- a neurotransmitter that is a derivative of choline; released at the ends of nerve fibers in the somatic and parasympathetic nervous systems
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- An eco-friendly, simple, and sensitive fluorescence biosensor for the detection of choline and acetylcholine based on C-dots and the Fenton reaction.
- Wei J, Ren J, Liu J, Meng X, Ren X, Chen Z, Tang F.Author information Laboratory of Controllable Preparation and Application of Nanomaterials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 29, Zhongguancun East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100190, People's Republic of China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, People's Republic of China.AbstractA simple and novel method is proposed for the preparation of Carbon dots (C-dots) with excellent properties. We firstly demonstrated that the fluorescence of C-dots decreased apparently in the presence of H2O2 and Fe(2+). Based on the this finding, C-dots are successfully adopted as probes for the detection of H2O2. After the experimental conditions are optimized, the limit of detection (LOD) for H2O2 is found to be 0.1μM. Furthermore, we established an eco-friendly, simple and sensitive biosensor for the detection of choline and acetylcholine (ACh) based on the detection of H2O2 using C-dots as probes. The detection limit for choline is 0.1μM and the linear range is 0.1-40μM. The detection limit for ACh is found to be 0.5μM and the linear range is 0.5-60μM. The excellent performance of the proposed biosensor shows that this method possesses the potential for practical application.
- Biosensors & bioelectronics.Biosens Bioelectron.2014 Feb 15;52:304-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bios.2013.09.006. Epub 2013 Sep 14.
- A simple and novel method is proposed for the preparation of Carbon dots (C-dots) with excellent properties. We firstly demonstrated that the fluorescence of C-dots decreased apparently in the presence of H2O2 and Fe(2+). Based on the this finding, C-dots are successfully adopted as probes for the d
- PMID 24080209
- Serotonin-immunoreactive sensory neurons in the antenna of the cockroach Periplaneta americana.
- Watanabe H, Shimohigashi M, Yokohari F.Author information Division of Biology, Department of Earth System Science, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan.AbstractThe antennae of insects contain a vast array of sensory neurons that process olfactory, gustatory, mechanosensory, hygrosensory, and thermosensory information. Except those with multimodal functions, most sensory neurons use acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter. Using immunohistochemistry combined with retrograde staining of antennal sensory neurons in the cockroach Periplaneta americana, we found serotonin-immunoreactive sensory neurons in the antenna. These were selectively distributed in chaetic and scolopidial sensilla and in the scape, the pedicel, and first 15 segments of the flagellum. In a chaetic sensillum, A single serotonin-immunoreactive sensory neuron cohabited with up to four serotonin-negative sensory neurons. Based on their morphological features, serotonin-immunopositive and -negative sensory neurons might process mechanosensory and contact chemosensory modalities, respectively. Scolopidial sensilla constitute the chordotonal and Johnston's organs within the pedicel and process antennal vibrations. Immunoelectron microscopy clearly revealed that serotonin-immunoreactivities selectively localize to a specific type of mechanosensory neuron, called type 1 sensory neuron. In a chordotonal scolopidial sensillum, a serotonin-immunoreactive type 1 neuron always paired with a serotonin-negative type 1 neuron. Conversely, serotonin-immunopositive and -negative type 1 neurons were randomly distributed in Johnston's organ. In the deutocerebrum, serotonin-immunoreactive sensory neuron axons formed three different sensory tracts and those from distinct types of sensilla terminated in distinct brain regions. Our findings indicate that a biogenic amine, serotonin, may act as a neurotransmitter in peripheral mechanosensory neurons. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:414-434, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- The Journal of comparative neurology.J Comp Neurol.2014 Feb;522(2):414-34. doi: 10.1002/cne.23419.
- The antennae of insects contain a vast array of sensory neurons that process olfactory, gustatory, mechanosensory, hygrosensory, and thermosensory information. Except those with multimodal functions, most sensory neurons use acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter. Using immunohistochemistry combined wi
- PMID 23852943
- Pulmonary exposure to particles from diesel exhaust, urban dust or single-walled carbon nanotubes and oxidatively damaged DNA and vascular function in apoE(-/-) mice.
- Vesterdal LK, Jantzen K, Sheykhzade M, Roursgaard M, Folkmann JK, Loft S, Møller P.Author information Department of Public Health, Section of Environmental Health, University of Copenhagen , Copenhagen , Denmark.AbstractAbstract This study compared the oxidative stress level and vasomotor dysfunction after exposure to urban dust, diesel exhaust particles (DEP) or single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). DEP and SWCNT increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultured endothelial cells and acellullarly, whereas the exposure to urban dust did not generate ROS. The apoE(-/-) mice, which were exposed twice to 0.5 mg/kg of the particles by intratracheal (i.t.) instillation, had unaltered acetylcholine-elicited vasorelaxation in aorta segments. There was unaltered pulmonary expression level of Vcam-1, Icam-1, Hmox-1 and Ogg1. The levels of oxidatively damaged DNA were unchanged in lung tissue. The exposure to SWCNT significantly increased the expression of Ccl-2 in the lung tissue of the mice. The exposure to DEP and SWCNT was associated with elevated ROS production in cultured cells, whereas i.t. instillation of the same particles had no effect on biomarkers of pulmonary oxidative stress and dilatory dysfunction in the aorta.
