- become stretched or tense or taut; "the bodybuilders neck muscles tensed;" "the rope strained when the weight was attached" (同)tense
- (psychology) nervousness resulting from mental stress; "his responsibilities were a constant strain"; "the mental strain of staying alert hour after hour was too much for him" (同)mental strain, nervous strain
- (physics) deformation of a physical body under the action of applied forces
- injury to a muscle (often caused by overuse); results in swelling and pain
- an intense or violent exertion (同)straining
- use to the utmost; exert vigorously or to full capacity; "He really extended himself when he climbed Kilimanjaro"; "Dont strain your mind too much" (同)extend
- vary the pitch of ones speech (同)inflect, modulate
- give a healthy elasticity to; "Lets tone our muscles" (同)tone up, strengthen
- change the color or tone of; "tone a negative"
- change to a color image; "tone a photographic image"
- (linguistics) a pitch or change in pitch of the voice that serves to distinguish words in tonal languages; "the Beijing dialect uses four tones"
- a steady sound without overtones; "they tested his hearing with pure tones of different frequencies" (同)pure tone
- the quality of a persons voice; "he began in a conversational tone"; "he spoke in a nervous tone of voice" (同)tone of voice
- a musical interval of two semitones (同)whole tone, step, whole step
- the quality of something (an act or a piece of writing) that reveals the attitudes and presuppositions of the author; "the general tone of articles appearing in the newspapers is that the government should withdraw"; "from the tone of her behavior I gathe
- utter monotonously and repetitively and rhythmically; "The students chanted the same slogan over and over again" (同)chant, intone
- to stress, single out as important; "Dr. Jones emphasizes exercise in addition to a change in diet" (同)emphasize, emphasise, punctuate, accent, accentuate
- special emphasis attached to something; "the stress was more on accuracy than on speed" (同)focus
- difficulty that causes worry or emotional tension; "she endured the stresses and strains of life"; "he presided over the economy during the period of the greatest stress and danger"- R.J.Samuelson (同)strain
- (physics) force that produces strain on a physical body; "the intensity of stress is expressed in units of force divided by units of area"
- the relative prominence of a syllable or musical note (especially with regard to stress or pitch); "he put the stress on the wrong syllable" (同)emphasis, accent
- put stress on; utter with an accent; "In Farsi, you accent the last syllable of each word" (同)accent, accentuate
- genus of small bark beetles destructive especially to mature conifers (同)genus Dendroctonus
- normal tonicity of the muscles; "exercise improves muscle tone" (同)muscle_tone
- …‘を'『引っ張る』 / (使い過ぎて)〈体など〉‘を'『痛める』,弱める / …‘を'『最大限に働かせる』,精一杯使う / 〈意味・規則など〉‘を'曲げる,こじつける,拡大解釈する / 〈液体〉‘を'『こす』;(液体から)〈固形分〉‘を'こして取る《+『out(off)』+『名』+『from』+『名』》 / 全力を尽くす,懸命に努力する / ぱんと張る / 〈C〉〈U〉『張りつめること』,張る力 / 〈C〉『筋違い』,ねんざ,くじき / 〈U〉(精神的に,極度に)緊張,重荷,過労 / 〈C〉骨のおれる仕事,激務
- 〈C〉家系,血統,種族 / 〈C〉品種 / 〈U〉《しばしばa ~》(遺伝的な)性質,体質 / 〈C〉《しばしば複数形で》《単数扱い》(音楽の)曲,一節 / 〈C〉口調,言い回し,文体
- 〈C〉(高さ・音色・長さ・音量の点から見た)『音』 / 〈C〉〈U〉音質 / 〈C〉楽音;全音程 / 〈C〉《しばしば複数形で》『言い方,書き方』,口調,語調 / 〈C〉支配的な(一般的な)風潮(傾向) / 〈U〉(筋肉などの緊張の)『正常な状態』 / 〈C〉『色調』,色合い,濃淡,明暗 / (音・色などで)…‘に'『ある調子(口調,色合い)をつける』 / …‘の'色を変える,色を補正する
- 〈U〉〈C〉(精神的・感情的な)『緊張』,ストレス / 〈U〉(…に対する)『強調』,力説《+on+名》 / 〈C〉〈U〉『強勢』,アクセント / 〈U〉(一般に)『圧迫』,圧力 / …‘を'『強調する』,力説する / 〈音節・語〉‘に'強勢(アクセント)を置く / 《まれ》（に）圧力をかける
- (重量単位の)『トン』 / (容積単位の)トン(物によって異なり,木材では40立方フィート,小麦では20立方フィート) / 《話》大量(の…),多数(の…)《+of+名》
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- Low-protein diet in adult male rats has long-term effects on metabolism.
