- more than is needed, desired, or required; "trying to lose excess weight"; "found some extra change lying on the dresser"; "yet another book on heraldry might be thought redundant"; "skills made redundant by technological advance"; "sleeping in the spare room"; "supernumerary ornamentation"; "it was supererogatory of her to gloat"; "delete superfluous (or unnecessary) words"; "extra ribs as well as other supernumerary internal parts"; "surplus cheese distributed to the needy" (同)extra, redundant, spare, supererogatory, superfluous, supernumerary, surplus
- immoderation as a consequence of going beyond sufficient or permitted limits (同)excessiveness, inordinateness
- a quantity much larger than is needed (同)surplus, surplusage, nimiety
- (sports) the score by which a team or individual is losing
- a deficiency or failure in neurological or mental functioning; "the people concerned have a deficit in verbal memory"; "they have serious linguistic deficits"
- an excess of liabilities over assets (usually over a certain period); "last year there was a serious budgetary deficit"
- the property of being an amount by which something is less than expected or required; "new blood vessels bud out from the already dilated vascular bed to make up the nutritional deficit" (同)shortage, shortfall
- beyond normal limits; "excessive charges"; "a book of inordinate length"; "his dress stops just short of undue elegance"; "unreasonable demands" (同)inordinate, undue, unreasonable
- unrestrained, especially with regard to feelings; "extravagant praise"; "exuberant compliments"; "overweening ambition"; "overweening greed" (同)extravagant, exuberant, overweening
- a minor actor in crowd scenes (同)spear carrier, extra
- a person serving no apparent function; "reducing staff is difficult because our employees include no supernumeraries"
- to a degree exceeding normal or proper limits; "too big" (同)overly, to a fault, too
- 余り,余剰 / 剰余金 / 余った,過剰の
- 〈U〉《時にan~》(…の…に対する)超過《+『of』+『名』+『over』+『名』》 / 〈U〉(…の)『不節制』《+『at』+『名,』+『in』 do『ing』》;《複数形で》度を超えた行為,不行跡;暴飲,暴食 / 超過の,余分の
- 定数(員)以上の,余分な(extra);臨時の / 端役の / 定員外の人,過剰物;臨時雇い / (演劇の)端役
全文を閲覧するには購読必要です。 To read the full text you will need to subscribe.
- [Congenital adrenal hyperplasia in girls/young women.]
- Krege S.Author information Klinik für Urologie und Kinderurologie, Alexianer Krankenhaus Maria Hilf GmbH, Dießemer Bruch 81, 47805, Krefeld, Deutschland, firstname.lastname@example.org.AbstractBACKGROUND: With a mean global incidence of 1:14500, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is the most common disorder of sexual differentiation (DSD). In case of female karyotype, the prenatal surplus of androgens causes virilization of the external genitalia. This includes clitoral hypertrophy and an increasing higher confluence of the urethra and normal developed proximal vagina, creating the urogenital sinus. Internal genitalia are female.
- Der Urologe. Ausg. A.Urologe A.2014 Feb 6. [Epub ahead of print]
- BACKGROUND: With a mean global incidence of 1:14500, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is the most common disorder of sexual differentiation (DSD). In case of female karyotype, the prenatal surplus of androgens causes virilization of the external genitalia. This includes clitoral hypertrophy and
- PMID 24496874
- When health policy and empirical evidence collide: the case of cigarette package warning labels and economic consumer surplus.
- Song AV, Brown P, Glantz SA.Author information Anna Song is with Health Psychology, Psychological Sciences, University of California Merced, Merced. Paul Brown is with the Health Sciences Research Institute, University of California, Merced. Stanton A. Glantz is with the Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education and the Philip R. Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies, University of California, San Francisco.AbstractIn its graphic warning label regulations on cigarette packages, the Food and Drug Administration severely discounts the benefits of reduced smoking because of the lost "pleasure" smokers experience when they stop smoking; this is quantified as lost "consumer surplus." Consumer surplus is grounded in rational choice theory. However, empirical evidence from psychological cognitive science and behavioral economics demonstrates that the assumptions of rational choice are inconsistent with complex multidimensional decisions, particularly smoking. Rational choice does not account for the roles of emotions, misperceptions, optimistic bias, regret, and cognitive inefficiency that are germane to smoking, particularly because most smokers begin smoking in their youth. Continued application of a consumer surplus discount will undermine sensible policies to reduce tobacco use and other policies to promote public health.
- American journal of public health.Am J Public Health.2014 Feb;104(2):e42-51. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2013.301737. Epub 2013 Dec 12.
- In its graphic warning label regulations on cigarette packages, the Food and Drug Administration severely discounts the benefits of reduced smoking because of the lost "pleasure" smokers experience when they stop smoking; this is quantified as lost "consumer surplus." Consumer surplus is grounded in
- PMID 24328661
- Brominated flame retardant concentrations in sera from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) from 2007 to 2009.
