inhalation alanesthetic agent

吸入麻酔薬

WordNet

  1. a substance that exerts some force or effect
  2. a businessman who buys or sells for another in exchange for a commission (同)factor, broker
  3. any agent or representative of a federal agency or bureau (同)federal agent
  4. a representative who acts on behalf of other persons or organizations
  5. an active and efficient cause; capable of producing a certain effect; "their research uncovered new disease agents"
  6. how long something has existed; "it was replaced because of its age"
  7. a time of life (usually defined in years) at which some particular qualification or power arises; "she was now of school age"; "tall for his eld" (同)eld
  8. begin to seem older; get older; "The death of his wife caused him to age fast"
  9. make older; "The death of his child aged him tremendously"
  10. the act of inhaling; the drawing in of air (or other gases) as in breathing (同)inspiration, aspiration, intake, breathing in

PrepTutorEJDIC

  1. 『代理人』;周旋人 / 働き(作用)を起こすもの;作用物,薬剤 / (政府機関,特にFBI,CIAなどの)部員,機関員
  2. 〈U〉(一般に)『年齢』,寿命;〈C〉(個々の)『年齢』,年 / 〈U〉成年(おとなとしての資格・権利を得る年齢;通例18または21歳) / 〈U〉『老齢』;《集合的に》老人たち / 〈U〉(人生の)『一時期』;〈C〉世代(generation) / 〈U〉〈C〉《しばしばA-》(歴史上の)『時代』 / 〈C〉《話》長い間 / 年をとる,ふける;〈物が〉古くなる / 〈年〉'を'とらせる;〈物〉'を'古びさせる
  3. 吸入;〈C〉吸入剤

UpToDate Contents

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English Journal

  • The use of a double-lumen central venous catheter for airway management in pediatric patients undergoing laryngeal papillomatosis surgery.
  • Zhu ZR, Hu ZY, Jiang YL, Xu LL, McQuillan PM.Author information Department of Anesthesiology, The Children's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.AbstractPURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a spontaneous ventilation anesthesia technique with insufflation of oxygen and volatile agent through a double-lumen central venous catheter (DLCVC) in pediatric patients undergoing suspension laryngoscopic surgery for laryngeal papillomatosis.
  • Paediatric anaesthesia.Paediatr Anaesth.2014 Feb;24(2):157-63. doi: 10.1111/pan.12253. Epub 2013 Aug 19.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a spontaneous ventilation anesthesia technique with insufflation of oxygen and volatile agent through a double-lumen central venous catheter (DLCVC) in pediatric patients undergoing suspension laryngoscopic surgery for laryngeal papillomatosis.METHODS:
  • PMID 24033557
  • A critical role of acute bronchoconstriction in the mortality associated with high-dose sarin inhalation: Effects of epinephrine and oxygen therapies.
  • Gundavarapu S1, Zhuang J1, Barrett EG1, Xu F1, Russell RG1, Sopori ML2.Author information 1Immunology Division, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM, USA.2Immunology Division, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM, USA. Electronic address: msopori@lrri.org.AbstractSarin is an organophosphate nerve agent that is among the most lethal chemical toxins known to mankind. Because of its vaporization properties and ease and low cost of production, sarin is the nerve agent with a strong potential for use by terrorists and rouge nations. The primary route of sarin exposure is through inhalation and, depending on the dose, sarin leads to acute respiratory failure and death. The mechanism(s) of sarin-induced respiratory failure is poorly understood. Sarin irreversibly inhibits acetylcholine esterase, leading to excessive synaptic levels of acetylcholine and, we have previously shown that sarin causes marked ventilatory changes including weakened response to hypoxia. We now show that LD50 sarin inhalation causes severe bronchoconstriction in rats, leading to airway resistance, increased hypoxia-induced factor-1α, and severe lung epithelium injury. Transferring animals into 60% oxygen chambers after sarin exposure improved the survival from about 50% to 75% at 24h; however, many animals died within hours after removal from the oxygen chambers. On the other hand, if LD50 sarin-exposed animals were administered the bronchodilator epinephrine, >90% of the animals survived. Moreover, while both epinephrine and oxygen treatments moderated cardiorespiratory parameters, the proinflammatory cytokine surge, and elevated expression of hypoxia-induced factor-1α, only epinephrine consistently reduced the sarin-induced bronchoconstriction. These data suggest that severe bronchoconstriction is a critical factor in the mortality induced by LD50 sarin inhalation, and epinephrine may limit the ventilatory, inflammatory, and lethal effects of sarin.
  • Toxicology and applied pharmacology.Toxicol Appl Pharmacol.2014 Jan 15;274(2):200-8. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2013.11.007. Epub 2013 Nov 19.
  • Sarin is an organophosphate nerve agent that is among the most lethal chemical toxins known to mankind. Because of its vaporization properties and ease and low cost of production, sarin is the nerve agent with a strong potential for use by terrorists and rouge nations. The primary route of sarin exp
  • PMID 24269878
  • Inhalable microspheres embedding chitosan-coated PLGA nanoparticles for 2-methoxyestradiol.
  • Guo X, Zhang X, Ye L, Zhang Y, Ding R, Hao Y, Zhao Y, Zhang Z, Zhang Y.Author information School of Pharmacy, Zhengzhou University , Zhengzhou , People's Republic of China.AbstractAbstract Developing a highly effective and lung-targeted local drug delivery carrier with low irritancy may be critical for improving treatment of lung cancer. Using soluble excipients as microspheres (MS) matrix, respirable MS embedding chitosan-coated poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (CNP-MS) for 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME) were designed, which could avoid macrophage phagocytosis to achieve the targeted delivery of these drugs. 2-ME CNP-MS were prepared by spray-drying and characterized by morphology, redispersability, fine particle fraction (FPF) and drug release. Cytotoxicity, and lung deposition and histological examination were investigated. Results showed that 2-ME CNP-MS were spherical with a rough surfaces, exhibiting good redispersability, a high respirable fraction and sustained release characteristics. CNP-MS markedly enhanced the cytotoxicity of 2-ME by approximately 8.8-fold and 3.65-fold on SPC-A1 cells compared to solution and NP, respectively. After pulmonary administration, 2-ME CNP were distributed in rat lungs and for 10 mg of 2-ME CNP-MS, haematoxylin and eosin staining showed no obvious difference compared to the untreated control group. Therefore, CNP-MS revealed suitable features for local lung delivery and significantly enhanced cytotoxicity of 2-ME without obvious inflammation in lungs of rats, suggesting that 2-ME CNP-MS have great potential as an inhalation agent for targeted, highly effective and safe treatment of lung cancer.
  • Journal of drug targeting.J Drug Target.2014 Jan 13. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Abstract Developing a highly effective and lung-targeted local drug delivery carrier with low irritancy may be critical for improving treatment of lung cancer. Using soluble excipients as microspheres (MS) matrix, respirable MS embedding chitosan-coated poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (
  • PMID 24417740

