- convert grain into malt
- convert into malt
- treat with malt or malt extract; "malt beer"
- turn into malt, become malt
- a lager of high alcohol content; by law it is considered too alcoholic to be sold as lager or beer (同)malt liquor
- a cereal grain (usually barley) that is kiln-dried after having been germinated by soaking in water; used especially in brewing and distilling
- a small apparently simple structure (as a fertilized egg) from which new tissue can develop into a complete organism
- annual or biennial grass having erect flower spikes and light brown grains
- grains of common wheat; sometimes cooked whole or cracked as cereal; usually ground into flour (同)wheat_berry
- 麦芽,麦もやし / (また『malt liquor』)麦芽酒(麦芽から作ったビール・エールなど) / 〈C〉=malted milk 2 / 〈麦〉‘を'麦芽にする;〈酒など〉‘を'麦芽で作る / 〈麦が〉麦芽になる
- 細菌,ばい菌 / (植物の)胚(はい),幼芽;(動物の)卵子 / 原因;(発達の)初期
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- Agronomic selenium biofortification in Triticum durum under Mediterranean conditions: from grain to cooked pasta.
- Poblaciones MJ, Rodrigo S, Santamaría O, Chen Y, McGrath SP.Author information Department of Agronomy and Forest Environment Engineering, University of Extremadura Avda., Adolfo Suárez s/n, 06007 Badajoz, Spain. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.AbstractTo improve the nutritional value of durum wheat and derived products, two foliar Se fertilisers (sodium selenate and selenite) were tested at four rates (0-10-20-40gha(-1)) in 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 in southwestern Spain. There was a strong and linear relationship between total Se or selenomethionine (Se-Met) accumulation in grain and Se dose for both fertilisers, although selenate was much more efficient. Se-Met was the main Se species (≈90%) of the total Se extracted from all materials. Milling caused a 27% loss of Se due to the removal of Se located in bran and germ. In the pasta making process and the cooking process the loss of Se, mainly as selenite, was about 7%. Durum wheat may be a good candidate to be included in Se biofortification programs under rainfed Mediterranean conditions, as foodstuffs derived from it could efficiently increase the Se content in the human diet.
- Food chemistry.Food Chem.2014 Mar 1;146:378-84. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.09.070. Epub 2013 Sep 20.
- To improve the nutritional value of durum wheat and derived products, two foliar Se fertilisers (sodium selenate and selenite) were tested at four rates (0-10-20-40gha(-1)) in 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 in southwestern Spain. There was a strong and linear relationship between total Se or selenomethioni
- PMID 24176357
- Exogenous trehalose induces defenses in wheat before and during a biotic stress caused by powdery mildew.
- Tayeh C, Randoux B, Vincent D, Bourdon N, Reignault P.AbstractABSTRACT Powdery mildew would be one of the most damaging wheat diseases without the extensive use of conventional fungicides. Some of the alternative control strategies currently emerging are based on the use of resistance inducers. The disacharride trehalose (TR) is classically described as an inducer of defenses in plants to abiotic stress. In this work, the elicitor or priming effect of TR was investigated in wheat both before and during a compatible wheat-powdery mildew interaction through molecular, biochemical, and cytological approaches. In noninoculated conditions, TR elicited the expression of genes encoding chitinase (chi, chi1, and chi4 precursor), pathogenesis-related protein 1, as well as oxalate oxidase (oxo). Moreover, lipid metabolism was shown to be altered by TR spraying via the upregulation of lipoxygenase (lox) and lipid-transfer protein (ltp)-encoding gene expression. On the other hand, the protection conferred by TR to wheat against powdery mildew is associated with the induction of two specific defense markers. Indeed, in infectious conditions following TR spraying, upregulations of chi4 precursor and lox gene expression as well as an induction of the LOX activity were observed. These results are also discussed with regard to the impact of TR on the fungal infectious process, which was shown to be stopped at the appressorial germ tube stage. Our findings strongly suggest that TR is a true inducer of wheat defense and resistance, at least toward powdery mildew.
- Phytopathology.Phytopathology.2014 Mar;104(3):293-305. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-07-13-0191-R.
- ABSTRACT Powdery mildew would be one of the most damaging wheat diseases without the extensive use of conventional fungicides. Some of the alternative control strategies currently emerging are based on the use of resistance inducers. The disacharride trehalose (TR) is classically described as an ind
- PMID 24073639
- GtfA and GtfB are both required for protein O-glycosylation in Lactobacillus plantarum.
