- the appearance of things relative to one another as determined by their distance from the viewer (同)linear perspective
- judge tentatively or form an estimate of (quantities or time); "I estimate this chicken to weigh three pounds" (同)gauge, approximate, guess, judge
- a judgment of the qualities of something or somebody; "many factors are involved in any estimate of human life"; "in my estimation the boy is innocent" (同)estimation
- the respect with which a person is held; "they had a high estimation of his ability" (同)estimation
- an approximate calculation of quantity or degree or worth; "an estimate of what it would cost"; "a rough idea how long it would take" (同)estimation, approximation, idea
- a statement indicating the likely cost of some job; "he got an estimate from the car repair shop"
- promise to undertake or give; "I promise you my best effort"
- grounds for feeling hopeful about the future; "there is little or no promise that he will recover" (同)hope
- a verbal commitment by one person to another agreeing to do (or not to do) something in the future
- make a promise or commitment (同)assure
- give grounds for expectations; "The new results were promising"; "The results promised fame and glory"
- search for something desirable; "prospect a job"
- the possibility of future success; "his prospects as a writer are excellent" (同)chance
- explore for useful or valuable things or substances, such as minerals
- be the case by chance; "I chanced to meet my old friend in the street"
- a risk involving danger; "you take a chance when you let her drive"
- the ratio by which one betters wager is greater than that of another; "he offered odds of two to one" (同)betting odds
- the likelihood of a thing occurring rather than not occurring
- 〈U〉『遠近[画]法』,透視図法 / 〈C〉遠近画,透視図 / 〈C〉遠景,眺め / 〈U〉(距離の遠近による)物の見え方,遠近感 / 〈U〉〈C〉(広い視野からの)『観点』,立場,見地 / 〈U〉(物事の)相互関係,釣り合い / 遠近法の(による)
- …‘を'『見積る』,概算する / 《副詞[句]を伴って》〈人物・状況など〉‘を'『評価する』・判断する / (…を)見積る《+『for』+『名』》 / 〈C〉(寸法・数量・価値などの)『見積り』,概算,評価[額];見積書《+『of』+『名』》 / 〈U〉〈C〉評価,評定《+『of』+『名』》
- 〈C〉『約束』,誓い / 〈U〉(…の)有望さ,見込み《+『of+名』》 / 〈U〉(…の)気配,きざし《+『of+名』》 / 〈物事〉‘を'『約束する』 / …‘の'『見込みがある』,おそれがある / 《話》《Iを主語にして》〈人〉‘に'断言する,保証する,警告する / 約束する / 《状態の副詞を伴って》(…の)見込み(望み)がある
- 〈C〉《通例単数性で》(高い位置からの)(…の)『光景』,眺め《+『of』+『名』》 / 〈U〉(…の)『予想』,展望《+『of(for)』+『名』(do『ing』)》 / 《複数性で》(…の)『成功の見込み(機会)』《+『of(for)』+『名』(do『ing』)》 / 〈C〉見込みのある人,有望な人 / 〈C〉《米》願客になりそうな人 / (金などを求めて)〈ある地域〉‘を'探査する《+『名』+『for』+『名』》 / (金などを求めて)探査する《+『for』+『名』》
- 〈C〉〈U〉『偶然』,偶然のでき事;運,めぐり合わせ / 〈U〉〈C〉(何かが起こる)『公算』,見込み,可能性(probability) / 〈C〉『好機』,機会(opportunity) / 〈C〉危険,冒険;かけ / 《『chance to』 do》〈人が〉偶然;する / 《『it chances』+『that』『節』》〈物事が〉偶然に起こる / …'を'運を天に任せてする / 偶然の,はずみの
- (ある率で起こる)『可能性』,見込み / (競技などで弱いほうに与えられる)『有利な条件』(handicap) / (勝負などでの)『優勢』[の方],強み,勝ち目(advantage)
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- Persistent infectious diseases say - IDO. Role of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase in disease pathogenesis and implications for therapy.
- Barth H, Raghuraman S.Author information Inserm , U748, Strasbourg , France .AbstractAbstract Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an enzyme that catabolises tryptophan - an essential amino acid critical for T cell proliferation. Initially recognized as a first line of host defense against infectious pathogens, IDO has been subsequently identified as an important immune-regulator inhibiting T-cell responses and promoting immune tolerance. Research over the past few years has demonstrated a crucial role for IDO in the pathogenesis of persistent infections that place an enormous burden on public health. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about IDO's role in causing pathogen persistence and progression to clinical disease. We conclude with a perspective on the potential benefits and risks of therapeutic IDO manipulation.
- Critical reviews in microbiology.Crit Rev Microbiol.2014 Nov;40(4):360-8. doi: 10.3109/1040841X.2012.742037. Epub 2012 Nov 23.
- Abstract Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an enzyme that catabolises tryptophan - an essential amino acid critical for T cell proliferation. Initially recognized as a first line of host defense against infectious pathogens, IDO has been subsequently identified as an important immune-regulator in
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- The genus Shewanella: from the briny depths below to human pathogen.
