- n.

- 関
- appraisal、appraise、appreciate、appreciation、assess、assessment、characterization、deduce、estimate、evaluate、evaluation、extrapolate、extrapolation、judgement、judgment、presume、presumption、value

- (mathematics) calculation of the value of a function outside the range of known values
- an inference about the future (or about some hypothetical situation) based on known facts and observations
- fix or determine the value of; assign a value to; "value the jewelry and art work in the estate"
- the amount (of money or goods or services) that is considered to be a fair equivalent for something else; "he tried to estimate the value of the produce at normal prices" (同)economic value
- (music) the relative duration of a musical note (同)time value, note value
- relative darkness or lightness of a color; "I establish the colors and principal values by organizing the painting into three values--dark, medium...and light"-Joe Hing Lowe
- the quality (positive or negative) that renders something desirable or valuable; "the Shakespearean Shylock is of dubious value in the modern world"
- a numerical quantity measured or assigned or computed; "the value assigned was 16 milliseconds"
- an ideal accepted by some individual or group; "he has old-fashioned values"
- judge tentatively or form an estimate of (quantities or time); "I estimate this chicken to weigh three pounds" (同)gauge, approximate, guess, judge
- a judgment of the qualities of something or somebody; "many factors are involved in any estimate of human life"; "in my estimation the boy is innocent" (同)estimation
- the respect with which a person is held; "they had a high estimation of his ability" (同)estimation
- an approximate calculation of quantity or degree or worth; "an estimate of what it would cost"; "a rough idea how long it would take" (同)estimation, approximation, idea
- a statement indicating the likely cost of some job; "he got an estimate from the car repair shop"
- recognize with gratitude; be grateful for
- increase the value of; "The Germans want to appreciate the Deutsche Mark" (同)apprize, apprise
- gain in value; "The yen appreciated again!" (同)apprize, apprise, revalue
- be fully aware of; realize fully; "Do you appreciate the full meaning of this letter?" (同)take account
- the act of judging or assessing a person or situation or event; "they criticized my judgment of the contestants" (同)judgement, assessment
- (law) the determination by a court of competent jurisdiction on matters submitted to it (同)judgement, judicial decision
- the capacity to assess situations or circumstances shrewdly and to draw sound conclusions (同)judgement, sound judgment, sound judgement, perspicacity
- the cognitive process of reaching a decision or drawing conclusions (同)judgement, judging
- an opinion formed by judging something; "he was reluctant to make his judgment known"; "she changed her mind" (同)judgement, mind
- an increase in price or value; "an appreciation of 30% in the value of real estate"
- understanding of the nature or meaning or quality or magnitude of something; "he has a good grasp of accounting practices" (同)grasp, hold
- an expression of gratitude; "he expressed his appreciation in a short note"

- 〈U〉判断;評価;尊重 / 〈C〉〈U〉(特に商業上の)(…の)見積り,概算《+『of』+『名』》
- 〈U〉(…の)『価値』,値打ち,有用性,重要性《+of+名》 / 〈U〉〈C〉(…の)『価格』,値段《+of+名》 / 〈U〉〈C〉《米》《修飾語句を伴って》(払った金銭に対する)正当な値打ち / 〈C〉(単語の)意味,意義 / 〈C〉値,数値 / 〈C〉音の長短 / 〈C〉色価,(色の)明暗の度 / 〈C〉《複数形で》(道義・倫理などの)価値基準,価値観 / (ある金額に)…‘を'『評価する』,見積もる《+名+at+名〈金額〉》 / …‘を'『高く評価する』,尊重する,重んじる
- …‘を'『見積る』,概算する / 《副詞[句]を伴って》〈人物・状況など〉‘を'『評価する』・判断する / (…を)見積る《+『for』+『名』》 / 〈C〉(寸法・数量・価値などの)『見積り』,概算,評価[額];見積書《+『of』+『名』》 / 〈U〉〈C〉評価,評定《+『of』+『名』》
- 〈よさ・価値など〉'を'『認める』,認識する,…‘の'よさを認める / 〈作品など〉'を'『味わう』,鑑賞する / 〈好意など〉'を'感謝する,ありがたく思う / 〈相場・価格〉'を'上げる;…‘の'価格(相場)を上げる / 相場(価格,評価)が上がる
- 〈U〉(…を)『正しく認識すること』,(…の)識別,評価《+『of』+『名』》 / 〈U〉《時にan~》(文学・芸術などの)理解,鑑賞;批評,論評《+『of』+『名』》 / 〈U〉(…に対する)感謝《+『for』+『名』》 / 〈U〉《時にa~》(価格の)騰貴

