- without undue constriction as from e.g. tenseness or inhibition; "the clarity and resonance of an open tone"; "her natural and open response"
- a clear or unobstructed space or expanse of land or water; "finally broke out of the forest into the open" (同)clear
- information that has become public; "all the reports were out in the open"; "the facts had been brought to the surface" (同)surface
- a tournament in which both professionals and amateurs may play
- become available; "an opportunity opened up" (同)open_up
- become open; "The door opened" (同)open_up
- cause to open or to become open; "Mary opened the car door" (同)open_up
- make available; "This opens up new possibilities" (同)open_up
- start to operate or function or cause to start operating or functioning; "open a business" (同)open_up
- not sealed or having been unsealed; "the letter was already open"; "the opened package lay on the table" (同)opened
- used of mouth or eyes; "keep your eyes open"; "his mouth slightly opened" (同)opened
- not brought to a conclusion; subject to further thought; "an open question"; "our position on this bill is still undecided"; "our lawsuit is still undetermined" (同)undecided, undetermined, unresolved
- affording unobstructed entrance and exit; not shut or closed; "an open door"; "they left the door open" (同)unfastened
- (set theory) of an interval that contains neither of its endpoints
- accessible to all; "open season"; "an open economy"
- affording free passage or access; "open drains"; "the road is open to traffic"; "open ranks"
- begin or set in action, of meetings, speeches, recitals, etc.; "He opened the meeting with a long speech"
- display the contents of a file or start an application as on a computer
- have an opening or passage or outlet; "The bedrooms open into the hall"
- having no protecting cover or enclosure; "an open boat"; "an open fire"; "open sports cars"
- make the opening move; "Kasparov opened with a standard opening"
- not having been filled; "the job is still open"
- not requiring union membership; "an open shop employs nonunion workers"
- open to or in view of all; "an open protest"; "an open letter to the editor"
- ready for business; "the stores are open"
- first or beginning; "the memorable opening bars of Beethovens Fifth"; "the plays opening scene"
- opportunity especially for employment or promotion; "there is an opening in the sales department"
- a recognized sequence of moves at the beginning of a game of chess; "he memorized all the important chess openings" (同)chess opening
- a vacant or unobstructed space that is man-made; "they left a small opening for the cat at the bottom of the door"
- becoming open or being made open; "the opening of his arms was the sign I was waiting for"
- the act of opening something; "the ray of light revealed his cautious opening of the door"
- an open or empty space in or between things; "there was a small opening between the trees"; "the explosion made a gap in the wall" (同)gap
- the first performance (as of a theatrical production); "the opening received good critical reviews" (同)opening_night, curtain raising
- a ceremony accompanying the start of some enterprise
- the initial part of the introduction; "the opening established the basic theme"
- examination of tissues or liquids from the living body to determine the existence or cause of a disease
- made open or clear; "the newly opened road"
- …‘を'『開く』,開ける;…‘の'ふた(おおい)をとる / …‘を'『切り開いて作る』,開拓する;…‘を'全開通させる《+『名』+『up,』+『名』+『up』》 / …‘を'『広げる』《+『up』+(『out』)+『名,』+『名』+『up』(『out』)》 / …‘を'『始める』 / …‘を'開業する,開店する,開場する / (人に)〈心など〉‘を'打ち明ける,〈秘密など〉‘を'漏らす《+『名』+『to』+『名』》 / (新思想などに)〈心・目〉‘を'開く《+『名』+『to』+『名』》 / 〈戸などが〉『開く』,あく / 〈花・つぼみが〉開く《+『out』》 / 〈学校などが〉『始まる』;〈店などが〉開く / 〈道路などが〉開通する / (…に)向かって開いている,(…に)通じている《+『out』『on』(『upon,to,onto』)+『名』》 / 《副詞[句]を伴って》〈風景などが〉広がる,ひらける / 本を開く;(…)ページを開く《+『to』(《英》『at』)+『名』》 / (窓・口などが)『開いた』,開いている;(包みなどが)広げられて / (花が)咲いた / (店などが)『開いている』,開業している;(催し物が)『公開の』,だれでも入れる / 《名詞の前にのみ用いて》ふたのしてない,屋根のない,おおいのない / 広く開いた,さえぎるものがない / 公然の / 率直な,遠慮しない / さらされている,無防備の / 《補語にのみ用いて》(職・地位などが)空位の;(時間などが)あいている / (問題・議事などが)未解決の / 凍結しない,雪や霜の降らない;温和な / (漁・猟が)解禁の / (音声が)開口音の;開音節の / 《the~》戸外,野外 / 空き地;(樹木のない)開けた場所,平野
- 〈C〉(森・垣根・壁などの)空いている所;空き地;すき間,穴 / 〈C〉(物語・会議などの)始め,出だし,冒頭(beginning) / 〈C〉(…の地位の)空き,就職口《+『for』(『at, in』)+『名』》(vacant) / 〈C〉(劇などの)初演 / 〈U〉(…が)開くこと,あくこと《+『of』+『名』》 / 〈C〉(…の)よい機会,好機《+『for』+『名』》 / 初めの,開始の
- =op art
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- Intranasal administration of alpha-synuclein aggregates: a Parkinson's disease model with behavioral and neurochemical correlates.
