- suffer or be susceptible to damage; "These fine china cups damage easily"
- inflict damage upon; "The snow damaged the roof"; "She damaged the car when she hit the tree"
- the act of damaging something or someone (同)harm, hurt, scathe
- loss of military equipment (同)equipment casualty
- the occurrence of a change for the worse (同)harm, impairment
- prevent completion; "stop the project"; "break off the negotiations" (同)break off, discontinue, stop
- happen; "Report the news as it develops"; "These political movements recrudesce from time to time" (同)recrudesce, develop
- become separated into pieces or fragments; "The figurine broke"; "The freshly baked loaf fell apart" (同)separate, split up, fall_apart, come apart
- be broken in; "If the new teacher wont break, well add some stress"
- crack; of the male voice in puberty; "his voice is breaking--he should no longer sing in the choir"
- destroy the integrity of; usually by force; cause to separate into pieces or fragments; "He broke the glass plate"; "She broke the match"
- diminish or discontinue abruptly; "The patients fever broke last night"
- fall sharply; "stock prices broke"
- render inoperable or ineffective; "You broke the alarm clock when you took it apart!"
- weaken or destroy in spirit or body; "His resistance was broken"; "a man broken by the terrible experience of near-death"
- vary or interrupt a uniformity or continuity; "The flat plain was broken by tall mesas"
- (tennis) a score consisting of winning a game when your opponent was serving; "he was up two breaks in the second set" (同)break of serve
- an escape from jail; "the breakout was carefully planned" (同)breakout, jailbreak, gaolbreak, prisonbreak, prison-breaking
- an act of delaying or interrupting the continuity; "it was presented without commercial breaks"; "there was a gap in his account" (同)interruption, disruption, gap
- a sudden dash; "he made a break for the open door"
- the opening shot that scatters the balls in billiards or pool
- an unexpected piece of good luck; "he finally got his big break" (同)good_luck, happy chance
- an abrupt change in the tone or register of the voice (as at puberty or due to emotion); "then there was a break in her voice"
- the occurrence of breaking; "the break in the dam threatened the valley"
- interrupt a continued activity; "She had broken with the traditional patterns" (同)break away
- break a piece from a whole; "break a branch from a tree" (同)break off, snap off
- move away or escape suddenly; "The horses broke from the stable"; "Three inmates broke jail"; "Nobody can break out--this prison is high security" (同)break_out, break away
- destroy the completeness of a set of related items; "The book dealer would not break the set" (同)break_up
- force out or release suddenly and often violently something pent up; "break into tears"; "erupt in anger" (同)burst, erupt
- ruin completely; "He busted my radio!" (同)bust
- be released or become known; of news; "News of her death broke in the morning" (同)get_out, get_around
- go to pieces; "The lawn mower finally broke"; "The gears wore out"; "The old chair finally fell apart completely" (同)wear, wear_out, bust, fall_apart
- become punctured or penetrated; "The skin broke"
- cause the failure or ruin of; "His peccadilloes finally broke his marriage"; "This play will either make or break the playwright"
- cause to give up a habit; "She finally broke herself of smoking cigarettes"
- change directions suddenly
- change suddenly from one tone quality or register to another; "Her voice broke to a whisper when she started to talk about her children"
- come forth or begin from a state of latency; "The first winter storm broke over New York"
