exogenous spore

WordNet

  1. derived or originating externally (同)exogenic
  2. a small usually single-celled asexual reproductive body produced by many nonflowering plants and fungi and some bacteria and protozoans and that are capable of developing into a new individual without sexual fusion; "a sexual spore is formed after the fus

PrepTutorEJDIC

  1. (植物の生長が)外生の(木部年輪が外方へ追加されて生長すること) / 外因性の
  2. 胞子;胚種

UpToDate Contents

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English Journal

  • The thioredoxin reductase-encoding gene ActrxR1 is involved in the cephalosporin C production of Acremonium chrysogenum in methionine-supplemented medium.
  • Liu L, Long LK, An Y, Yang J, Xu X, Hu CH, Liu G.SourceInstitute of Modern Biopharmaceuticals, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing, 400716, China.
  • Applied microbiology and biotechnology.Appl Microbiol Biotechnol.2012 Aug 25. [Epub ahead of print]
  • The thioredoxin system including thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is used for oxidative stress defenses in fungi. Based on the genomic sequence, a thioredoxin reductase-encoding gene (ActrxR1) was isolated from Acremonium chrysogenum CGMCC3.3795. Like other TrxRs, AcTrxR1 contains FAD bi
  • PMID 22926582
  • YknWXYZ is an unusual four-component transporter with a role in protection against sporulation-delaying-protein-induced killing of Bacillus subtilis.
  • Yamada Y, Tikhonova EB, Zgurskaya HI.SourceDepartment of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Oklahoma, Stephenson Life Science Research Center, Norman, Oklahoma, USA.
  • Journal of bacteriology.J Bacteriol.2012 Aug;194(16):4386-94. doi: 10.1128/JB.00223-12. Epub 2012 Jun 15.
  • YknXYZ is the ATP-binding cassette export complex from Bacillus subtilis, where YknX is a membrane fusion protein, YknY is an ATPase, and YknZ is a permease. The yknXYZ genes are arranged into an operon that also includes yknW, encoding a membrane protein with four putative transmembrane segments. P
  • PMID 22707703
  • Emergence of hand contamination with Aspergillus during demolition work.
  • Cunat L, Ahmed-Lecheheb D, Hartemann P, Hunter PR, Hautemanière A.SourceDepartment of Public Health and Environment, School of Medicine, Lorraine University, Nancy, France; EA RHEM 4369 Relations Hosts Environments and Micro-organisms, School of Medicine, Lorraine University, Nancy, France.
  • American journal of infection control.Am J Infect Control.2012 Jun 27. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Hand rubbing with hydro-alcoholic solutions prevent the exogenous nosocomial infection, but the hydro-alcoholic solutions were not sporicidal. A major program of demolition was organized on the area of the University Hospital of Nancy (France) between 2007 and 2010, and this period is often consider
  • PMID 22749129

Japanese Journal

  • Antifungal Activity of Radicicol against Mucor flavus IFO 9560
  • Fujita Ken-ichi,Irie Motoko,Ping Xu [他],TANIGUCHI MAKOTO
  • Journal of bioscience and bioengineering 88(4), 380-386, 1999-10-25
  • … In addition, radicicol showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on spore germination. … There were no inhibitory effects on either endogenous or exogenous cellular respiration. …
  • NAID 110002684427
  • Involvement of Calcium in Germination of Coat-Modified Spores of Bacillus cereus T
  • SHIBATA Hirofumi,MIYOSHI Shigekatsu,OSATO Tomohiko,TANI Isamu,HASHIMOTO Tadayo
  • MICROBIOLOGY and IMMUNOLOGY 36(9), 935-946, 1992
  • … The lost or reduced germinability of coat-modified spores was restored when exogenous Ca2+ was supplemented to the germination media. … The lost or diminished germinability observed in SDS-DTT-treated spores or 10LD mutant spores may be attributed to the loss of calcium associated with the spore integuments. …
  • NAID 130003405815
  • Uptake of Gibberellin Methyl Esters by Spores and Induction of Dark Germination in Lygodium japonicum
  • Hara Takauki,Nagatani Akira,Yamaguchi Isomaro,Murofushi Nobory,Takahashi Nobutaka,Furuya Masaki
  • Plant and cell physiology 29(6), 913-918, 1988-09
  • … In the fern Lygodium japonicum, the effect of the exogenous application of two gibberellin methyl esters, gibberellin A_4 methyl ester (GA_4Me) and gibberellin A_<20> … methyl ester (GA_<20>Me) on spore germination in the dark and uptake of GA_4Me and GA_<20>Me by spores was investigated. … The activity of GA_4Me was more than 100-fold that of GA_<20>Me for the induction of spore germination. …
  • NAID 110003719431

Related Links

25 Oct 2011 ... Spore Dormancy. Fungal spores exhibit TWO TYPES of dormancy, described as CONSTITUTIVE (endogenous) and EXOGENOUS. Constitutive dormancy: Commonly exhibited by SEXUAL FUNGAL SPORES. Is imposed by ...



