- (usually plural) a fragment scraped off of something and collected; "they collected blood scrapings for analysis"
- erosion by friction (同)attrition, corrasion, detrition
- an abraded area where the skin is torn or worn off (同)scratch, scrape, excoriation
- 〈U〉かく(こする)こと;削ること / 《複数形で》(削った,かき取った)くず,ごみ
- 〈C〉すり傷 / 〈U〉すりむくこと,摩滅
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- 1. 皮膚の手技 dermatologic procedures
- 2. 胸部子宮内膜症：病因、疫学、および病理 thoracic endometriosis pathogenesis epidemiology and pathology
- 3. 頭部白癬 tinea capitis
- 4. 疥癬 scabies
- 5. 紅色陰癬 erythrasma
- The macrophage and HIV: basic concepts and methodologies.
- Gartner S.Author information Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.AbstractAlong with CD4+ T-lymphocytes, macrophage lineage cells serve as primary hosts for HIV replication in vivo. In some tissues such as brain, where T-cell infection is essentially absent, the development of HIV-associated disease is mediated through infection of macrophages. This fact underscores the importance of experimental methods that yield results and conclusions that accurately reflect the mechanisms operational in vivo. Unfortunately, our understanding of key aspects of HIV-macrophage interactions, most notably, features of viral entry, replication, latency and persistence, lags behind that of T-cell infection. While some questions are best approached by direct examination of patient specimens using methods such as immunohistochemistry and phylogenetics, experiments based on HIV infection of macrophages in vitro can, necessarily, identify and elucidate the events, molecular mechanisms, and pathological consequences associated with this infection. In addition, macrophage culture methods can provide for the isolation of infectious HIV from patient blood monocytes and tissue macrophages, as well as subsequent continued propagation of these isolates in their host cell of origin. Maintenance of the host cell pedigree limits the possibility of alteration of viral properties such as chemokine coreceptor usage that may then no longer reflect the situation in vivo. This chapter focuses on HIV infection of macrophages. We describe methods for the cultivation of human blood monocyte-derived macrophages, their infection with HIV and subsequent maintenance, and the isolation of infectious HIV from them. Also included is a protocol using accutase for macrophage detachment. Accutase is a relatively new dissociation medium, used primarily in stem cell research. In our laboratory, it has far out-performed all other methods by providing for the gentle, yet thorough, detachment of macrophages without the need for scraping, and without loss of surface antigens or viability.
- Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.).Methods Mol Biol.2014;1087:207-20. doi: 10.1007/978-1-62703-670-2_17.
- Along with CD4+ T-lymphocytes, macrophage lineage cells serve as primary hosts for HIV replication in vivo. In some tissues such as brain, where T-cell infection is essentially absent, the development of HIV-associated disease is mediated through infection of macrophages. This fact underscores the i
- PMID 24158825
- The role of in vivo confocal microscopy in the diagnosis of hidden corneal foreign bodies.
- Xu Z, Yu X, Li Z, Wang L.Author information Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China.AbstractOBJECTIVE: To investigate in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) to diagnose hidden corneal foreign bodies.
- The Journal of international medical research.J Int Med Res.2013 Dec 4. [Epub ahead of print]
- OBJECTIVE: To investigate in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) to diagnose hidden corneal foreign bodies.METHODS: Male Kunming mice (n = 25; 12 weeks old) were anaesthetized prior to the insertion of five different materials (spiny wood, rusty iron, sharp stone, sharp glass fragment and human hai
- PMID 24304926
- Polymerization Shrinkage and Depth of Cure of Bulk Fill Flowable Composite Resins.
- Garcia D, Yaman P, Dennison J, Neiva G.AbstractSUMMARY Objective : To evaluate polymerization shrinkage and depth of cure of two bulk fill flowable composites, one nanohybrid composite modified to a flowable consistency, and one standard flowable composite, comparing the scraping method to the Knoop hardness test. Methods : Two bulk fill flowable composites, SureFil SDR flow (SSF) (Dentsply) and Venus Bulk Fill (VBF) (Heraeus Kulzer), one standard flowable, Filtek Supreme Ultra Flowable (FSUF) (3M/ESPE) (control), and one regular bulk composite that can be made flowable, SonicFill (SF) (Kerr), were used in this study. For polymerization shrinkage (PS), ten 2-mm samples were made for each composite and cured for 20 seconds and shrinkage was measured with a Kaman linometer. For hardness, ten specimens of each composite were made in a 10 × 10-mm mold and cured for 20 seconds; the bottom surface was scraped according to ISO 4049 specification, and the remaining thickness was measured with a micrometer. Hardness samples were prepared at 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-mm thick ×14-mm diameter, cured for 20 seconds, and polished. After 24 hours of dry storage, a Knoop indenter was applied at 100 g load for 11 seconds. Three readings were made on the top and bottom of each specimen and averaged for each surface to calculate a Knoop hardness value and a bottom/top hardness ratio. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests were used to determine significant differences between thicknesses and between test methods for each material. Results : PS values were 3.43 ± 0.51%, 3.57 ± 0.63%, 4.4 ± 0.79%, and 1.76 ± 0.53% for FSUF, SSF, VBF, and SF, respectively. VBF showed significantly greater shrinkage (4.4 ± 0.79%), followed by FSUF (3.43 ± 0.51%) and SSF (3.57 ± 0.63%), which were similar, and SF (1.76 ± 0.53%), which had significantly less shrinkage (p<0.05). Values for the scraping method for depth of cure were significantly greater for SSF and VBF (>5.0 mm), followed by SF (3.46 ± 0.16 mm) and FSU (2.98 ± 0.22 mm). Knoop top hardness values (KHN) were: VBF 21.55 ± 2.39, FSUF 44.62 ± 1.93, SSF 29.17 ± 0.76, and SF 72.56 ± 2.4 at 2 mm and were not significantly different at 3-, 4-, and 5-mm thick within each material. Ratios for bottom/top values (depth of cure) for 2, 3, 4, and 5 mm were: VBF 0.80 ± 0.1, 0.78 ± 0.03, 0.67 ± 0.10, and 0.59 ± 0.07, respectively; SSF 0.74 ± 0.08, 0.72 ± 0.08, 0.69 ± 0.18, and 0.62 ± 0.08, respectively; SF 0.82 ± 0.05, 0.68 ± 0.05, 0.47 ± 0.04, and 0.21 ± 0.02, respectively; and FSUF 0.56 ± 0.08 at 2 mm and 0.40 ± 0.08 at 3 mm. The bottom/top ratio was .80 or less at all depths and decreased below 0.70 at 4-mm depth for VBF and SSF, at 3 mm for SF and at 2 mm for FSUF.