- come into being; "light broke over the horizon"; "Voices broke in the air"
- come to an end; "The heat wave finally broke yesterday"
- curl over and fall apart in surf or foam, of waves; "The surf broke"
- emerge from the surface of a body of water; "The whales broke"
- exchange for smaller units of money; "I had to break a $100 bill just to buy the candy"
- find a flaw in; "break an alibi"; "break down a proof"
- find the solution or key to; "break the code"
- give up; "break cigarette smoking"
- happen or take place; "Things have been breaking pretty well for us in the past few months"
- interrupt the flow of current in; "break a circuit"
- invalidate by judicial action; "The will was broken"
- make a rupture in the ranks of the enemy or ones own by quitting or fleeing; "The ranks broke"
- make the opening shot that scatters the balls
- pierce or penetrate; "The blade broke her skin"
- scatter or part; "The clouds broke after the heavy downpour"
- separate from a clinch, in boxing; "The referee broke the boxers"
- undergo breaking; "The simple vowels broke in many Germanic languages"
- a disorderly outburst or tumult; "they were amazed by the furious disturbance they had caused" (同)disruption, commotion, flutter, hurly burly, to-do, hoo-ha, hoo-hah, kerfuffle
- an unhappy and worried mental state; "there was too much anger and disturbance"; "she didnt realize the upset she caused me" (同)perturbation, upset
- the act of disturbing something or someone; setting something in motion
- a condition or state of affairs almost beyond ones ability to deal with and requiring great effort to bear or overcome; "grappling with financial difficulties"
- the quality of being difficult; "they agreed about the difficulty of the climb" (同)difficultness
- a factor causing trouble in achieving a positive result or tending to produce a negative result; "serious difficulties were encountered in obtaining a pure reagent"
- any obstruction that impedes or is burdensome (同)hinderance, hitch, preventive, preventative, encumbrance, incumbrance, interference
- the act of hindering or obstructing or impeding (同)hinderance, interference
- something immaterial that interferes with or delays action or progress (同)hinderance, deterrent, impediment, balk, baulk, check, handicap
- any physical damage to the body caused by violence or accident or fracture etc. (同)hurt, harm, trauma
- an act that causes someone or something to receive physical damage
- wrongdoing that violates anothers rights and is unjustly inflicted
- an accident that results in physical damage or hurt (同)accidental injury
- (law) compensation in excess of actual damages (a form of punishment awarded in cases of malicious or willful misconduct) (同)exemplary damages, smart_money
- (law) a trivial sum (usually $1.00) awarded as recognition that a legal injury was sustained (as for technical violations of a contract)
- three times the amount that a court would normally find the injured party entitled to
- loss of military equipment in field operations (同)operational casualty
- an effort to minimize or curtail damage or loss
- designed or tending to discredit, especially without positive or helpful suggestions; "negative criticism" (同)negative
- (sometimes followed by `to' (同)detrimental, prejudicial, prejudicious
- harmed or injured or spoiled; "I wont buy damaged goods"; "the storm left a wake of badly damaged buildings"
- a sum of money paid in compensation for loss or injury (同)amends, indemnity, indemnification, restitution, redress
- 〈U〉『損害』,損傷,被害 / 《複数形で》損害賠障[金] / 《the~》《単数形で》《話》飛用 / …‘に'損傷する
