- (medicine) the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms and their multiplication which can lead to tissue damage and disease
- (phonetics) the alteration of a speech sound under the influence of a neighboring sound
- the pathological state resulting from the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms
- (international law) illegality that taints or contaminates a ship or cargo rendering it liable to seizure
- moral corruption or contamination; "ambitious men are led astray by an infection that is almost unavoidable"
- an incident in which an infectious disease is transmitted (同)contagion, transmission
- an impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning
- of nerves and nerve impulses; conveying sensory information from the sense organs to the CNS; "afferent nerves"; "afferent impulses"
- caused by or altered by or manifesting disease or pathology; "diseased tonsils"; "a morbid growth"; "pathologic tissue"; "pathological bodily processes" (同)morbid, pathologic, pathological
- 〈U〉(病気の)伝染;感染 / 〈C〉伝染病
- (体の)『病気』,疾患 / (精神・道徳などの)病気,病弊
- 女性の話術芸人 =diseur
- 病気にかかった / 病的な,不健全な(morbid)
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- Quantitative and Qualitative Deficits in Neonatal Lung-Migratory Dendritic Cells Impact the Generation of the CD8+ T Cell Response.
- Ruckwardt TJ, Malloy AM, Morabito KM, Graham BS.Author information Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.AbstractCD103+ and CD11b+ populations of CD11c+MHCIIhi murine dendritic cells (DCs) have been shown to carry antigens from the lung through the afferent lymphatics to mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN). We compared the responses of these two DC populations in neonatal and adult mice following intranasal infection with respiratory syncytial virus. The response in neonates was dominated by functionally-limited CD103+ DCs, while CD11b+ DCs were diminished in both number and function compared to adults. Infecting mice at intervals through the first three weeks of life revealed an evolution in DC phenotype and function during early life. Using TCR transgenic T cells with two different specificities to measure the ability of CD103+ DC to induce epitope-specific CD8+ T cell responses, we found that neonatal CD103+ DCs stimulate proliferation in a pattern distinct from adult CD103+ DCs. Blocking CD28-mediated costimulatory signals during adult infection demonstrated that signals from this costimulatory pathway influence the hierarchy of the CD8+ T cell response to RSV, suggesting that limited costimulation provided by neonatal CD103+ DCs is one mechanism whereby neonates generate a distinct CD8+ T cell response from that of adults.
- PLoS pathogens.PLoS Pathog.2014 Feb 13;10(2):e1003934. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003934. eCollection 2014.
- CD103+ and CD11b+ populations of CD11c+MHCIIhi murine dendritic cells (DCs) have been shown to carry antigens from the lung through the afferent lymphatics to mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN). We compared the responses of these two DC populations in neonatal and adult mice following intranasal infectio
- PMID 24550729
- Convective diffusion of nanoparticles from the epithelial barrier toward regional lymph nodes.
- Dukhin SS, Labib ME.Author information Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102, USA; Novaflux Technologies, 1 Wall Street, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA.AbstractDrug delivery using nanoparticles as drug carriers has recently attracted the attention of many investigators. Targeted delivery of nanoparticles to the lymph nodes is especially important to prevent cancer metastasis or infection, and to diagnose disease stage. However, systemic injection of nanoparticles often results in organ toxicity because they reach and accumulate in all the lymph nodes in the body. An attractive strategy would be to deliver the drug-loaded nanoparticles to a subset of draining lymph nodes corresponding to a specific site or organ to minimize systemic toxicity. In this respect, mucosal delivery of nanoparticles to regional draining lymph nodes of a selected site creates a new opportunity to accomplish this task with minimal toxicity. One example is the delivery of nanoparticles from the vaginal lumen to draining lymph nodes to prevent the transmission of HIV in women. Other known examples include mucosal delivery of vaccines to induce immunity. In all cases, molecular and particle transport by means of diffusion and convective diffusion play a major role. The corresponding transport processes have common inherent regularities and are addressed in this review. Here we use nanoparticle delivery from the vaginal lumen to the lymph nodes as an example to address the many aspects of associated transport processes. In this case, nanoparticles penetrate the epithelial barrier and move through the interstitium (tissue) to the initial lymphatics until they finally reach the lymph nodes. Since the movement of interstitial liquid near the epithelial barrier is retarded, nanoparticle transport was found to take place through special foci present in the epithelium. Immediately after nanoparticles emerge from the foci, they move through the interstitium due to diffusion affected by convection (convective diffusion). Specifically, the convective transport of nanoparticles occurs due to their convection together with interstitial fluid through the interstitium toward the initial lymph capillaries. Afterwards, nanoparticles move together with the lymph flow along the initial lymph capillaries and then enter the afferent lymphatics