- Malta A1, de Oliveira JC, Ribeiro TA, Tófolo LP, Barella LF, Prates KV, Miranda RA, Elmhiri G, Franco CC, Agostinho AR, Trombini AB, Pavanello A, Gravena C, Abdennebi-Najar L, Mathias PC.Author information 1Laboratory of Secretion Cell Biology, Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Block H67, Room 19, State University of Maringá, Colombo Avenue 5970, 87020-900 Maringá, Parana, Brazil UPSP-EGEAL Institut Polytechnique LaSalle de Beauvais, Beauvais Cedex, France.AbstractNutritional insults during developmental plasticity have been linked with metabolic diseases such as diabetes in adulthood. We aimed to investigate whether a low-protein (LP) diet at the beginning of adulthood is able to program metabolic disruptions in rats. While control rats ate a normal-protein (23%; NP group) diet, treated rats were fed a LP (4%; LP group) diet from 60 to 90 days of age, after which an NP diet was supplied until they were 150 days old. Plasma levels of glucose and insulin, autonomous nervous system (ANS), and pancreatic islet function were then evaluated. Compared with the NP group, LP rats exhibited unchanged body weight and reduced food intake throughout the period of protein restriction; however, after the switch to the NP diet, hyperphagia of 10% (P<0.05), and catch-up growth of 113% (P<0.0001) were found. The LP rats showed hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and higher fat accretion than the NP rats. While the sympathetic tonus from LP rats reduced by 28%, the vagus tonus increased by 21% (P<0.05). Compared with the islets from NP rats, the glucose insulinotropic effect as well as cholinergic and adrenergic actions was unaltered in the islets from LP rats. Protein restriction at the beginning of adulthood induced unbalanced ANS activity and fat tissue accretion later in life, even without functional disturbances in the pancreatic islets.
- The Journal of endocrinology.J Endocrinol.2014 Apr 22;221(2):293-303. doi: 10.1530/JOE-13-0473. Print 2014.
- Nutritional insults during developmental plasticity have been linked with metabolic diseases such as diabetes in adulthood. We aimed to investigate whether a low-protein (LP) diet at the beginning of adulthood is able to program metabolic disruptions in rats. While control rats ate a normal-protein
- PMID 24599936
- Central 5-HT4 receptor binding as biomarker of serotonergic tonus in humans: a [(11)C]SB207145 PET study.
- Haahr ME1, Fisher PM1, Jensen CG1, Frokjaer VG1, Mahon BM1, Madsen K1, Baaré WF2, Lehel S3, Norremolle A4, Rabiner EA5, Knudsen GM1.Author information 11] Neurobiology Research Unit, Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark  Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging, Copenhagen, Denmark.21] Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging, Copenhagen, Denmark  Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Denmark.31] Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging, Copenhagen, Denmark  Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.4Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.51] Imanova, Centre for Imaging Sciences, London, UK  Centre for Neuroscience Imaging, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, UK.AbstractIdentification of a biomarker that can inform on extracellular serotonin (5-HT) levels in the brains of living humans would enable greater understanding of the way brain circuits are modulated by serotonergic neurotransmission. Substantial evidence from studies in animals and humans indicates an inverse relationship between central 5-HT tonus and 5-HT type 4 receptor (5-HT4R) density, suggesting that 5-HT4R receptor density may be a biomarker marker for 5-HT tonus. Here, we investigated whether a 3-week administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, expected to increase brain 5-HT levels, is associated with a decline in brain 5-HT4R binding. A total of 35 healthy men were studied in a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study. Participants were assigned to receive 3 weeks of oral dosing with placebo or fluoxetine, 40 mg per day. Brain 5-HT4R binding was quantified at baseline and at follow-up with [(11)C]SB207145 positron emission tomography (PET). Three weeks of intervention with fluoxetine was associated with a 5.2% reduction in brain 5-HT4R binding (P=0.017), whereas placebo intervention did not change 5-HT4R binding (P=0.52). Our findings are consistent with a model, wherein the 5-HT4R density adjusts to changes in the extracellular 5-HT tonus. Our data demonstrate for the first time in humans that the imaging of central 5-HT4R binding may be used as an in vivo biomarker of the central 5-HT tonus.