出典(authority):フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』「2016/02/22 05:47:50」(JST)

For other uses, see Estimation (disambiguation).

"Estimate" and "Estimated" redirect here. For the racehorse, see Estimate (horse). For the card game, see Estimate (card game). For the symbol, see Estimated sign.

**Estimation** (or **estimating**) is the process of finding an **estimate**, or approximation, which is a value that is usable for some purpose even if input data may be incomplete, uncertain, or unstable. The value is nonetheless usable because it is derived from the best information available.^{[1]} Typically, estimation involves "using the value of a statistic derived from a sample to estimate the value of a corresponding population parameter".^{[2]} The sample provides information that can be projected, through various formal or informal processes, to determine a range most likely to describe the missing information. An estimate that turns out to be incorrect will be an **overestimate** if the estimate exceeded the actual result,^{[3]} and an **underestimate** if the estimate fell short of the actual result.^{[4]}

- 1 How estimation is done
- 2 Uses of estimation
- 3 See also
- 4 References
- 5 External links

Estimation is often done by sampling, which is counting a small number of examples something, and projecting that number onto a larger population.^{[1]} An example of estimation would be determining how many candies of a given size are in a glass jar. Because the distribution of candies inside the jar may vary, the observer can count the number of candies visible through the glass, consider the size of the jar, and presume that a similar distribution can be found in the parts that can not be seen, thereby making an estimate of the total number of candies that could be in the jar if that presumption were true. Estimates can similarly be generated by projecting results from polls or surveys onto the entire population.

In making an estimate, the goal is often most useful to generate a range of possible outcomes that is precise enough to be useful, but not so precise that it is likely to be inaccurate.^{[2]} For example, in trying to guess the number of candies in the jar, if fifty were visible, and the total volume of the jar seemed to be about twenty times as large as the volume containing the visible candies, then one might simply project that there were a thousand candies in the jar. Such a projection, intended to pick the single value that is believed to be closest to the actual value, is called a point estimate.^{[2]} However, a point estimation is likely to be incorrect, because the sample size - in this case, the number of candies that are visible - is too small a number to be sure that it does not contain anomalies that differ from the population as a whole.^{[2]} A corresponding concept is an interval estimate, which captures a much larger range of possibilities, but is too broad to be useful.^{[2]} For example, if one were asked to estimate the percentage of people who like candy, it would clearly be correct that the number falls between zero and one hundred percent.^{[2]} Such an estimate would provide no guidance, however, to somebody who is trying to determine how many candies to buy for a party to be attended by a hundred people.

In mathematics, approximation describes the process of finding estimates in the form of upper or lower bounds for a quantity that cannot readily be evaluated precisely, and approximation theory deals with finding simpler functions that are close to some complicated function and that can provide useful estimates. In statistics, an estimator is the formal name for the rule by which an estimate is calculated from data, and estimation theory deals with finding estimates with good properties. This process is used in signal processing, for approximating an unobserved signal on the basis of an observed signal containing noise. For estimation of yet-to-be observed quantities, forecasting and prediction are applied. A Fermi problem, in physics, is one concerning estimation in problems which typically involve making justified guesses about quantities that seem impossible to compute given limited available information.

