- place signs, as along a road; "sign an intersection"; "This road has been signed"
- (medicine) any objective evidence of the presence of a disorder or disease; "there were no signs of asphyxiation"
- a perceptible indication of something not immediately apparent (as a visible clue that something has happened); "he showed signs of strain"; "they welcomed the signs of spring" (同)mark
- a character indicating a relation between quantities; "dont forget the minus sign"
- a fundamental linguistic unit linking a signifier to that which is signified; "The bond between the signifier and the signified is arbitrary"--de Saussure
- a gesture that is part of a sign language
- a public display of a message; "he posted signs in all the shop windows"
- engage by written agreement; "They signed two new pitchers for the next season" (同)contract, sign on, sign_up
- approve and express assent, responsibility, or obligation; "All parties ratified the peace treaty"; "Have you signed your contract yet?" (同)ratify
- communicate silently and non-verbally by signals or signs; "He signed his disapproval with a dismissive hand gesture"; "The diner signaled the waiters to bring the menu" (同)signal, signalize, signalise
- mark with ones signature; write ones name (on); "She signed the letter and sent it off"; "Please sign here" (同)subscribe
- be engaged by a written agreement; "He signed to play the casino on Dec. 18"; "The soprano signed to sing the new opera"
- communicate in sign language; "I dont know how to sign, so I could not communicate with my deaf cousin"
- notably out of the ordinary; "the year saw one signal triumph for the Labour party"
- an electric quantity (voltage or current or field strength) whose modulation represents coded information about the source from which it comes
- any nonverbal action or gesture that encodes a message; "signals from the boat suddenly stopped" (同)signaling, sign
- any incitement to action; "he awaited the signal to start"; "the victory was a signal for wild celebration"
- of or relating to or constituting the nucleus of an atom; "nuclear physics"; "nuclear fission"; "nuclear forces"
- (weapons) deriving destructive energy from the release of atomic energy; "nuclear war"; "nuclear weapons"; "atomic bombs" (同)atomic
- constituting or like a nucleus; "annexation of the suburban fringe by the nuclear metropolis"; "the nuclear core of the congregation"
- of or relating to or constituting the nucleus of a cell; "nuclear membrane"; "nuclear division"
- a determination of the place where something is; "he got a good fix on the target" (同)localisation, location, locating, fix
- (ある事実・状態・感情などの)『表れ』,印,気配,徴侯(indication);(…の)こん跡,計跡《+『of』+『名』》・『身ぶり』,手まね,合図 / 『標識』,看板 / (数学・音楽などの)記号 / (…の)『象徴』,シンボル(symbol)《+『of』+『名』》・《文》(…の)『前兆』,きざし《+『of』+『名』》・宮(きゅう)(黄道12区分の一つ) ・〈手紙・書類・作品など〉‘に'『署名する』・(…に)〈名前など〉‘を'書く《+『名』+『on』(『to』)+『名』》 / …‘を'雇う契約に署名する・…‘を'合図する,知らせる;…に合図する・署名する・契約書に署名して雇われる
- (警告・指示・情報などを伝える)『信号』,合図 / (…の)きっかけ,動機,導火線《+『for』+『名』》 / 〈人・車など〉‘に'『合図する』,信号を送る / …‘を'『合図』(信号)『で知らせる』 / 『合図する』,信号する / 合図の,信号の / めざましい,顕著な
- 『核の』,細胞核の / [『原子』]『核の』
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- Differential expression of nasal embryonic LHRH factor (NELF) variants in immortalized GnRH neuronal cell lines.