- Gruden MA1, Davydova TV2, Narkevich VB3, Fomina VG2, Wang C4, Kudrin VS3, Morozova-Roche LA4, Sewell RD5.Author information 1P.K. Anokhin Institute of Normal Physiology, Russian Academy of Medical Science, Moscow, Russia.2Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, Russian Academy of Medical Science, Moscow, Russia.3Institute of Pharmacology, Russian Academy of Medical Science, Moscow, Russia.4Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Umeå University, Umeå SE-90187, Sweden.5Cardiff School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3NB, UK. Electronic address: email@example.com.AbstractParkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder in which both alpha-synuclein (α-syn) and dopamine (DA) have a critical role. Our previous studies instigated a novel PD model based on nasal inoculation with α-syn aggregates which expressed parkinsonian-like behavioral and immunological features. The current study in mice substantiated the robustness of the amyloid nasal vector model by examining behavioral consequences with respect to DA-ergic neurochemical corollaries. In vitro generated α-syn oligomers and fibrils were characterized using atomic force microscopy and the thioflavin T binding assay. These toxic oligomers or fibrils administered alone (0.48mg/kg) or their 50:50 combination (total dose of 0.48mg/kg) were given intranasally for 14 days and "open-field" behavior was tested on days 0, 15 and 28 of the protocol. Behavioral deficits at the end of the 14-day dosing regime and on day 28 (i.e., 14 days after treatment completion) induced rigidity, hypokinesia and immobility. This was accompanied by elevated nigral but not striatal DA, DOPAC and HVA concentrations in response to dual administration of α-syn oligomers plus fibrils but not the oligomers by themselves. α-Syn fibrils intensified not only the hypokinesia and immobility 14 days post treatment, but also reduced vertical rearing and enhanced DA levels in the substantia nigra. Only nigral DA turnover (DOPAC/DA but not HVA/DA ratio) was augmented in response to fibril treatment but there were no changes in the striatum. Compilation of these novel behavioral and neurochemical findings substantiate the validity of the α-syn nasal vector model for investigating parkinsonian-like symptoms.
- Behavioural brain research.Behav Brain Res.2014 Apr 15;263:158-68. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2014.01.017. Epub 2014 Jan 27.
- Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder in which both alpha-synuclein (α-syn) and dopamine (DA) have a critical role. Our previous studies instigated a novel PD model based on nasal inoculation with α-syn aggregates which expressed parkinsonian-like behavioral and immunological fe
- PMID 24480422
- EAU Guidelines on Muscle-invasive and Metastatic Bladder Cancer: Summary of the 2013 Guidelines.
- Witjes JA1, Compérat E2, Cowan NC3, De Santis M4, Gakis G5, Lebret T6, Ribal MJ7, Van der Heijden AG8, Sherif A9.Author information 1Department of Urology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.orgDepartment of Pathology, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France.3Department of Radiology, The Manor Hospital, Oxford, UK.43rd Medical Department and ACR-ITR and LBI-ACR Vienna-CTO, Kaiser Franz Josef Spital, Vienna, Austria.5Department of Urology, Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany.6Hôpital Foch, Department of Urology, University of Versailles-Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Suresnes, France.7Uro-Oncology Unit, Urology Department, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.8Department of Urology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.9Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.AbstractCONTEXT: The European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines panel on Muscle-invasive and Metastatic bladder cancer (BCa) updates its guidelines yearly. This updated summary provides a synthesis of the 2013 guidelines document, with emphasis on the latest developments.
- European urology.Eur Urol.2014 Apr;65(4):778-92. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2013.11.046. Epub 2013 Dec 12.
- CONTEXT: The European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines panel on Muscle-invasive and Metastatic bladder cancer (BCa) updates its guidelines yearly. This updated summary provides a synthesis of the 2013 guidelines document, with emphasis on the latest developments.OBJECTIVE: To provide graded r
- PMID 24373477
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- NAID 130000805067
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