★リンクテーブル★
リンク元吸入麻酔薬
関連記事agent」「age

吸入麻酔薬」

  [★]

inhalation alanesthetic agent, inhaled anesthetic
ガス吸入麻酔薬ガス麻酔薬
薬理学全身麻酔薬


吸入麻酔薬の身体影響

YN.M7 SAN.40
  • 中枢神経系:意識消失、酸素消費量減少、脳血管拡張、頭蓋内圧上昇、(亜酸化窒素のみ)鎮痛作用
  • 呼吸器系:用量依存的にコキュを抑制、一回換気量減少、呼吸回数増加、気管拡張作用、線毛運動抑制、気道分泌抑制、低酸素性肺血管収縮抑制
  • 循環器系:用量依存的に血圧低下(血管拡張or心筋抑制)、内臓血流減少、脳・筋肉・皮膚血流増加
  • 筋肉:(揮発性吸入麻酔薬のみ)

吸入麻酔薬

SAN.39
化合物名 分子式 小さいほど強力 小さいほど効きが早い 特徴 麻酔に必要な条件      
MAC 血液ガス分配係数 意識消失 鎮痛 筋弛緩 反射抑制
笑気 N2O 101 0.47
  • 支燃性
  • 体内閉鎖腔膨張
△ 低MAC ×
イソフルラン F3C-CH(Cl)-O-CHF 1.15 1.48
  • 生体内分解0.2%
×
セボフルラン FH2C-O-CH(CF3)2 1.71 0.63
  • 小児麻酔によい
  • 生体内分解3%
×
ハロタン F3C-CHClBr 0.76 2.3
  • 肝障害(3万例に1例)
  • アドレナリン感受性↑(不整脈リスク)
  • 生体内分解20%
×

麻酔薬と脳に及ぼす影響

参考4
  脳血流 脳代謝量 頭蓋内圧 CO2反応性 自己調節能
静脈麻酔薬 プロポフォール ↓↓
バルビツレート
フェンタニル →↓ →↓ →↓
レミフェンタニル →↓ →↓ →↓
ケタミン →↑ →↑ →↑
吸入麻酔薬 セボフルラン →↑ →↑ →↓
イソフルラン →↑ →↑
ハロタン ↑↑
亜酸化窒素 →↑ →↑ →↑ →↓

参考

  • 1.
[display]http://www.geocities.co.jp/Colosseum-Acropolis/6786/Inhaled.html
  • 2.
[display]http://www.med.akita-u.ac.jp/~doubutu/ouu/Inhalation.html
  • 3. 講義資料?
[display]http://www.shinshu-masui.jp/information/2011/06/22/%E5%90%B8%E5%85%A5%E9%BA%BB%E9%85%94%E8%96%AC%E3%81%AE%E8%96%AC%E7%90%86.pdf
  • 4.
[display]http://www.shinshu-masui.jp/information/2010/05/26/%E5%90%B8%E5%85%A5%E9%BA%BB%E9%85%94%E8%96%AC.pdf

agent」

  [★]

  • n.
  • 代行者、代理人。代理業者
  • 政府職員、官吏
  • ある後位をする人、ある作用をするもの。動員、動力因、作用因。(文法)動作主。科学的変化を起こさせるもの、薬品、~剤。病原体
agonistagonisticattorneydelegatedrugetiologic agentfomesfomitesmediatorpathogenpathogenicpharmaceutical preparationvectorvehicle

           

age」

  [★]

  • n.
  • v.
  • 加齢する、熟成する
agedageingagingyear old