and ultimately reach the lymph node. As the liquid moves through the interstitium toward the initial lymph capillaries due to the axial movement of lymph along the lymphatics, the theory for coupling between lymph flow and concomitant flow through the interstitium is developed to describe this general case. The developed theory is applied to interpret the large uptake of Qdots by lymph nodes during inflammation, which is induced by pre-treating mouse vagina with the surfactant Nonoxynol-9 prior to instilling the Qdots. Inflammation is viewed here to cause broadening of the pores within the interstitium with the concomitant formation of transport channels which function as conduits to transport the nanoparticles to the initial lymph capillaries. We introduced the term "effective channels" to denote those channels which interconnect with foci present in the epithelial barrier and which function to transport nanoparticles to initial lymph capillaries. The time of transport toward the lymph node, predicated by the theory, increases rapidly with increasing the distance y0 between the epithelial barrier and the initial lymph capillaries. Transport time is only a few hours, when y0 is small, about some R (where R is the initial lymph capillary radius), due to the predomination of a rather rapid convection in this case. This transport time to the lymph nodes may be tens of hours (or longer) when y0 is essentially larger and the slow diffusion controls the transport rate in a zone not far from the epithelial barrier, where convection is weak at large y0. Accounting for transport by diffusion only, which is mainly considered in many relevant publications, is not sufficient to explain our nanoparticle uptake kinetics because the possibility of fast transport due to convection is overlooked. Our systematic investigations have revealed that the information about the main transport conditions, namely, y0 and the pore broadening up to the dimension of the interstitial transport channels, is necessary to create the quantitative model of enhanced transport during inflammation with the use of the proposed model as a prerequisite. The modeling for convective diffusion of nanoparticles from the epithelial barrier to the lymph node has been mainly accomplished here, while the diffusion only scenario is accounted for in other studies. This first modeling is a semi-quantitative one. A more rigorous mathematical approach is almost impossible at this stage because the transport properties of the model are introduced here for the first time. These properties include: discovery of foci in the epithelium, formation of transport channels, definition of channels interconnecting with foci (effective foci and channels), generation of flow in the interstitium toward the initial lymph capillaries due to axial flow within afferent lymphatics, deformation of this flow due to hydrodynamic impermeability of the squamous layer with the formation of the hydrodynamic stagnation zone near the epithelial barrier, predomination of slow diffusion transport within the above zone, and predomination of fast convection of nanoparticles near the initial lymph capillaries.
- Advances in colloid and interface science.Adv Colloid Interface Sci.2013 Nov;199-200:23-43. doi: 10.1016/j.cis.2013.06.002. Epub 2013 Jun 10.
- Drug delivery using nanoparticles as drug carriers has recently attracted the attention of many investigators. Targeted delivery of nanoparticles to the lymph nodes is especially important to prevent cancer metastasis or infection, and to diagnose disease stage. However, systemic injection of nanopa
- PMID 23859221
- Full robot-assisted gastrectomy with intracorporeal robot-sewn anastomosis produces satisfying outcomes.
- Liu XX, Jiang ZW, Chen P, Zhao Y, Pan HF, Li JS.Author information Xin-Xin Liu, Ping Chen, Yan Zhao, Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Subei People's Hospital of Jiangsu Province, Yangzhou 225001, Jiangsu Province, China.AbstractAIM: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of full robot-assisted gastrectomy with intracorporeal robot hand-sewn anastomosis in the treatment of gastric cancer.
- World journal of gastroenterology : WJG.World J Gastroenterol.2013 Oct 14;19(38):6427-37. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i38.6427.
- AIM: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of full robot-assisted gastrectomy with intracorporeal robot hand-sewn anastomosis in the treatment of gastric cancer.METHODS: From September 2011 to March 2013, 110 consecutive patients with gastric cancer at the authors' institution were enrolled for rob
- PMID 24151361
- 輸入感染症 Afferent infection disease. 辻 守康 杏林大学医学部寄生虫学 この論文にアクセスする J-STAGE CrossRef この論文をさがす 医中誌Web 収録刊行物 日本内科学会雑誌 日本内科 ...
- 1.1 Afferent Nerves The afferent innervation of the human lower urinary tract arises from neurons located in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) at S2–S4 and T11–L2 spinal segmental levels. Axons in the pelvic and pudendal ...
- afferent infection disease, imported infectious disease
- 旅行者感染症？、輸入伝染病 imported communicable disease
- 疾患：illnessより厳密な概念。「ある臓器に明確な障害が確認され、それによって症状が出ているとはっきり説明できる場合」 (PSY.9)
- 特定の原因、病態生理、症状、経過、予後、病理組織所見が全てそろった場合 (PSY.9)
- something that is very wrong with people's attitudes, way of life or with society.
- ail、ailment、disease entity、disorder、ill、illness、malady、sick、sickness
- disease ≠ illness ≠ disorder
- afferent fiber、afferent fibre、afferent neuron、afferent pathway、afferents、centripetal、concentric、import、importation
- contagion、infect、infectious disease、infestation、transmission、transmit
- afferent、afferent pathway