- Janda JM, Abbott SL.Author information Department of Public Health, Public Health Laboratory , Downey, CA , USA and.AbstractAbstract The genus Shewanella is currently composed of more than 50 species that inhabit a range of marine environs and ecosystems. Several members of this genus, including S. oneidensis, have been identified that could potentially play key roles in environmental processes such as bioremediation of toxic elements and heavy metals and serving as microbial fuel cells. In contrast to this beneficial role, shewanellae are increasingly being implicated as human pathogens in persons exposed through occupational or recreational activities to marine niches containing shewanellae. Documented illnesses linked to Shewanella include skin and soft tissue infections, bacteremia, and otitis media. At present, it is unclear exactly how many Shewanella species are truly bona fide human pathogens. Recent advances in the taxonomy and phylogenetic relatedness of members of this genus, however, support the concept that most human infections are caused by a single species, S. algae. Some phylogenetic data further suggest that some current members of the genus are not true Shewanella species sensu stricto. The current review summarizes our present knowledge of the distribution, epidemiology, disease spectrum, and identification of microbial species focusing on a clinical perspective.
- Critical reviews in microbiology.Crit Rev Microbiol.2014 Nov;40(4):293-312. doi: 10.3109/1040841X.2012.726209. Epub 2012 Oct 8.
- Abstract The genus Shewanella is currently composed of more than 50 species that inhabit a range of marine environs and ecosystems. Several members of this genus, including S. oneidensis, have been identified that could potentially play key roles in environmental processes such as bioremediation of
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- The cellulolytic system of Thermobifida fusca.
- Gomez Del Pulgar EM, Saadeddin A.Author information Abengoa Research , Abengoa, Campus Palmas Altas, Seville , Spain.AbstractAbstract The process of bioethanol production from biomass comprises pretreatments and enzyme-mediated hydrolysis to convert lignocellulose into fermentable sugars. Because of the recalcitrant character of cellulose, the enzymatic hydrolysis is considered the major challenge in this process to be economically competitive. These technical difficulties highlight the need for the discovery of new enzymes to optimize and lower the cost of current technologies. Microorganisms have developed efficient systems for cellulose degradation. Among cellulolytic microbes, Thermobifida fusca possesses great physiological and cellulolytic characteristics (thermostability, high activity and tolerance to a broad pH range) making it an interesting organism to be studied from an applied perspective. In this review we describe the main enzymes/proteins produced by T.fusca (cellulases, xylanases, mannanase, manosidase, CBM33 and CelR), the effect of substrate on T. fusca proteome, enzyme improvement approaches, synergism between enzymes/proteins and artificial cellulosomes.
- Critical reviews in microbiology.Crit Rev Microbiol.2014 Aug;40(3):236-47. doi: 10.3109/1040841X.2013.776512. Epub 2013 Mar 28.
- Abstract The process of bioethanol production from biomass comprises pretreatments and enzyme-mediated hydrolysis to convert lignocellulose into fermentable sugars. Because of the recalcitrant character of cellulose, the enzymatic hydrolysis is considered the major challenge in this process to be ec
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- Establishment of in vitro-in vivo equivalence of highly variable drugs - a generic product development perspective.
- Pathak SM, Aggarwal D, Venkateswarlu V.Author information Dr. Reddy's Laboratories, Centre of Excellence - Bio Studies , IPDO, Innovation Plaza, Bachupally, Hyderabad-500072, Andhra Pradesh , India.AbstractAbstract In vivo equivalence of highly variable drugs (HVD) has always been a subject of great concern, in terms of both safety and efficacy, for regulatory agencies. Successful demonstration of their bioequivalence thus presents the most crucial component of a generic application, significantly contributing toward the cost and time of development. For poorly soluble drugs, such as telmisartan, dissolution represents the rate-limiting step in the gastric region and in many cases may not be complete, thereby contributing to low and highly variable bioavailability. Consequently, simulation of gastrointestinal conditions is essential to adequately predict the in vivo behavior of drug formulations. In this study, we evaluated usefulness of physiologically relevant dissolution method over commonly used acidic media to forecast comparable in vivo performance of telmisartan formulation to that of reference samples. In the present study, telmisartan was classified as a HVD and a partial replicate design with repeating the reference product and scaling the bioequivalence for the reference variability has been presented. The design has effectively decreased sample size, without increasing patient risk. Results from this project suggest that scaled average bioequivalence (SABE) provides a good approach for evaluating the bioequivalence of HVD, meeting the need for international guidelines for bioequivalence.
- Pharmaceutical development and technology.Pharm Dev Technol.2014 Jun;19(4):401-10. doi: 10.3109/10837450.2013.788513. Epub 2013 Apr 22.
- Abstract In vivo equivalence of highly variable drugs (HVD) has always been a subject of great concern, in terms of both safety and efficacy, for regulatory agencies. Successful demonstration of their bioequivalence thus presents the most crucial component of a generic application, significantly con
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