- Nanotoxicology.Nanotoxicology.2014 Feb;8:61-71. doi: 10.3109/17435390.2012.750385. Epub 2012 Dec 11.
- Abstract This study compared the oxidative stress level and vasomotor dysfunction after exposure to urban dust, diesel exhaust particles (DEP) or single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). DEP and SWCNT increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultured endothelial cells and acellull
- PMID 23148895
- Protective effect of Millettia pulchra polysaccharide on cognitive impairment induced by d-galactose in mice.
- Lin X, Huang Z, Chen X, Rong Y, Zhang S, Jiao Y, Huang Q, Huang R.Author information Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi 530021, China.AbstractA polysaccharide (PMP) was isolated from Millettia pulchra and purified by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-75 chromatography. The results showed that PMP was composed of d-glucose and d-arabinose in a molar ratio of 90.79% and 9.21%, with an average molecular weight of about 14,301Da. Furthermore, the effect of PMP on cognitive impairment induced by d-galactose in mice was evaluated. Treatment with PMP significantly reversed d-galactose-induced learning and memory impairments, as measured by behavioral tests. One of the potential mechanisms of this action was to reduce oxidative stress and suppress inflammatory responses. Furthermore, our results also showed that PMP markedly reduced the content and deposition of β-amyloid peptide, improved the dysfunction of synaptic plasticity, increased the levels of acetylcholine, but decreased cholinesterase activity. These results suggest that PMP exerts an effective protection against d-galactose-induced cognitive impairment, and PMP may be a major bioactive ingredient in M. pulchra.
- Carbohydrate polymers.Carbohydr Polym.2014 Jan 30;101:533-43. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.09.037. Epub 2013 Sep 23.
- A polysaccharide (PMP) was isolated from Millettia pulchra and purified by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-75 chromatography. The results showed that PMP was composed of d-glucose and d-arabinose in a molar ratio of 90.79% and 9.21%, with an average molecular weight of about 14,301Da. Furthermore, the
- PMID 24299809
- Structure of the human M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor bound to an antagonist
- Haga Kazuko,Kruse Andrew C.,Asada Hidetsugu,Yurugi-Kobayashi Takami,Shiroishi Mitsunori,Zhang Cheng,Weis William I.,Okada Tetsuji,Kobilka Brian K.,Haga Tatsuya,Kobayashi Takuya
- Nature, 2012-01-25
- … 京都大学プレスリリース.2012-01-26.The parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system regulates the activity ofmultiple organ systems.Muscarinic receptorsare G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate the response to acetylcholine released from parasympathetic nerves1–5. …
- NAID 120003752107
- The 3rd International Symposium on Non-neuronal Acetylcholine (フローニンゲン, オランダ)に出席して
- 川島 紘一郎
- 日本薬理學雜誌 = Folia pharmacologica Japonica 138(5), 223, 2011-11-01
- NAID 10029896446
- Elevated Cystatin C Levels Predict the Incidence of Vasospastic Angina
- FUNAYAMA Akira,WATANABE Tetsu,TAMABUCHI Toshiaki,OTAKI Yoichiro,NETSU Shunsuke,HASEGAWA Hiromasa,HONDA Shintaro,ISHINO Mitsunori,ARIMOTO Takanori,TAKAHASHI Hiroki,SHISHIDO Tetsuro,MIYAMOTO Takuya,NITOBE Joji,KUBOTA Isao
- Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society 75(10), 2439-2444, 2011-09-25
- … VSA was evoked in 59 patients by a vasospasm provocation test with administration of acetylcholine into the coronary arteries. …
- NAID 10029459648
- Acetylcholine (often abbreviated ACh) is an organic, polyatomic ion that acts as a neurotransmitter in both the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) in many organisms including humans. Acetylcholine is one of ...
- Acetylcholine receptor. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to: navigation, search. Acetylcholine. An acetylcholine receptor (abbreviated AChR) is an integral membrane protein that responds to the binding of acetylcholine, ...
- acetylcholine (K), ACh
- 塩化アセチルコリン、アセチルコリン塩化物 acetylcholine chloride
- アセチルコリン受容体、アセチルコリンエステラーゼ、muscannic acetylcholine
- choline + acetylCoA → acetylcholine + CoA