- Quaynor SD1, Goldberg LY2, Ko EK1, Stanley RK3, Demir D4, Kim HG1, Chorich LP1, Cameron RS5, Layman LC6.Author information 1Section of Reproductive Endocrinology, Infertility, & Genetics, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology; Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics; Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0284, USA.3Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, IN 46556, USA.4Department of Medical Biology and Genetics, Akdeniz University, Antalya 07058, Turkey.5Department of Medicine; Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics; Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.6Section of Reproductive Endocrinology, Infertility, & Genetics, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology; Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics; Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.AbstractNELF, a protein identified in migratory GnRH neurons, is predominantly nuclear and alternatively spliced. However, specific NELF splice variants expressed in immortalized GnRH neuronal cell lines from mouse and human are not known. RNA from migratory (GN11 and NLT) and postmigratory (GT1-7) cells in mouse, and (FNCB4-hTERT) cells in human was subjected to RT-PCR. RT-PCR products were cloned, electrophoresed on denaturing gradient gels and sequenced. In addition, quantitative RT-PCR was performed using variant-specific primers. Western blot and immunofluorescence using confocal microscopy were performed for selected variants. Nelf variant 2 (v2), which contains a nuclear localization signal (NLS), was the predominant variant in all mouse and human GnRH neurons. Variants without a NLS (v3 in mouse; v4 in human) were identified. In mouse, v2 protein expression was nuclear, while v3 was non-nuclear. In mouse GnRH neurons, six Nelf splice variant transcripts were identified, including three previously unreported variants. In human, four NELF variant transcripts were observed. In both mouse and human, nuclear and non-nuclear variant transcript and protein were identified, explaining variable NELF cellular localization.
- Molecular and cellular endocrinology.Mol Cell Endocrinol.2014 Mar 5;383(1-2):32-7. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2013.11.020. Epub 2013 Dec 4.
- NELF, a protein identified in migratory GnRH neurons, is predominantly nuclear and alternatively spliced. However, specific NELF splice variants expressed in immortalized GnRH neuronal cell lines from mouse and human are not known. RNA from migratory (GN11 and NLT) and postmigratory (GT1-7) cells in
- PMID 24316376
- Unraveling galectin-1 as a novel therapeutic target for cancer.
- Astorgues-Xerri L, Riveiro ME, Tijeras-Raballand A, Serova M, Neuzillet C, Albert S, Raymond E, Faivre S.Author information Oncology Therapeutic Development, 100 rue Martre, 92110 Clichy, France. Electronic address: email@example.com.AbstractGalectins belong to a family of carbohydrate-binding proteins with an affinity for β-galactosides. Galectin-1 is differentially expressed by various normal and pathologic tissues and displays a wide range of biological activities. In oncology, galectin-1 plays a pivotal role in tumor growth and in the multistep process of invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Evidence indicates that galectin-1 exerts a variety of functions at different steps of tumor progression. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that galectin-1 cellular localization and galectin-1 binding partners depend on tumor localization and stage. Recently, galectin-1 overexpression has been extensively documented in several tumor types and/or in the stroma of cancer cells. Its expression is thought to reflect tumor aggressiveness in several tumor types. Galectin-1 has been identified as a promising drug target using synthetic and natural inhibitors. Preclinical data suggest that galectin-1 inhibition may lead to direct antiproliferative effects in cancer cells as well as antiangiogenic effects in tumors. We provide an up-to-date overview of available data on the role of galectin-1 in different molecular and biochemical pathways involved in human malignancies. One of the major challenges faced in targeting galectin-1 is the translation of current knowledge into the design and development of effective galectin-1 inhibitors in cancer therapy.
- Cancer treatment reviews.Cancer Treat Rev.2014 Mar;40(2):307-19. doi: 10.1016/j.ctrv.2013.07.007. Epub 2013 Aug 1.
- Galectins belong to a family of carbohydrate-binding proteins with an affinity for β-galactosides. Galectin-1 is differentially expressed by various normal and pathologic tissues and displays a wide range of biological activities. In oncology, galectin-1 plays a pivotal role in tumor growth and in
- PMID 23953240
- Granzyme M targets topoisomerase II alpha to trigger cell cycle arrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis.
