- reimbursement for goods damaged while in transit or in use
- the quantity broken; "the total breakage was huge"
- the act of breaking something; "the breakage was unavoidable" (同)break, breaking
- (embryology) the repeated division of a fertilised ovum (同)segmentation
- the breaking of a chemical bond in a molecule resulting in smaller molecules
- the state of being split or cleft; "there was a cleavage between the liberal and conservative members"
- the act of cleaving or splitting
- the line formed by a groove between two parts (especially the separation between a womans breasts)
- a surgical removal of all or part of a limb
- a condition of disability resulting from the loss of one or more limbs
- the act of causing disorder (同)perturbation
- prevent completion; "stop the project"; "break off the negotiations" (同)break off, discontinue, stop
- happen; "Report the news as it develops"; "These political movements recrudesce from time to time" (同)recrudesce, develop
- become separated into pieces or fragments; "The figurine broke"; "The freshly baked loaf fell apart" (同)separate, split up, fall_apart, come apart
- be broken in; "If the new teacher wont break, well add some stress"
- crack; of the male voice in puberty; "his voice is breaking--he should no longer sing in the choir"
- destroy the integrity of; usually by force; cause to separate into pieces or fragments; "He broke the glass plate"; "She broke the match"
- diminish or discontinue abruptly; "The patients fever broke last night"
- fall sharply; "stock prices broke"
- render inoperable or ineffective; "You broke the alarm clock when you took it apart!"
- weaken or destroy in spirit or body; "His resistance was broken"; "a man broken by the terrible experience of near-death"
- vary or interrupt a uniformity or continuity; "The flat plain was broken by tall mesas"
- (tennis) a score consisting of winning a game when your opponent was serving; "he was up two breaks in the second set" (同)break of serve
- an escape from jail; "the breakout was carefully planned" (同)breakout, jailbreak, gaolbreak, prisonbreak, prison-breaking
- an act of delaying or interrupting the continuity; "it was presented without commercial breaks"; "there was a gap in his account" (同)interruption, disruption, gap
- a sudden dash; "he made a break for the open door"
- the opening shot that scatters the balls in billiards or pool
- an unexpected piece of good luck; "he finally got his big break" (同)good_luck, happy chance
- an abrupt change in the tone or register of the voice (as at puberty or due to emotion); "then there was a break in her voice"
- the occurrence of breaking; "the break in the dam threatened the valley"
- interrupt a continued activity; "She had broken with the traditional patterns" (同)break away
- break a piece from a whole; "break a branch from a tree" (同)break off, snap off
- move away or escape suddenly; "The horses broke from the stable"; "Three inmates broke jail"; "Nobody can break out--this prison is high security" (同)break_out, break away
- destroy the completeness of a set of related items; "The book dealer would not break the set" (同)break_up
- force out or release suddenly and often violently something pent up; "break into tears"; "erupt in anger" (同)burst, erupt
- ruin completely; "He busted my radio!" (同)bust
- be released or become known; of news; "News of her death broke in the morning" (同)get_out, get_around
- go to pieces; "The lawn mower finally broke"; "The gears wore out"; "The old chair finally fell apart completely" (同)wear, wear_out, bust, fall_apart
- become punctured or penetrated; "The skin broke"
- cause the failure or ruin of; "His peccadilloes finally broke his marriage"; "This play will either make or break the playwright"
- cause to give up a habit; "She finally broke herself of smoking cigarettes"