- Operative dentistry.Oper Dent.2013 Dec 4. [Epub ahead of print]
- SUMMARY Objective : To evaluate polymerization shrinkage and depth of cure of two bulk fill flowable composites, one nanohybrid composite modified to a flowable consistency, and one standard flowable composite, comparing the scraping method to the Knoop hardness test. Methods : Two bulk fill flowabl
- PMID 24304339
- The Selection of Peritoneal Mesothelial Cells Is Important for Cell Therapy to Prevent Peritoneal Fibrosis.
- Kitamura S, Horimoto N, Tsuji K, Inoue A, Takiue K, Sugiyama H, Makino H.Author information Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences , Okayama, Japan .AbstractLong-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) causes chronic peritoneal damage. Peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMCs) play an important role in peritoneal function. We investigated the possibility of cell therapy using the PMCs to prevent peritoneal damage in PD patients. We harvested human PMCs from the PD effluent of PD patients. The PMCs were separated based on morphological characteristics into epithelial-like (Epi) cells and fibroblast-like (Fib) cells by the limiting dilution method. We transplanted these cells into nude mice whose parietal and visceral peritoneum were scratched by mechanical scraping. The transplanted cells were detected at the parietal and visceral peritoneum. Compared with the positive control, the Epi cell therapy group showed very few adhesions and exhibited no thickening of the parietal and visceral peritoneum. However, the group with Fib cell therapy could not inhibit peritoneal adhesion and thickening. In addition, hepatocyte growth factor was expressed by the grafted Epi cells but not Fib cells. Fib cells expressed vascular endothelial growth factor stronger than Epi cells. These two types of cells from the same patient showed different characteristics and effects for cell therapy. These findings suggest that the PMCs from the PD patient showed different characteristics, such as Epi cells and Fib cells, and the selection of PMCs is important for cell therapy on the point of not only the direct cellular interactions but also cytokine secretion from the grafted cells. Furthermore, the differences in the morphological cell characteristics may influence their role in peritoneal regeneration.
- Tissue engineering. Part A.Tissue Eng Part A.2013 Dec 3. [Epub ahead of print]
- Long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) causes chronic peritoneal damage. Peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMCs) play an important role in peritoneal function. We investigated the possibility of cell therapy using the PMCs to prevent peritoneal damage in PD patients. We harvested human PMCs from the PD effl
- PMID 24007428
- 臨床報告 ソフトコンタクトレンズ常用者でアカントアメーバ角膜炎推定例として治療し,良好な経過を得た1例
- 私の経験 塗抹検査が有用であったMycobacterium chelonaeによる角膜炎の1例
- 膜 40(2), 111-114, 2015
- … To overcome these problems, filter systemusing filter elements furnished back washable scraping head through slit with brush was employed. …
- NAID 130005069471
- scrapingとは。意味や和訳。[名][U][C]1 こする[ひっかく，削る]こと；その音.2 ((通例～s))削りくず.scrap・ing・ly[副]... - goo英和辞書は14万項目以上を収録し、発音、音声、慣用句、例文が分かる英和辞書です。
- to deprive of or free from an outer layer, adhering matter, etc., or to smooth by drawing or rubbing something, especially a sharp or rough instrument, over the ... For many students and their families, scraping together the money to ...
- is raised, and some long mistake, some complicated edifice of self-delusion, over- confidence, and wrong reasoning is brought down in a fatal shock, and the heart-searing experience of your ship's keel scraping and scrunching over ...
- バイオプシー、診査切除術 exploratory excision、試験切除術
- 精巣腫瘍：血行転移のおそれ → ゆえに精巣腫瘍を否定できない陰嚢腫脹に対しては診断を兼ねた高位精巣摘除が標準的治療