★リンクテーブル★
リンク元真菌
関連記事exogenous

真菌」

  [★]

fungus, (pl.)fungi
かび菌類 Mycota
微生物学真菌症抗真菌薬


細菌、真菌、藻類、原虫

  • いずれも単細胞生物
  • 細菌は核を持たないが、それ以外は核を持つ
  • 細胞壁の多糖:細菌はペプチドグリカンなど。真菌はβグルカン、キチン。藻類はセルロース。原虫は細胞壁を持たない
  • 栄養獲得様式:藻類は光合成独立栄養生性。

大きさ

  • 数μm。観察に油浸レンズは不要

細胞膜

細胞壁

線維状多糖

  • 細胞壁の骨格となる
  • キチンとβ-グルカンからなる。
  • 特殊な多糖にキトサンがある

キチン

β-グルカン

  • グルコースのホモ重合体
  • β(1→3)結合、β(1→6)結合
  • 酵母では細胞壁成分にβ-1,3-グルカンが多い

キトサン

糖タンパク質

形態による分類

Coccidioides immitis
Histoplasma capsulatum
Sporothrix schenckii
Candida albicans

培養と感染組織における形態


菌糸の構造

接合菌などの下等真菌にのみ見られる

菌糸の機能

生殖方式による分類

有性生殖と無性生殖

  • 有性生殖と無性生殖を行う
  • 無性生殖のみ行う

有性胞子形成

無性胞子形成

培養

  • グルコース1-4%, ペプトン1%

種類

真菌の染色法(SMB.358)

  • 細胞壁の多糖を染色:コットンブルー(cotton blue)、グラム染色(全ての真菌はグラム陽性)
  • 真菌細胞壁多糖を特異的に染色:PAS染色、Grocottメテナミン銀染色、ファンギフローラY

参考

  • 真菌の写真 - Fungal Images

病原体としての真菌

分類群 菌名 病名 出芽分裂 菌体 菌糸 胞子 発芽管 寄生性 感染経路 病原体の特徴 病型 検査 治療
不完全菌 Candida albicans カンジダ症     仮性菌糸 厚膜胞子 形成   常在菌→各所 日和見感染症      
担子菌 Filobasidiella neoformans クリプトコッカス症 出芽 厚い莢膜       通性細胞内寄生体 鳩の乾燥糞→空気感染→肺(通性細胞内寄生体) 日和見感染菌 肺クリプトコッカス症
中枢神経クリプトコッカス症、
皮膚クリプトコッカス症
全身性クリプトコッカス症
墨汁染色 ( アムホテリシンB or フルコナゾール )
  ± フルシトシン
不完全菌 Trichosporon asahii トリコスポロン症     仮性菌糸 分節分生子              
子嚢菌 Aspergillus fumigatus/
'Aspergillus flavus
アスペルギルス症   糸状菌
不完全菌
有隔菌糸       土壌や朽ちた植物、空気中の浮遊胞子        
  Mucor/'Rhizopus/
Absidia/Rhizomucor
ムコール症     無隔菌糸     血管に親和性 土壌や朽ちた植物、空気中の浮遊胞子
 → 浮遊胞子の吸入
  鼻眼脳型ムコール症
侵襲性肺ムコール症
全身播種型ムコール症
β-D-グルカン陰性。
喀痰、血培陰性
アムホテリシンB
子嚢菌 Pneumocystis jirovecii
('Pneumocystis carini)
ニューモシスチス・カリニ感染症                      
子嚢菌 Histoplasma capsulatum ヒストプラスマ症 二形性真菌
 37℃酵母型発育
 25℃菌糸形成
          空気感染。肺に一次病変を作り様々な臓器に播種 AIDS患者に好発      
不完全菌 Coccidioides immitis コクシジオイデス症 二形性真菌     内生胞子              
不完全菌 Sporothrix schenckii スポロトリクス症 二形性真菌                    

exogenous」

  [★]

  • adj.
  • 外来性の、外因的な、外因性の、外来の
adventitiousambulatoryexogenouslyexoticextraneousextrinsicforeignnon-nativeoutpatientoutpatient department