- …'を'『壊す』,割る,砕く;…'を'折る / …'を'擦りむく / …'を'『役に立たなくする』,壊す / (小さな物に)〈組になった物〉'を'分ける,ばらす,〈お金〉'を'くずす《+『名』+『into』+『名』》 / 〈垣・へいなど〉'を'破って出る / 〈法律・規則・約束など〉'を'『破る』,犯す / 〈均整・秩序・配列など〉'を'破る,くずす;〈持続しているもの〉'を'中止する,妨げる / 〈記録〉'を'破る,更新する / (…に)…'を'打ち明ける,知らせる《+『名』+『to』+『名』》 / …'を'破産させる,倒産させる / 〈気力・抵抗など〉'を'くじく;〈力・効果・強度〉'を'弱める / (…に)…‘の'位を下げる,…'を'降等させる《+『名』+『to』+『名』》 / 〈動物〉'を'ならす / 〈人〉‘の'(…の)癖を直す《+『名』〈人〉+『of』+『名』(do『ing』)》 / 〈暗号など〉'を'解読する;〈事件・問題など〉を解決する,解く / 《しばしば副詞[句]を伴って》『壊れる』,砕ける,割れる;破れる,破裂する / ぷっつりと切れる;中断する,途切れる;《米》仕事を中断する / はずれる,離れる,分離する《+『off』(『away』)》 / 故障する,壊れる,動かなくなる / 突然始まる;突然変化する / 夜が明ける / 〈健康・気力などが〉衰える,弱る;〈心が〉悲しみに打ちひしがれる / 〈株・価格などが〉急落する,暴落する / 壊れた箇所,裂け目,割れ目 / 中断,途切れ;不和,仲たがい / 休憩時間,小休止 / 逃亡計画,脱獄 / (…に向かっての)突進 / 急な変化,顕著な変化 / 夜明け / 《話》運,機会
- 〈U〉乱す(騒がす,妨害する)こと;乱れた状態 / 〈C〉騒ぎ,騒動,動乱 / 〈C〉乱す(騒がす,妨害する)もの
- 〈U〉『難しさ』,困難 / 〈C〉『困難なこと』,難事,障害 / 〈C〉《通例複数形で》『困難な状況』,(特に)財政困難 / 〈C〉〈U〉(…との)不和,仲たがい《+『with』(『between』)+『名』》 / 〈C〉苦情,反対
- 〈C〉(…を)じゃまする人(物),(…の)妨害物《+『to』+『名』》 / 〈U〉妨害,じゃま
- 『負傷』,『損害』,損傷 / (名誉などを)傷つけること,侮辱《+『to』+『名』》
全文を閲覧するには購読必要です。 To read the full text you will need to subscribe.
- Evidence and uptake routes for Zinc oxide nanoparticles through the gastrointestinal barrier in Xenopus laevis.
- Bacchetta R, Moschini E, Santo N, Fascio U, Del Giacco L, Freddi S, Camatini M, Mantecca P.Author information Department of Biosciences, Università degli Studi di Milano , Milano , Italy.AbstractAbstract The developmental toxicity of nanostructured materials, as well as their impact on the biological barriers, represents a crucial aspect to be assessed in a nanosafety policy framework. Nanosized metal oxides have been demonstrated to affect Xenopus laevis embryonic development, with nZnO specifically targeting the digestive system. To study the mechanisms of the nZnO-induced intestinal lesions, we tested two different nominally sized ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) at effective concentrations. Advanced microscopy techniques and molecular marker analyses were applied in order to describe the NP-epithelial cell interactions and the mechanisms driving NP toxicity and translocation through the intestinal barrier. We attributed the toxicity to NP-induced cell oxidative damage, the small-sized NPs being the more effective. This outcome is sustained by a marked increase in anti-oxidant genes' expression and high lipid peroxidation level in the enterocytes, where disarrangement of the cytoskeleton and cell junctions' integrity were evidenced. These events led to diffuse necrotic changes in the intestinal barrier, and trans- and paracellular NP permeation through the mucosa. The uptake routes, leading NPs to cross the intestinal barrier and reach secondary target tissues, have been documented. nZnOs embryotoxicity was confirmed to be crucially mediated by the NPs' reactivity rather than their dissolved ions. The ZnO NPs' ability to overwhelm the intestinal barrier must be taken into high consideration for a future design of safer ZnO NPs.
- Nanotoxicology.Nanotoxicology.2014 Nov;8:728-44. doi: 10.3109/17435390.2013.824128. Epub 2013 Aug 6.
- Abstract The developmental toxicity of nanostructured materials, as well as their impact on the biological barriers, represents a crucial aspect to be assessed in a nanosafety policy framework. Nanosized metal oxides have been demonstrated to affect Xenopus laevis embryonic development, with nZnO sp
- PMID 23848496
- The European Medicines Agency approval of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (Ameluz) for the treatment of actinic keratosis of mild to moderate intensity on the face and scalp: Summary of the scientific assessment of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use.