- Lee IC, van Swam II, Tomita S, Morsomme P, Rolain T, Hols P, Kleerebezem M, Bron PA.Author information TI Food and Nutrition, Nieuwe Kanaal 9A, 6709PA Wageningen, the Netherlands.AbstractAcm2, the major autolysin of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1, was recently found to be O-glycosylated with N-acetylhexosamine, likely N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). Here, we set out to identify the glycosylation machinery by employing a comparative genomics approach to identify Gtf1 homologues, which are involved in fimbriae-associated protein 1 (Fap1) glycosylation in Streptococcus parasanguinis. This in silico approach resulted in the identification of 6 candidate L. plantarum WCFS1 genes with significant homology to Gtf1, namely tagE1 to tagE6. These candidate genes were targeted by systematic gene deletion, followed by assessment of the consequences on glycosylation of Acm2. We observed a changed mobility of Acm2 on SDS-PAGE in the tagE5E6 deletion strain, while deletion of other tagEs resulted in Acm2 mobility comparable to the wild type. Subsequent mass spectrometry analysis of excised and in-gel digested Acm2 confirmed the loss of glycosylation on Acm2 in the tagE5E6 deletion mutant, whereas a lectin blot using GlcNAc-specific succinylated wheat germ agglutinin (sWGA) revealed that besides Acm2, tagE5E6 deletion also abolished all-but-one other sWGA-reactive, protease-sensitive signals. Only complementation of both tagE5 and tagE6 restored those sWGA-lectin signals, establishing that TagE5 and TagE6 are both required for the glycosylation of Acm2 as well as the vast majority of other sWGA-reactive proteins. Finally, sWGA-lectin blotting experiments using a panel of 8 other L. plantarum strains revealed that protein glycosylation is a common feature in L. plantarum strains. With the establishment of these enzymes as protein glycosyltransferases, we propose to rename TagE5 and TagE6 to GtfA and GtfB, respectively.
- Journal of bacteriology.J Bacteriol.2014 Feb 14. [Epub ahead of print]
- Acm2, the major autolysin of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1, was recently found to be O-glycosylated with N-acetylhexosamine, likely N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). Here, we set out to identify the glycosylation machinery by employing a comparative genomics approach to identify Gtf1 homologues, which a
- PMID 24532775
- NMR study of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus protease in a complex with amprenavir.
- Furukawa Ayako,Okamura Hideyasu,Morishita Ryo,Matsunaga Satoko,Kobayashi Naohiro,Ikegami Takahisa,Kodaki Tsutomu,Takaori-Kondo Akifumi,Ryo Akihide,Nagata Takashi,Katahira Masato
- Biochemical and biophysical research communications 425(2), 284-289, 2012-08-24
- … We synthesized XMRV PR using the wheat germ cell-free expression system and carried out structural analysis of XMRV PR in a complex with an inhibitor, amprenavir (APV), by means of NMR. …
- NAID 120004873605
- In Vitro Protein Import of a Putative Amino Acid Transporter from Arabidopsis thaliana into Chloroplasts and Its Suborganellar Localization
- SATTASUK Kwanchanok,NOZAWA Akira,TOZAWA Yuzuru,KAKINUMA Yoshimi,AKITA Mitsuru
- Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry 75(11), 2200-2206, 2011-11-23
- … chloroplastic import assay using At5g19500p translated in a cell-free wheat germ system (Madin <I>et al.</I>, <I>Proc. …
- NAID 10030396915
- Industrial Info. ターゲットタンパク質の迅速な発現システムとその応用 : コムギ胚芽無細胞タンパク質合成法
- germ [jerm] 1. a pathogenic microorganism. 2. living substance capable of developing into an organ, part, or organism as a whole; a primordium. wheat germ the embryo of wheat, which contains tocopherol, thiamine, riboflavin, and ...
- プロメガのWheat Germ Extractは、抽出バッファー中で小麦胚芽を破砕してから、遠心で細胞残渣を除き、クロマトグラフィーにより上澄から内在性アミノ酸、植物色素を除去しています。本エクストラクトは、micrococcalヌクレアーゼ処理を ...
- malt、wheat germ
- cereal、grain、triticale、wheat germ
- wheat germ
- durum wheat、Triticum、Triticum aestivum