- (～に関して)明確な、はっきりとした(exact precise)、具体的な(in, about)
- stated explicitly or in detail; "needed a specific amount"
- a medicine that has a mitigating effect on a specific disease; "quinine is a specific for malaria"
- (sometimes followed by `to'
- being or affecting a disease produced by a particular microorganism or condition; used also of stains or dyes used in making microscope slides; "quinine is highly specific for malaria"; "a specific remedy"; "a specific stain is one having a specific affinity for particular structural elements"
- relating to or distinguishing or constituting a taxonomic species; "specific characters"
- somewhat indefinite; "bearing a general resemblance to the original"; "a general description of the merchandise"
- a general officer of the highest rank (同)full general
- the head of a religious order or congregation (同)superior general
- a fact about the whole (as opposed to particular); "he discussed the general but neglected the particular"
- affecting the entire body; "a general anesthetic"; "general symptoms"
- applying to all or most members of a category or group; "the general public"; "general assistance"; "a general rule"; "in general terms"; "comprehensible to the general reader"
- command as a general; "We are generaled by an incompetent!"
- not specialized or limited to one class of things; "general studies"; "general knowledge"
- prevailing among and common to the general public; "the general discontent"
- the quality of being specific rather than general; "add a desirable note of specificity to the discussion"; "the specificity of the symptoms of the disease"
- the quality of being specific to a particular organism; "host specificity of a parasite"
- in distinction from others; "a program specifically for teenagers"; "he is interested specifically in poisonous snakes"
- the relative magnitudes of two quantities (usually expressed as a quotient)
- (あるグループ)『全部の』,全部を含む / 『世間一般の』,広く行き渡った / 『一般の』,専門的でない / 『大体の』,概略の / 『陸軍大将』;(陸軍の)『将軍』,将官 / 概して,一般に
- 明確に(clearly) / 特に,とりわけ / すなわち,言い替えれば(namely)
||Look up specific or specifically in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Specific may refer to:
- Specificity (disambiguation)
- Specific, a cure or therapy for a specific illness
- 1 Law
- 2 Psychology
- 3 Biology and physiology
- 4 Physical natural sciences and engineering
- 5 Other fields
- 6 See also
- Specific deterrence, focussed on an individual
- Specific finding, intermediate verdict used by a jury in determining the final verdict
- Specific jurisdiction over an out-of-state party, specific to cases that have a substantial connection to the party's in-state activity
- Order of specific performance, court order to perform a specific act
- Economics, finance, and accounting
- Asset specificity, the extent to which the investments made to support a particular transaction have a higher value to that transaction than they would have if they were redeployed for any other purpose
- Specific identification (inventories), summing purchase costs of all inventory items
- Specific rate duty, duty paid at a specific amount per unit
- Specific risk, risk that affects a very small number of assets
- Domain specificity, theory that many aspects of cognition are supported by specialized, presumably evolutionarily specified, learning devices
- Specific developmental disorder, disorders in which development is delayed in one specific area or areas, and in which basically all other areas of development are not affected
- Specific learning disability
- Specific phobia, phobia of a specific thing or situation
- Specific social phobia, triggered only by specific social situations
Biology and physiology
- Specific absorption rate, power absorbed per unit mass of tissue at a given frequency
- Specific appetite, drive to eat foods with specific flavors or other characteristics
- Specific enzyme activity, activity per milligram of total protein
- Specific granule, secretory vesicle in granulocytes
- Specific growth rate, increase in cell mass per unit cell mass per unit time
- Specific immunity, to a particular pathogen
- Specific leaf area, leaf area per unit dry leaf mass
- Specific name (botany), species name of a plant
- Specific name (zoology), species name of an animal
- Specific Pathogen Free, of a laboratory animal guaranteed free of particular (i.e., specific and named) pathogens
Physical natural sciences and engineering
"Specific" generally means per unit of something (often mass), and signals a division of the subject quantity by a parametizing quantity that may or may not be named. If the divisor quantity is named, the name is usually placed before "specific" in the term (i.e., thrust specific fuel consumption). Named and unnamed divisor quantities are given for the terms below.
Per unit of mass (short form of mass-specific):
- Specific activity, radioactivity in becquerels per unit mass
- Specific energy, defined as energy per unit mass
- Specific internal energy, internal energy per unit mass
- Specific kinetic energy, kinetic energy of an object per unit of mass
- Specific enthalpy, enthalpy per unit mass
- Specific force, defined as the non-gravitational force per unit mass
- Specific heat capacity, heat capacity per unit mass, unless another unit is named, such as mole-specific heat capacity, or volume-specific heat capacity
- Specific latent heat, latent heat per unit mass
- Specific modulus, a materials property consisting of the elastic modulus per mass density of a material
- Specific orbital energy, orbital energy per unit mass
- Specific power (disambiguation), per unit of mass (or volume or area)
- Specific relative angular momentum, of two orbiting bodies is the vector product of the relative position and the relative velocity
- Specific surface area, per unit of mass, volume, or cross-sectional area
- Specific volume, volume per unit mass, i.e. the reciprocal of density
Per unit of other type. The dividing unit is sometimes added before the term "specific", and sometimes omitted.