- Molecular psychiatry.Mol Psychiatry.2014 Apr;19(4):427-32. doi: 10.1038/mp.2013.147. Epub 2013 Nov 5.
- Identification of a biomarker that can inform on extracellular serotonin (5-HT) levels in the brains of living humans would enable greater understanding of the way brain circuits are modulated by serotonergic neurotransmission. Substantial evidence from studies in animals and humans indicates an inv
- PMID 24189342
- Involvement of organic cation transporter 2 inhibition in potential mechanisms of antidepressant action.
- Wang K1, Sun S1, Li L1, Tu M1, Jiang H2.Author information 1Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Drug Metabolism, Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Anti-Cancer Drug Research, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang PR China.2Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Drug Metabolism, Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Anti-Cancer Drug Research, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang PR China. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.AbstractNovel antidepressants or treatment strategies that may offer a more rapid onset of action, improved efficacy, and greater tolerability are in desperate need. Because current clinically utilized antidepressants, which target high-affinity transporters for serotonin and norepinephrine, fail to provide satisfactory treatment outcomes for quite a portion of patients. In recent investigations, a low-affinity but high-capacity transporter organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2, SLC22A2) has been proposed as an important postsynaptic determinant of aminergic tonus and mood-related behaviors, a complementary system to the high-affinity transporters. In order to evaluate whether OCT2 inhibition may at least in part contribute to the pharmacological effects of antidepressants, several typical antidepressant compounds of various mechanism categories were employed to inhibit OCT2 activity in cells stably overexpressing OCT2. The tested antidepressant agents included selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, fluoxetine, sertraline and paroxetine), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs, amitriptyline, imipramine, desipramine), monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI, moclobemide), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI, venlafaxine) and reported antidepressant alkaloid piperine. Piperine was screened through synaptosomes before cell experiments, without the interference of monoamine oxidase. All of the nine antidepressant compounds showed moderate inhibitory effects on OCT2-mediated metformin, serotonin and/or norepinephrine uptake. Sertraline and desipramine tended to inhibit OCT2 activity via a competitive mechanism. The fact could be easily belied, since passive diffusion dominated the influx process. It remains to be seen whether OCT2 inhibition plays a role to the overall therapeutic effects in clinical practice.
- Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry.Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry.2014 Mar 20;53C:90-98. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2014.03.005. [Epub ahead of print]
- Novel antidepressants or treatment strategies that may offer a more rapid onset of action, improved efficacy, and greater tolerability are in desperate need. Because current clinically utilized antidepressants, which target high-affinity transporters for serotonin and norepinephrine, fail to provide
- PMID 24657329
- Savant症候群が特徴的であった成人発症のニーマン・ピック病C型variant biochemical phenotypeの1例
- Savant症候群が特徴的であった成人発症のニーマン・ピック病C型variant biochemical phenotypeの1例
- tonus 【名】《医》〔筋組織の〕緊張 - アルクがお届けする進化するオンライン英和・和英辞書データベース。一般的な単語や連語から、イディオム、専門用語、スラングまで幅広く収録。
- tonusとは。意味や和訳。[名詞] 〔生理〕 トーヌス，筋緊張：筋組織が軽い緊張を続けている正常な状態.[語源]1876.＜近代ラテン語(ラテン語 tonus の特殊用法＜ギリシャ語 tónos TONE) - 80万項目以上収録、例文・コロケーションが豊富 ...
- accent、accentuate、accentuation、emphasis、emphasize、highlight、power point、strain、tone、tonus、underscore
- muscle tonus, tonus (KH), muscle tone