- unconstrained or not chemically bound in a molecule or not fixed and capable of relatively unrestricted motion; "free expansion"; "free oxygen"; "a free electron"
- people who are free; "the home of the free and the brave" (同)free people
- free from obligations or duties (同)discharge
- free or remove obstruction from; "free a path across the cluttered floor" (同)disengage
- grant freedom to; free from confinement (同)liberate, release, unloose, unloosen, loose
- not literal; "a loose interpretation of what she had been told"; "a free translation of the poem" (同)loose, liberal
- make (information) available for publication; "release the list with the names of the prisoners" (同)release
- able to act at will; not hampered; not under compulsion or restraint; "free enterprise"; "a free port"; "a free country"; "I have an hour free"; "free will"; "free of racism"; "feel free to stay as long as you wish"; "a free choice"
- not held in servitude; "after the Civil War he was a free man"
- not occupied or in use; "a free locker"; "a free lane"
- (physics) a thermodynamic quantity equivalent to the capacity of a physical system to do work; the units of energy are joules or ergs; "energy can take a wide variety of forms" (同)free_energy
- a healthy capacity for vigorous activity; "jogging works off my excess energy"; "he seemed full of vim and vigor" (同)vim, vitality
- any source of usable power; "the DOE is responsible for maintaining the energy policy"
- an imaginative lively style (especially style of writing); "his writing conveys great energy"; "a remarkable muscularity of style" (同)muscularity, vigor, vigour, vim
- enterprising or ambitious drive; "Europeans often laugh at American energy" (同)push, get-up-and-go
- forceful exertion; "he plays tennis with great energy"; "hes full of zip" (同)vigor, vigour, zip
- (束縛された状態になく)『自由な』,自由の身の / (国家・国民などが)『独立している』 / (思想・行為などが)強制されない,自発的な / (動作が)拘束されない,無理のない / 《補語にのみ用いて》(苦痛・制約などを)『免れている』,(誤り・偏見などの)ない《+『from』(『of』)+『名』》 / 《補語にのみ用いて》《『be free to』do》『自由に』…『できる』 / (仕事から)解放された,暇になった;(部屋などが)使用されていない,空いた / 『無料の』;無税の / 出し惜しみしない / 遠慮のない,慎みがない / (道路などが)障害のない,自由に通れる / 固定していない,離れた / 無料で / 自由に,妨げられずに(freely) / (…から)〈人・国など〉‘を'『自由にする』,解放する《+『名』+『from』+『名』》 / (困難などから)〈人〉‘を'救う《+『名』+『form』+『名』》 / (障害などを)〈人・物〉‘から'取り除く《+『名』+『of』(『from』)+『名』》 / (物を)…‘から'片付ける,外す《+『名』+『of』+『名』》
- (一般的な力としての)『精力』,気力,元気 / (個人の)精力,活動力 / エネルギー
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- Thermodynamics of sodium dodecyl sulphate-salicylic acid based micellar systems and their potential use in fruits postharvest.
- Cid A1, Morales J2, Mejuto JC2, Briz-Cid N3, Rial-Otero R3, Simal-Gándara J4.Author information 1REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica, Portugal; Physical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Vigo, Ourense Campus, E-32004 Ourense, Spain.2Physical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Vigo, Ourense Campus, E-32004 Ourense, Spain.3Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Analytical and Food Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Vigo, Ourense Campus, E-32004 Ourense, Spain.4Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Analytical and Food Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Vigo, Ourense Campus, E-32004 Ourense, Spain. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.AbstractMicellar systems have excellent food applications due to their capability to solubilise a large range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances. In this work, the mixed micelle formation between the ionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and the phenolic acid salicylic acid have been studied at several temperatures in aqueous solution. The critical micelle concentration and the micellization degree were determined by conductometric techniques and the experimental data used to calculate several useful thermodynamic parameters, like standard free energy, enthalpy and entropy of micelle formation. Salicylic acid helps the micellization of SDS, both by increasing the additive concentration at a constant temperature and by increasing temperature at a constant concentration of additive. The formation of micelles of SDS in the presence of salicylic acid was a thermodynamically spontaneous process, and is also entropically controlled. Salicylic acid plays the role of a stabilizer, and gives a pathway to control the three-dimensional water matrix structure. The driving force of the micellization process is provided by the hydrophobic interactions. The isostructural temperature was found to be 307.5K for the mixed micellar system. This article explores the use of SDS-salicylic acid based micellar systems for their potential use in fruits postharvest.
- Food chemistry.Food Chem.2014 May 15;151:358-63. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.11.076. Epub 2013 Nov 21.
- Micellar systems have excellent food applications due to their capability to solubilise a large range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances. In this work, the mixed micelle formation between the ionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and the phenolic acid salicylic acid have been studied
- PMID 24423544
- Structural behaviour in condensed bovine serum albumin systems following application of high pressure.
- Savadkoohi S1, Bannikova A1, Kasapis S2, Adhikari B3.Author information 1School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, City Campus, Melbourne, Vic. 3001, Australia.2School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, City Campus, Melbourne, Vic. 3001, Australia. Electronic address: email@example.comSchool of Health Sciences, University of Ballarat, Mt. Helen Campus, Ballarat, Vic. 3353, Australia.AbstractThe present study shows that application of high hydrostatic pressure of 600MPa for 15min at ambient temperature on condensed bovine serum albumin systems (BSA) with up to 80% w/w solids content has a limited effect on the conformational structure of the protein, as compared to thermal treatment. This was demonstrated throughout the experimental concentration range using small-deformation dynamic oscillation, differential scanning calorimetry and infrared spectroscopy. BSA possesses seventeen disulfide linkages per molecule, which constitutes a stable arrangement with high energy requirements for substantial structure alteration. Upon cooling, pressurised materials undergo vitrification and networks exhibit comparative mechanical strength to that of thermally treated counterparts. The mechanical manifestation of the glass transition region and glassy state for atmospheric and pressurised samples was examined by the method of reduced variables and the combined framework of WLF/free volume theory producing disparate predictions of the glass transition temperature for the two types of polymeric network.
- Food chemistry.Food Chem.2014 May 1;150:469-76. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.11.029. Epub 2013 Nov 16.
- The present study shows that application of high hydrostatic pressure of 600MPa for 15min at ambient temperature on condensed bovine serum albumin systems (BSA) with up to 80% w/w solids content has a limited effect on the conformational structure of the protein, as compared to thermal treatment. Th
- PMID 24360477
- Evaluation of adhesive-free crossed-electrode poly(vinylidene fluoride) copolymer array transducers for high frequency imaging
- Perturbative Interpretation of Adaptive Thouless-Anderson-Palmer Free Energy
- THERMODYNAMIC APPROACH FOR FORMATION OF LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROTALCITES : EFFECTS OF INTERCALATED ANIONS
- free energy
- Helmholtz's free energy
- ad lib、ad libitum、deprive、disengage、free form、free of charge、freedom、freely、liberate、liberation、obviate、omit、release、remove、strip、withdraw