Estimation is important in business and economics, because too many variables exist to figure out how large-scale activities will develop. Estimation in project planning can be particularly significant, because plans for the distribution of labor and for purchases of raw materials must be made, despite the inability to know every possible problem that may come up. A certain amount of resources will be available for carrying out a particular project, making it important to obtain or generate a cost estimate as one of the vital elements of entering into the project.^{[5]} The U.S. Government Accountability Office defines a cost estimate as, "the summation of individual cost elements, using established methods and valid data, to estimate the future costs of a program, based on what is known today", and reports that "realistic cost estimating was imperative when making wise decisions in acquiring new systems".^{[6]} Furthermore, project plans must not underestimate the needs of the project, which can result in delays while unmet needs are fulfilled, nor must they greatly overestimate the needs of the project, or else the unneeded resources may go to waste.

An informal estimate when little information is available is called a guesstimate, because the inquiry becomes closer to purely guessing the answer. The "estimated" sign, ℮, is used to designate that package contents are close to the nominal contents.

- Ansatz
- Ballpark estimate
- Back-of-the-envelope calculation
- Conjecture
- Cost estimation
- Estimation statistics
- Estimation theory
- Kalman filter
- Sales quote
- Upper and lower bounds

- ^
^{a}^{b}C. Lon Enloe, Elizabeth Garnett, Jonathan Miles,*Physical Science: What the Technology Professional Needs to Know*(2000), p. 47. - ^
^{a}^{b}^{c}^{d}^{e}^{f}Raymond A. Kent, "Estimation",*Data Construction and Data Analysis for Survey Research*(2001), p. 157. **^**James Tate, John Schoonbeck,*Reviewing Mathematics*(2003), page 27: "An overestimate is an estimate you know is greater than the exact answer".**^**James Tate, John Schoonbeck,*Reviewing Mathematics*(2003), page 27: "An underestimate is an estimate you know is less than the exact answer".**^***A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) Third Edition, An American National Standard, ANSI/PMI 99-001-2004*, Project Management Institute, Inc, 2004, ISBN 1-930699-45-X.**^***GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide, Best Practices for Developing and Managing Capital Program Costs, GAO-09-3SP*, United States Government Accountabity Office, March 2009, Preface p. i.

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リンク元 | 「appreciate」「評価」「estimate」「assess」「assessment」 |

拡張検索 | 「underestimation」「overestimation」 |

- v.

- 認識する、認める、理解する、評価する、感謝する

- 関
- accept、acknowledge、admit、allow、appraisal、appraise、appreciation、approve、assess、assessment、aware、awareness、characterization、cognition、cognitive、comprehend、comprehension、detect、envisage、estimate、estimation、evaluate、evaluation、grasp、grateful、judgement、judgment、notice、observe、realization、realize、recognise、recognition、recognize、see、thank、understand、understanding、value

- 英
- evaluation、characterization、assessment、estimation、appreciation、appraisal、judgment、(英)judgement、evaluate、appreciate、assess、estimate、appraise、value
- 関
- アセスメント、値、意見、価値、感謝、キャラクタリゼーション、査定、試験、調べる、審査、特徴づけ、診断、推定、測定、認識、判断、判定、評論、描写、見込み、見積、見積もる、認める、予算、理解、性質決定、鑑定、影響評価、推計

- n.

- v.

- 見積もる、推定する、評価する、測定する

- 関
- appraisal、appraise、appreciate、appreciation、assess、assessment、budget、chance、characterization、deduce、determine、estimation、evaluate、evaluation、expectation、extrapolate、extrapolation、fathom、judgement、judgment、likelihood、measure、measurement、odds、perspective、presume、presumption、promise、prospect、value

- vt.

- (税など)の額/率を査定する。(財産・収入などを)課税の目的で評価する。評価する、～の重要性(重大性、規模、価値など)を評定する、値踏みする
- (ある金額を)税金/罰金などとして取り立てる。(税金・罰金などを)科する/課する。(人・財産)に税金/罰金を課する/科する/割り当てる。

- 関
- assessment、assessable
- appraisal、appraise、appreciate、appreciation、characterization、estimate、estimation、evaluate、evaluation、judgement、judgment、value

- n.

- 関
- appraisal、appraise、appreciate、appreciation、assess、characterization、decide、decision、determination、determine、diagnose、diagnoses、diagnosis、diagnostic、estimate、estimation、evaluate、evaluation、exam、examination、examine、judgement、judgment、test、testing、trial、value