- Tzogani K, Straube M, Hoppe U, Kiely P, O'Dea G, Enzmann H, Salmon P, Salmonson T, Pignatti F.Author information European Medicines Agency , London.AbstractThe European Commission has recently issued a marketing authorisation valid throughout the European Union for 5-aminolaevulinic acid (Ameluz). The decision was based on the favorable opinion of the CHMP recommending a marketing authorization for 5-aminolaevulinic acid for treatment of actinic keratosis of mild to moderate intensity on the face and scalp. The active substance is a sensitizer used in photodynamic/radiation therapy (ATC code L01XD04). The gel should cover the lesions and approximately 5 mm of the surrounding area with a film of about 1 mm thickness. The entire treatment area should be illuminated with a red light source, either with a narrow spectrum around 630 nm and a light dose of approximately 37 J/cm(2) or a broader and continuous spectrum in the range between 570 and 670 nm with a light dose between 75 and 200 J/cm(2). One session of photodynamic therapy should be administered for single or multiple lesions. Non- or partially responding lesions should be retreated in a second session 3 months after the first treatment. 5-aminolaevulinic acid is metabolized to protoporphyrin IX, a photoactive compound which accumulates intracellularly in the treated actinic keratosis lesions. Protoporphyrin IX is activated by illumination with red light of a suitable wavelength and energy. In the presence of oxygen, reactive oxygen species are formed which causes damage of cellular components and eventually destroys the target cells. The benefit with 5-aminolaevulinic acid is its ability to improve the complete response rate of actinic keratosis lesions. The most common side effects are reactions at the site of application. The objective of this article is to summarize the scientific review of the application. The detailed scientific assessment report and product information, including the summary of product characteristics (SmPC), are available on the EMA website ( www.ema.europa.eu ).
- The Journal of dermatological treatment.J Dermatolog Treat.2014 Oct;25(5):371-4. doi: 10.3109/09546634.2013.789474. Epub 2013 May 21.
- The European Commission has recently issued a marketing authorisation valid throughout the European Union for 5-aminolaevulinic acid (Ameluz). The decision was based on the favorable opinion of the CHMP recommending a marketing authorization for 5-aminolaevulinic acid for treatment of actinic kerato
- PMID 23550714
- In vitro toxicological screening of nanoparticles on primary human endothelial cells and the role of flow in modulating cell response.
- Ucciferri N, Collnot EM, Gaiser BK, Tirella A, Stone V, Domenici C, Lehr CM, Ahluwalia A.Author information Interdepartmental Research Center "E. Piaggio", University of Pisa , Pisa , Italy.AbstractAbstract After passage through biological barriers, nanomaterials inevitably end up in contact with the vascular endothelium and can induce cardiovascular damage. In this study the toxicity and sub-lethal effects of six types of nanoparticle, including four of industrial and biomedical importance, on human endothelial cells were investigated using different in vitro assays. The results show that all the particles investigated induce some level of damage to the cells and that silver particles were most toxic, followed by titanium dioxide. Furthermore, endothelial cells were shown to be more susceptible when exposed to silver nanoparticles under flow conditions in a bioreactor. The study underlines that although simple in vitro tests are useful to screen compounds and to identify the type of effect induced on cells, they may not be sufficient to define safe exposure limits. Therefore, once initial toxicity screening has been conducted on nanomaterials, it is necessary to develop more physiologically relevant in vitro models to better understand how nanomaterials can impact on human health.
- Nanotoxicology.Nanotoxicology.2014 Sep;8:697-708. doi: 10.3109/17435390.2013.831500. Epub 2013 Sep 3.
- Abstract After passage through biological barriers, nanomaterials inevitably end up in contact with the vascular endothelium and can induce cardiovascular damage. In this study the toxicity and sub-lethal effects of six types of nanoparticle, including four of industrial and biomedical importance, o
- PMID 23909703
- Using gold nanorods core/silver shell nanostructures as model material to probe biodistribution and toxic effects of silver nanoparticles in mice.