- de Poot SA1, Lai KW1, van der Wal L1, Plasman K2, Van Damme P2, Porter AC3, Gevaert K2, Bovenschen N4.Author information 1Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.21] Department of Medical Protein Research,VIB, Ghent, B-9000, Belgium  Department of Biochemistry, Ghent University, Ghent B-9000, Belgium.3Centre for Haematology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK.41] Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands  Laboratory for Translational Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.AbstractCytotoxic lymphocyte protease granzyme M (GrM) is a potent inducer of tumor cell death. The apoptotic phenotype and mechanism by which it induces cell death, however, remain poorly understood and controversial. Here, we show that GrM-induced cell death was largely caspase-dependent with various hallmarks of classical apoptosis, coinciding with caspase-independent G2/M cell cycle arrest. Using positional proteomics in human tumor cells, we identified the nuclear enzyme topoisomerase II alpha (topoIIα) as a physiological substrate of GrM. Cleavage of topoIIα by GrM at Leu(1280) separated topoIIα functional domains from the nuclear localization signals, leading to nuclear exit of topoIIα catalytic activity, thereby rendering it nonfunctional. Similar to the apoptotic phenotype of GrM, topoIIα depletion in tumor cells led to cell cycle arrest in G2/M, mitochondrial perturbations, caspase activation, and apoptosis. We conclude that cytotoxic lymphocyte protease GrM targets topoIIα to trigger cell cycle arrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis.
- Cell death and differentiation.Cell Death Differ.2014 Mar;21(3):416-26. doi: 10.1038/cdd.2013.155. Epub 2013 Nov 1.
- Cytotoxic lymphocyte protease granzyme M (GrM) is a potent inducer of tumor cell death. The apoptotic phenotype and mechanism by which it induces cell death, however, remain poorly understood and controversial. Here, we show that GrM-induced cell death was largely caspase-dependent with various hall
- PMID 24185622
- Localization of Daucus carota NMCP1 to the nuclear periphery: the role of the N-terminal region and an NLS-linked sequence motif, RYNLRR, in the tail domain
- Kimura Yuta,Fujino Kaien,Ogawa Kana,Masuda Kiyoshi
- Frontiers in plant science 5, 2014-02-26
- … Recent ultrastructural studies revealed that a structure similar to the vertebrate nuclear lamina exists in the nuclei of higher plants. … However, plant genomes lack genes for lamins and intermediate-type filament proteins, and this suggests that plant-specific nuclear coiled-coil proteins make up the lamina-like structure in plants. … NMCP1 is a protein, first identified in Daucus carota cells, that localizes exclusively to the nuclear periphery in interphase cells. …
- NAID 120005425330
- The longer version of Arabidopsis thaliana heat shock protein 18.2 gene terminator contributes to higher expression of stably integrated transgenes in cultured tobacco cells
- Matsui Takeshi,Sawada Kazutoshi,Takita Eiji,Kato Ko
- Plant Biotechnology 31(2), 191-194, 2014
- … In order to achieve higher expression of a transgene, it is important to optimize not only the promoter, 5′-untranslated region (UTR), and localization signal, but also the transcriptional terminator. … This element represents a useful tool for expression of transgenes integrated into the nuclear genome in plant cells. …
- NAID 130003391369
- High resolution LFMCW radar system using model-based beat frequency estimation in cable fault localization
- Lee Chun Ku,Park Jin Bae,Shin Yong-June,Yoon Tae Sung
- IEICE Electronics Express 11(1), 20130768-20130768, 2014
- … A linear frequency modulated continuous wave (LFMCW) radar is introduced to localize the impedance discontinuities on the instrument cable used in nuclear plants. … For localizing impedance discontinuities, time delays between the incident signal and the reflected signals from the impedance discontinuities have to be measured. …
- NAID 130003383528
- cNLS Mapper Prediction of importin α-dependent nuclear localization signals About cNLS Mapper NLS & NES References Input or paste a single amino acid sequence in the box below: (characters except alphabet are ignored) ...
- NLS, nuclear localization signal 核移行シグナル（NLS）とは，細胞内で合成され核に移送されるべきタンパク質の1次構造中に存在する，塩基性アミノ酸のリジンとアルギニン残基が数個集まった領域のことである．ポリペプチド鎖の端ではなく ...
- nuclear localization signal
- nuclear transport signal
- 核局在化シグナル 核極在化シグナル nuclear localization signal、NLS
- nuclear localization signal
- nuclear localization signal
- cell nuclei、cell nucleus、nuclei、nucleo、nucleus
- signal transduction、signalling
- nuclear translocation、nuclear transport