- Brake specific fuel consumption, fuel consumption per unit of braking power
- Thrust specific fuel consumption, fuel consumption per unit of thrust
- Specific acid catalysis, in which the reaction rate is proportional to the concentration of the protonated solvent molecules
- Specific acoustic impedance, ratio of sound pressure p to particle velocity v at a single frequency
- Specific capacity of a water well, quantity of water produced per (length) unit of drawdown
- Specific conductance, conductance per meter. Identical to electrical conductivity
- Specific detectivity of a photodetector
- Specific fuel consumption (disambiguation). Fuel consumption per unit thrust, or per unit power. Type defined as above.
- Specific gas constant, per molar mass
- Specific gravity, relative density with respect to water (density per water density)
- Specific heat of vaporization, enthalpy of vaporization, vaporizing heat per mole
- Specific humidity, mass of water vapor per unit mass dry air * Specific impulse, impulse (momentum change) per unit of propellant (either per unit of propellant mass, or per unit of propellant by Earth-weight)
- Specific mass, actually meaning volume-specific mass, or mass per unit volume. Same as density
- Specific melting heat, enthalpy of fusion; melting heat per mole
- Specific modulus, elastic modulus per mass density
- Specific properties of a substance
- Specific resistance (disambiguation), several scientific meanings
- Specific rotation of a chemical, angle of optical rotation α of plane-polarized light per standard sample with a path length of one decimeter and a sample concentration of one gram per millilitre
- Specific speed, unitless figure of merit used to classify pump impellers (pump-specific) and turbines (turbine-specific). Ratio of performance against reference pump that needs one unit of speed to pump one unit volume per one unit hydraulic head pressure. For a turbine, it is performance measured against a reference turbine that develops one unit of power per one unit speed per one unit of hydraulic head.
- Specific storage, specific yield, and specific capacity, characterize the capacity of an aquifer to release groundwater from storage per unit decline in hydraulic head pressure
- Specific strength, material strength (pressure required at failure) per unit material density
- Specific surface area, per unit of mass, volume, or cross-sectional area
- Specific surface energy, free energy per unit surface-area
- Specific thrust, thrust per unit air intake rate
- Specific weight, weight per unit volume
- SPECIFIC, The Sustainable Product Engineering Centre for Innovative Functional Industrial Coatings
- Specific creation, creationism as opposed to evolution
- Specific interval, shortest possible clockwise distance between pitch classes on the chromatic circle
- Specific integral, in calculus, eliminates the constant of integration
- Specific Physical Preparedness, being prepared for the movements in a specific physical activity (usually a sport)
- Species (disambiguation)
- Specification (disambiguation)
- Specialty (disambiguation)
- Site-specific (disambiguation)
- Language for specific purposes, has been primarily used to refer to two areas within applied linguistics
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- Demasking of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) on circulating epithelial tumor cells by Tween®20 treatment in breast cancer patients.
- Hekimian K, Stein EL, Pachmann U, Pachmann K.AbstractAbstract Background: The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) embedded in the plasma membrane of circulating epithelial tumor cells (CETC) is used for detection and enrichment of circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood and as a target for anti-epithelial antibodies elicited during immune response in anti-tumor immunization. Although an efficient immune response against EpCAM can be generated, the clinical application of such approaches has not been successful so far and the detection of circulating epithelial cells is highly variable. One reason for these discrepancies may be that not all circulating tumor cells are equally accessible for the specific antibody. A possible reason might be masking of EpCAM by glycoproteins or membrane lipoproteins preventing antibody binding. Methods: We have tested the application of detergents as demasking agents known to be successful in demasking red blood cell epitopes and determined how and in which way they affect integral membrane proteins and membrane lipids. Results: The results showed that the polysorbate Tween®20, a non-ionic detergent like organic solvent is able to demask EpCAM on CETC and makes it better accessible to its specific antibody retaining at the same time full cell viability. Conclusions: The data presented in this study suggest that EpCAM is present on part of circulating tumor cells in a masked form and that it is possible to demask EpCAM on CETC of breast cancer patients using Tween®20 treatment. But further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of demasking.
- Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine : CCLM / FESCC.Clin Chem Lab Med.2012 Dec 7;50(4):701-8. doi: 10.1515/cclm.2011.812.
- Abstract Background: The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) embedded in the plasma membrane of circulating epithelial tumor cells (CETC) is used for detection and enrichment of circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood and as a target for anti-epithelial antibodies elicited during immune re
- PMID 22505561
- Comparison of personality characteristics on the bear-fedio inventory between patients with epilepsy and those with non-epileptic seizures.