- Meng J, Ji Y, Liu J, Cheng X, Guo H, Zhang W, Wu X, Xu H.Author information Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College , Beijing , P. R. China.AbstractAbstract The aim of this work was to probe the biodistribution and toxic effects of silver nanoparticles (NPs) with powerful anti-bacterial and anti-virus activities. For this purpose, novel silver NPs with gold nanorod (NR) core and silver shell (Au@Ag NRs) were developed and employed as a model material. The inner gold core provided an excellent internal reference for tracking the NRs in vivo. After subcutaneous injection of Au@Ag NRs, silver and gold contents in the subcutis and organs were examined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry at different time points within 28 days. Histological analysis, physiological function and complement faction 3 (C3) and 5a (C5a) measurement were performed over time to reveal the toxic effect of Au@Ag NRs in vivo. Experimental results showed that majority of the Au@Ag NRs remained in the injection site except for a small amount migrating into the lymph nodes. The silver shell was dissolved in the subcutaneous tissue and released silver ions rapidly, which resulted in detectable silver accumulation in most of the organs. The accumulated silver ions in the kidney not only interacted with the kidney cells membrane but also induced a rapid increase of complement fraction C3 followed by a significant consumption and C3a and C5a production significantly in the serum, which resulted in kidney oxidative damage and eventually led to the morphological changes and filtration function impairment of the glomerulus. The released silver ions also caused oxidative injury of subcutaneous tissue in the injection site.
- Nanotoxicology.Nanotoxicology.2014 Sep;8:686-96. doi: 10.3109/17435390.2013.822593. Epub 2013 Jul 29.
- Abstract The aim of this work was to probe the biodistribution and toxic effects of silver nanoparticles (NPs) with powerful anti-bacterial and anti-virus activities. For this purpose, novel silver NPs with gold nanorod (NR) core and silver shell (Au@Ag NRs) were developed and employed as a model ma
- PMID 23837638
- 岩西 正晴,岩井 哲
- 広島工業大学紀要. 研究編 42, 191-197, 39479-00-00
- … This research aims to investigate the relationship between the amount of bearing-wall in an earthquake diagnosis evaluation, the fundamental natural frequency based on the micro-tremor measurement and the actual earthquake damage to conventional wooden-framed houses in Japan. … The micro-tremor measurements are widely taken to survey the earthquake damage to wooden houses and the site ground condition. …
- NAID 120005403279
- 岩井 哲,貞末 和史
- 広島工業大学紀要. 研究編 42, 185-190, 39479-00-00
- … The 2007 Noto Peninsula earthquake did great damage to wooden-framed structures. … Five days after the occurrence of the earthquake, the authors visited the most stricken areas: Monzen-machi-Toge, Wajima city, Anamizu-machi, and Nanao-city, and inspected the damage state of buildings. … This paper mainly reports on the damage to wooden-framed structures and their impressions of the field survey. …
- NAID 120005403222
- プロスタグランジン製剤 (特集 酸関連疾患 : 最新の診断・治療動向) -- (酸関連疾患治療薬の有用性)
- General Info. Genre: Electro / Punk. Location Osaka, JP. Profile Views: 220479. Last Login: 12/20/2012. Member Since 9/3/2006. Website www.damage-web. com. Record Label Aright's / HORIZON. Type of Label Indie ...
- Damage（安室奈美恵）の歌詞を表示 : （歌いだし）Damage Have you ever 歌ネットは 無料の歌詞検索サービスです。
- barrier、damage、difficulty、disorder、disturbance、foe、functional disorder、functional impairment、hindrance、hypofunction、impair、impairment、impediment、incompetence、insufficiency、lesion、malfunction、obstacle、stun
- nervous system disorder、neurologic deficit、neurologic disorder、neurological deficit、neurological disorder、neuropathic、neuropathy
- anoxic encephalopathy、brain anoxia、brain hypoxia、cerebral anoxia、cerebral hypoxia、hypoxic encephalopathy
- myocardial disorder、myocardiopathy