- change directions suddenly
- change suddenly from one tone quality or register to another; "Her voice broke to a whisper when she started to talk about her children"
- come forth or begin from a state of latency; "The first winter storm broke over New York"
- come into being; "light broke over the horizon"; "Voices broke in the air"
- come to an end; "The heat wave finally broke yesterday"
- curl over and fall apart in surf or foam, of waves; "The surf broke"
- emerge from the surface of a body of water; "The whales broke"
- exchange for smaller units of money; "I had to break a $100 bill just to buy the candy"
- find a flaw in; "break an alibi"; "break down a proof"
- find the solution or key to; "break the code"
- give up; "break cigarette smoking"
- happen or take place; "Things have been breaking pretty well for us in the past few months"
- interrupt the flow of current in; "break a circuit"
- invalidate by judicial action; "The will was broken"
- make a rupture in the ranks of the enemy or ones own by quitting or fleeing; "The ranks broke"
- make the opening shot that scatters the balls
- pierce or penetrate; "The blade broke her skin"
- scatter or part; "The clouds broke after the heavy downpour"
- separate from a clinch, in boxing; "The referee broke the boxers"
- undergo breaking; "The simple vowels broke in many Germanic languages"
- suffer or be susceptible to damage; "These fine china cups damage easily"
- inflict damage upon; "The snow damaged the roof"; "She damaged the car when she hit the tree"
- the act of damaging something or someone (同)harm, hurt, scathe
- loss of military equipment (同)equipment casualty
- the occurrence of a change for the worse (同)harm, impairment
- replace a corner by a plane
- make shorter as if by cutting off; "truncate a word"; "Erosion has truncated the ridges of the mountains" (同)cut_short
- terminating abruptly by having or as if having an end or point cut off; "a truncate leaf"; "truncated volcanic mountains"; "a truncated pyramid" (同)truncated
- approximate by ignoring all terms beyond a chosen one; "truncate a series"
- make by cutting into; "The water is going to cleave a channel into the rock"
- separate or cut with a tool, such as a sharp instrument; "cleave the bone" (同)split, rive
- surgical removal of a body part or tissue (同)extirpation, cutting out, excision
- the erosive process that reduces the size of glaciers
- 〈U〉破損;〈C〉破損箇所 / 破損量 / 〈C〉《通例複数形で》《英》破損物 / 〈C〉破損額
- 割る(割れる)こと;割れ(裂け)目 / 卵割(受精卵の細胞分裂) / (鉱物の結晶の)劈開(へきかい) / 《話》(大きなえりぐりのドレスから見える)乳房の谷間
- …'を'『壊す』,割る,砕く;…'を'折る / …'を'擦りむく / …'を'『役に立たなくする』,壊す / (小さな物に)〈組になった物〉'を'分ける,ばらす,〈お金〉'を'くずす《+『名』+『into』+『名』》 / 〈垣・へいなど〉'を'破って出る / 〈法律・規則・約束など〉'を'『破る』,犯す / 〈均整・秩序・配列など〉'を'破る,くずす;〈持続しているもの〉'を'中止する,妨げる / 〈記録〉'を'破る,更新する / (…に)…'を'打ち明ける,知らせる《+『名』+『to』+『名』》 / …'を'破産させる,倒産させる / 〈気力・抵抗など〉'を'くじく;〈力・効果・強度〉'を'弱める / (…に)…‘の'位を下げる,…'を'降等させる《+『名』+『to』+『名』》 / 〈動物〉'を'ならす / 〈人〉‘の'(…の)癖を直す《+『名』〈人〉+『of』+『名』(do『ing』)》 / 〈暗号など〉'を'解読する;〈事件・問題など〉を解決する,解く / 《しばしば副詞[句]を伴って》『壊れる』,砕ける,割れる;破れる,破裂する / ぷっつりと切れる;中断する,途切れる;《米》仕事を中断する / はずれる,離れる,分離する《+『off』(『away』)》 / 故障する,壊れる,動かなくなる / 突然始まる;突然変化する / 夜が明ける / 〈健康・気力などが〉衰える,弱る;〈心が〉悲しみに打ちひしがれる / 〈株・価格などが〉急落する,暴落する / 壊れた箇所,裂け目,割れ目 / 中断,途切れ;不和,仲たがい / 休憩時間,小休止 / 逃亡計画,脱獄 / (…に向かっての)突進 / 急な変化,顕著な変化 / 夜明け / 《話》運,機会
- 〈U〉『損害』,損傷,被害 / 《複数形で》損害賠障[金] / 《the~》《単数形で》《話》飛用 / …‘に'損傷する
- 〈円錐・樹木など〉‘の'頭(端)を切る / 〈文章など〉‘を'切って詰める / 切り取られた / (生物の形態が)切形の(先端を切り取ったような形をしていること)
- …'を'まっぷたつに割る,裂く / 〈人垣・やぶ・波など〉'を'かき分けて突き進む;〈道〉を'を'切り開く / (木目などに沿って)割れる,裂ける / 切り分けて突き進む
- 〈物が〉(…に)くっつく,固着する《+『to』+『名』》 / 《文》《古》(…への)忠誠を守る,(…を)固守する《+『to』+『名』》
- 切除,除去;融除 / 溶発(ロケットの先端が大気圏突入で溶解すること)
For the general concept, see Break (disambiguation). For the musician, see Breakage (musician). For the Breaking Bad episode, see Breakage (Breaking Bad).