- Tremont G, Smith MM, Bauer L, Alosco ML, Davis JD, Blum AS, Lafrance WC.AbstractThis study used the Bear-Fedio Personality Inventory (BFI) to compare 41 individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and 37 with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (NES). Both groups exhibited similar elevations on the BFI, although TLE individuals show greater endorsement of at least one hypergraphia symptom, as compared with those with NES. The correlates of the BFI with demographic and seizure characteristics differed between the groups. These results argue against a specific TLE personality syndrome and suggest that personality characteristics may be related to the experience of having repeated seizures, rather than the specific underlying pathophysiology of temporal lobe epilepsy.
- The Journal of neuropsychiatry and clinical neurosciences.J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci.2012 Dec 1;24(1):47-52.
- This study used the Bear-Fedio Personality Inventory (BFI) to compare 41 individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and 37 with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (NES). Both groups exhibited similar elevations on the BFI, although TLE individuals show greater endorsement of at least one hypergra
- PMID 22450613
- Fixation Strategies in Total Hip Arthroplasty.
- Geesink RD.SourceEmeritus Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
- Surgical technology international.Surg Technol Int.2012 Dec 1;XXI:240-247. [Epub ahead of print]
- Substantial progress has been achieved in cementless arthroplasty in the recent decades where cementless arthroplasty has evolved from pressfit implantation to porous-coated and later HA-coated implant fixation as its ultimate current state-of-the-art incarnation. Key factors for success are adequat
- PMID 22504997
- Update 2012: Regenerative Medicine in Wounds: Current Use of Growth Factors, Cell Therapy, and Negative Pressure Wound Therapy for Chronic Wounds.
- Lantis Ii JC.SourceChief of the Division of Vascular/Endovascular Surgery, St Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital, Associate Clinical Professor of Surgery, Columbia University, New York, New York.
- Surgical technology international.Surg Technol Int.2012 Dec 1;XXI:43-49. [Epub ahead of print]
- While we move toward the brink of being able to regenerate or replace human cells, tissues, or organs to restore or establish normal function, we are not there yet. The techniques that are available and being brought to bear on the field of chronic wounds include: growth factors, gene therapy, stem
- PMID 22504969
- Recent Progress in Nanoparticle Dispersion Using Bead Mill
- Development of multiplex serological assay for the detection of human African trypanosomiasis
- A Hypersweet Protein: Removal of The Specific Negative Charge at Asp21 Enhances Thaumatin Sweetness.
- 分泌型免疫グロブリンＡが認識する 腸内細菌種の同定
- 食の安全性と品質に対する意識が高い、農・畜・水産業の先進国デンマーク。スペシフィックにもその文化が ... おいしく食べて、元気になる。 食を通して、愛犬・愛猫の健康と幸せを考える、「フードによる健康管理」を ...
- 楽天市場:松波動物メディカル通信販売部のSPECIFIC > SPECIFIC犬用療法食一覧。当院は名古屋市瑞穂区メディカルセンター、瀬戸市に所在するグループ病院です。みなさまのワンちゃんネコちゃんの少しでも健康管理に役立つよう、病院で ...
- (physics) characteristic of a property of a particular substance, esp in relation to the same property of a standard reference substance: specific gravity characteristic of a property of a particular substance per unit mass, length, area ...
- ☆case28 慢性に経過する胸痛
- 25歳 女性
- にあり、左腋窩に放散していた。胸痛は胸を締め付けられる、あるいは握りつぶされるような痛みであり、5-30分持続した。胸痛はどんなときでも出現することがあった。労作時によく出現したが、ある場合には安静時にも出現し、特に夕方に出現した。胸痛には息切れが伴うことが良くあった。胸痛が出現したときには、どんなときでも身動きができなくなり、痛みと共にが遠くなったり、めまいをかんじた。時々、胸痛と共に動悸があった。動悸は強く感じられたが、心拍動はしっかりしていた(steady heart beat)。
- ・15歳 虫垂摘出
- ・30歳 腹症(irregular bowel habit)と腹痛：精査(be investigated for)をうけたが、診断がつかず(no specific diagnosis was arrived at)。症状は現在も持続。
- ・季節性鼻炎(seasonal rhinitis)
- ・2年前コレステロールを測定したが4.1 mmol/Lであった
- 基準値(HIM A-10)
- 単位：mg/dL (mmol/L)
- desirable: ＜200 (＜5.17)
- borderline high: 200-239 (5.17-6.18)
- high: ≧240 (≧6.21)
- 生活歴：medical secretaryとして働いている。既婚で子供はいない
- 身体所見 examination
- 血圧：102/65 mmHg。脈拍：78/分、整。心音に異常所見はみとめない。左胸部、胸骨左部、乳腺下部に圧痛。呼吸数22/分。肺に異常所見を認めない。左腸骨窩に圧痛。
- 検査所見 investigations
- type I restriction endonuclease、type I restriction enzyme