- Rawn DF1, Ryan JJ2, Sadler AR2, Sun WF2, Weber D2, Laffey P3, Haines D4, Macey K4, Van Oostdam J4.Author information 1Food Research Division, Bureau of Chemical Safety, Health Products and Food Branch, Health Canada, Sir Frederick Banting Research Centre, 251 Sir Frederick Banting Driveway, Address Locator: 2203C, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, ON K1A 0K9, Canada. Electronic address: email@example.comFood Research Division, Bureau of Chemical Safety, Health Products and Food Branch, Health Canada, Sir Frederick Banting Research Centre, 251 Sir Frederick Banting Driveway, Address Locator: 2203C, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, ON K1A 0K9, Canada.3Biostatistics and Modelling Division, Bureau of Food Surveillance and Science Integration, Health Products and Foods Branch, Health Canada, Sir Frederick Banting Research Centre, 251 Sir Frederick Banting Driveway, Address Locator: 2204D, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, ON K1A 0K9, Canada.4Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Avenue West, Address Locator: 4908D, Ottawa, ON K1A 0K9, Canada.AbstractPooling of surplus serum from individual samples, collected between 2007 and 2009 during Cycle 1 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS), was performed to develop a national baseline estimate of brominated flame retardants in Canadians. Serum samples were categorized by sex and distributed by five age groups ranging from 6 to 79years. Nearly 5000 (4583) serum samples were used to form 59 composite pools. Serum pools were created to ensure a high detection frequency of these analytes in serum because low volume samples had previously resulted in non-detectable concentrations. The analytes of interest in these serum pools included 23 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and three hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) isomers (α-, β- and γ-HBCD). PBDEs were observed in all samples tested and total PBDE concentrations ranged from 27ngg(-1) lipid to 130ngg(-1) lipid (geometric mean [GM] 46ngg(-1) lipid). ∑PBDE concentrations were significantly elevated in samples representing the 6-11year old age group (GM 65ngg(-1) lipid) relative to ages above 40years, although no difference in concentration was observed between the sexes. PBDE concentrations in Canadian sera from the general population were higher than reported in Europe and Asia, but a little lower than observed in the US. PBDE 47 was the greatest contributor to ∑PBDE concentrations and the GM concentration for this congener was 22ngg(-1) lipid. The other dominant contributors to ∑PBDE concentrations were in descending order: 153 [GM 9.4ngg(-1) lipid]>99 [GM 4.6ngg(-1) lipid]≅100 [GM 4.1ngg(-1) lipid]>209 [GM 1.1ngg(-1) lipid] and 183 [GM 0.42ngg(-1) lipid]. ∑HBCD was detected in all samples analysed, although most samples were observed at concentrations <1ngg(-1) lipid, similar to global concentrations. α-HBCD was the dominant contributor to ∑HBCD concentrations in Canadians although β- and γ-HBCD were detected in 23% and 35% of the samples, respectively. No differences in ∑HBCD concentration were associated with age or sex. This dataset represents the first national data describing HBCD isomers and some PBDEs (e.g., 183, 209) in Canadians.
- Environment international.Environ Int.2014 Feb;63:26-34. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2013.10.012. Epub 2013 Nov 16.
- Pooling of surplus serum from individual samples, collected between 2007 and 2009 during Cycle 1 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS), was performed to develop a national baseline estimate of brominated flame retardants in Canadians. Serum samples were categorized by sex and distributed by
- PMID 24246239
- 藤田 幸一/遠藤 環/岡本 郁子/中西 嘉宏/山田 美和
- 東南アジア研究 50(2), 157-210, 2013-01-31
- … Based on recent household-level surveys on Myanmar migrants in Ranong,southern Thailand, we delineate their work and living conditions-how they work hard for wages lowerthan the minimum wage that leave them with no surplus for remitting to their home country yet a largeamount of debt, as well as the harassment and abuse they suffer in the hands of Thai government officials,etc. …
- NAID 110009525892
- ? 永珍,矢向 正人,内田 遼,竹田 仰
- 情報処理学会研究報告. [音楽情報科学] 2012-MUS-97(13), 1-6, 2012-12-14
- 杖鼓の打奏時の前動作のうち音色の生成に直接に関与しない余剰動作について,加速度・角速度センサ,スペクトルグラム, FFT を用いて分析を試みた.また,これらの動作の意味について,韓国音楽のリズム体系である長短との対応を調べた.分析の結果,これらの余剰動作が,音楽のアクセントとは別に,身体のリズムを作るはたらきを持つことが示唆された.
- NAID 110009493060
- 太陽光発電出力の網羅的予測シナリオに基づく蓄電池の最適運用 (新エネルギー・環境 メタボリズム社会・環境システム 合同研究会 再生可能エネルギーの発電予測とシステム技術)
- 谷口 剛,八森 勉,丹所 良二 [他]
- 電気学会研究会資料. MES 2012(9-21・23), 77-82, 2012-11-21
- NAID 40019501069
- USシアトルのブランド「MAIDEN NOIR」及び「BLKPINE WORKSHOP」を取り扱う日本 正規代理店のオフィシャルオンラインストア。
- agenesis, dearth, defect, defective, deficiency, deficient, deletion, deletional, depletion, deprivation, deprive, drawback, fault, flaw, in short, insufficiency, insufficient, lack, miss, missing, paucity, scarce, scarcity, short, shortage, shortness, starve