血症ショック septic shock
  輸液投与不応性の低血圧を伴う重症敗血症
 5. 多臓器機能障害症候群 multiorgan dysfunction syndrome MODS
  2つ以上の主要臓器機能異常
 6. 多臓器不全 multiorgan failure MOF
  2つ以上の主要臓器の不全状態
参考文献
HIM = Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 17th Edition
PSY = 標準精神医学 第3版
CASES = 100 Cases in Clinical Medicine Second edition
IMD = 内科診断学第2版

molar」

  [★]

  • n.
  • adj.
  • モルの、(歯学)臼歯の
Mmolmolalitymolar concentrationmolaritymole

           

molecular」

  [★]

  • adj.
  • 分子の、分子的な
molmolecularlymoleculenumerator

     

numerator」

  [★]

  • n.
molmolecularmolecule

   

molecule」

  [★]

molmolecularnumerator

   

osmolyte」

  [★]

osmoticum

Gram-negative chemolithotrophic bacteria」

  [★]

化学合成無機栄養グラム陰性細菌

hypoosmolar state due to sodium depletion」

  [★] ナトリウム欠乏性低浸透圧血症

thermoluminescence」

  [★]

thermoluminescent

mold」

  [★]

  • n.