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出典(authority):フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』「2017/09/03 07:10:05」(JST)

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English Journal

  • Propofol with ketamine following sedation with xylazine for routine induction of general anaesthesia in horses.
  • Posner LP, Kasten JI, Kata C.SourceDepartment of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607, USA.
  • The Veterinary record.Vet Rec.2013 Nov 11. doi: 10.1136/vr.101906. [Epub ahead of print]
  • To document the suitability of intravenous propofol and ketamine following sedation with xylazine for routine anaesthetic induction in horses. Retrospective. 100 client-owned horses. Anaesthetic records were evaluated to determine: signalment, anaesthetic drug and dosages, need for additional induct
  • PMID 24218416
  • NOP Receptor Mediates Anti-analgesia Induced by Agonist-Antagonist Opioids.
  • Gear RW, Bogen O, Ferrari LF, Green PG, Levine JD.SourceDepartment of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0440.
  • Neuroscience.Neuroscience.2013 Nov 1. pii: S0306-4522(13)00914-7. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2013.10.061. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Clinical studies have shown that agonist-antagonist opioid analgesics that produce their analgesic effect via action on the kappa-opioid receptor, produce a delayed-onset anti-analgesia in men but not women, an effect blocked by co-administration of a low dose of naloxone. We now report the same tim
  • PMID 24188792
  • A comparison in dogs of medetomidine, with or without MK-467, and the combination acepromazine-butorphanol as premedication prior to anaesthesia induced by propofol and maintained with isoflurane.
  • Salla K, Bennett RC, Restitutti F, Junnila J, Raekallio M, Vainio O.SourceDepartment of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
  • Veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia.Vet Anaesth Analg.2013 Oct 15. doi: 10.1111/vaa.12094. [Epub ahead of print]
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the haemodynamic effects of three premedicant regimens during propofol-induced isoflurane anaesthesia.STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized cross-over study.ANIMALS: Eight healthy purpose-bred beagles aged 4 years and weighing mean 13.6 ± SD 1.9 kg.METHODS: The dogs were i
  • PMID 24127733

Japanese Journal

  • Anesthetic Effects of a Mixture of Medetomidine, Midazolam and Butorphanol in Two Strains of Mice
  • Kirihara Yumiko,Takechi Mayumi,Kurosaki Kaoru,Kobayashi Yuta,Kurosawa Tsutomu
  • Experimental Animals 62(3), 173-180, 2013
  • butorphanol (But.) produced an anesthetic duration of around 40 min in outbred ICR mice. …
  • NAID 130003362954
  • Anesthetic and Cardiorespiratory Effects of Propofol, Medetomidine, Lidocaine and Butorphanol Total Intravenous Anesthesia in Horses
  • ISHIZUKA Tomohito,ITAMI Takaharu,TAMURA Jun,SAITOH Yasuo,SAITOH Motoaki,UMAR Mohammed A.,MIYOSHI Kenjirou,YAMASHITA Kazuto,MUIR William W.
  • Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 75(2), 165-172, 2013
  • … Anesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of medetomidine, lidocaine, butorphanol and propofol total intravenous anesthesia (MLBP-TIVA) were evaluated in horses undergoing an experimental surgery. … Ten horses were premedicated with an intravenous injection (IV) of medetomidine (5 μg/kg) and butorphanol (20 μg/kg). …
  • NAID 130001879636
  • Intravenous butorphanol administration reduces intrathecal morphine-induced pruritus after cesarean delivery : a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study
  • WU Zhen,KONG Mingjian,WANG Ning,FINLAYSON Roderick J.,DE TRAN Q. H.
  • Journal of anesthesia 26(5), 752-757, 2012-10-20
  • NAID 10031123500

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拡張検索butorphanol tartrate






  • モルフィンと多くのμ,κアゴニストは瞳孔の縮小を引き起こす。これは瞳孔を支配する副交感神経の興奮による。μアゴニストを中毒量投与すると縮瞳し、pinpoints pupupilsはpathognomonicである。(GOO.559)


μ受容体 δ受容体 κ受容体
morphine +++  
methadone +++    
etorphine +++ +++ +++
levorphanol +++    
fentanyl +++    
sufentanil +++
DAMGO +++    
butorphanol P   +++
buprenorphine P   ーー
naloxone ーーー ーー
naltrexone ーーー ーーー
CTOP ーーー    
diprenorphine ーーー ーー ーーー
β-funaltrexamine ーーー ++
naloxonazine ーーー
nalorphine ーーー  
pentazocine P   ++
nalbuphine ーー   ++
naloxone benzoylhydrazone ーーー
bremazocine +++ ++ +++
ethylketocyclazocine P +++
U50,488     +++
U69,593     +++
spiradoline   +++
nor-Binaltorphimine ーーー
naltrindole ーーー
DPDPE   ++  
[[[[D-Ala2,Glu4]deltorphin]]   ++  
DSLET ++  
endogenous Peptides      
met-enkephalin ++ +++  
leu-enkephalin ++ +++  
β-endorphin +++ +++  
dynorphin A ++   +++
dynorphin B +++
α-neoendorphin +++
+アゴニスト ーアンタゴニスト P partial agonist


         μ受容体 κ受容体
レミフェンタニル +++  ー
フェンタニル   +++  -
モルヒネ     +++  +
ペチジン     ++   +
トラマドール   +    -
ペンタゾシン   ー    ++
ブプレノルフィン P    ー
ナロキソン    ー    -



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