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Breakage is a term used in telecommunications and accounting to indicate any type of service which is unused by the customer. A good example would be gift cards or calling cards that have been sold but never redeemed. Revenue from breakage is almost entirely profitable, since companies need not provide any goods or services for unredeemed gift cards. It should not be confused with Shrinkage (accounting) (items which are not used by the customer because they disappeared from inventory).
In 2006, a blog called "The Stalwart" criticized Best Buy for using estimated breakage to improve their revenue numbers.
- 1 In telecommunications
- 2 See also
- 3 References
- 4 External links
In Telecommunications, breakage can occur in several ways. The key elements in maximizing revenue vs. service via breakage are:
- Use of quanta (pay for more than you use).
- Bundling of mixed services (force purchase of other services).
- Expiry of purchased service (ideally expire monthly).
- Inflexibility of plans (with high charges for exceeding arbitrary fixed limits).
- Low flexibility in changing plans (e.g. upgrade for free, pay to downgrade).
- Low transparency of service usage and fees.
The following examples are given in terms of voice calling, although they may also apply to data, short message or other services.
- Rounding-Up: A call will often be rounded-up to a billing quantum. E.g. a call of 12 seconds may be billed as 60 seconds, and a call of 61 seconds billed as 120 seconds.
- Minimum Balance Requirement: A calling service may require a minimum balance before it can be used. E.g. The billing quanta is 60 seconds, however the service will not let you begin a call unless you have sufficient funds for at least two minutes of calling.
- Unusable Amounts: The unit charge values may be such that it is impossible to use all of the nominal amount purchased. A $10 calling card is charged at $1.05 per minute. After $9.45 is used, the remaining $.55 is not sufficient to make any call.
- Abandoned Accounts: Accounts or calling cards which are lost or abandoned while still retaining significant credit. This is the equivalent of the meaning of the term "Breakage" in the gift card context.
- Expired Amounts: The subscriber is forced to pre-purchase large services amounts which expire if not used within a specified period.
- Unused/Unbalanced Bundles: A bundle of services includes a mix of features. For example, a $30 per month package may include 3000 free Short Messages and 60 national calling voice minutes. Many customers may use most of the short messages, but not use the voice minutes. Other customers may use most of the voice minutes, but not the short messages.
- Flat Plans, Bumpy Usage: A service plan may include a flat rate, e.g. 10Gb of data per month. However, the client's usage may be highly variable. E.g. one month they may use only 1Gb, despite having paid for 10Gb. The following month, they may use 20Gb, with the additional 10Gb being charged at a significantly higher "overflow" rate.
Careful research and planning can maximise some forms of breakage. For example, if a high percentage of mobile voice calls on the network are less than one minute in duration, then a rating plan could use an initial quanta of 60 seconds, followed by 1 second quanta. The plan appears to use a low quanta, but in fact many calls will be hit by the initial 60 second quanta.
Similarly, if many users are shown to use 14Gb of data per month on a data plan, then offering data plans of 10Gb or 30Gb will force many users to pay for much more data than they need, which will expire at the end of each month.
- ^ http://www.servicelevel.net/rating_matters/newsletters/issue10.htm
- ^ "The Stalwart". Retrieved 2006-09-17.
- Fighting Over the Balance Left on Unused Gift Cards, via WSJ
- Best Buy Accounting for Breakage
- The clear war by Kevin Mattice
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- chromosomal break、chromosomal breakage、chromosome break
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