- issue a challenge to; "Fischer challenged Spassky to a match"
- a demanding or stimulating situation; "they reacted irrationally to the challenge of Russian power"
- a call to engage in a contest or fight
- a demand by a sentry for a password or identification
- a formal objection to the selection of a particular person as a juror
- questioning a statement and demanding an explanation; "his challenge of the assumption that Japan is still our enemy"
- take exception to; "She challenged his claims" (同)dispute, gainsay
- raise a formal objection in a court of law (同)take exception
- ask for identification; "The illegal immigrant was challenged by the border guard"
- a harmful or corrupting agency; "bigotry is a virus that must not be allowed to spread"; "the virus of jealousy is latent in everyone"
- (virology) ultramicroscopic infectious agent that replicates itself only within cells of living hosts; many are pathogenic; a piece of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) wrapped in a thin coat of protein
- a software program capable of reproducing itself and usually capable of causing great harm to files or other programs on the same computer; "a true virus cannot spread to another computer without human assistance" (同)computer virus
- 〈U〉〈C〉『挑戦』,試合の申し込み;〈C〉挑戦状 / 〈U〉(番兵などが怪しい者に)“だれか"と呼び掛けること / 〈C〉手ごたえのある事(物) / 〈U〉〈C〉(…への)異議申し立て抗議《+『to』+『名』》 / 〈U〉〈C〉(陪審員に対する)忌避 / (競技・決闘などを)〈人〉‘に'『挑む』,挑戦する / …‘に'『異議を申し立てる』 / 〈物事が〉〈人〉'を'奮起させる,〈興味など〉'を'呼び起こす / 〈番兵・守衛などが〉…‘に'“だれか"と呼び掛ける / 〈陪審員・裁判官〉'を'忌避する
全文を閲覧するには購読必要です。 To read the full text you will need to subscribe.
- Disease course and viral shedding in experimental Norwalk virus and Snow Mountain virus infection.
- Kirby AE1, Shi J, Montes J, Lichtenstein M, Moe CL.Author information 1Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.AbstractNorovirus is the most common cause of acute infectious gastroenteritis, causing approximately 21 million cases annually in the USA. The virus is highly contagious and resistant to decontamination, making outbreaks difficult to control. To facilitate the development of better control methods, this study characterized the viral shedding patterns in stools from subjects experimentally infected with genogroup I or II norovirus. Viral stool titers were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR for all stools produced in the first 7 days post-challenge and representative stools through day 35 post-challenge. The shedding titers and disease course were analyzed with respect to virus type, illness, and subject demographics. Infection with GII.2 Snow Mountain (SMV) resulted in more symptoms and a higher frequency of painful symptoms compared to GI.1 Norwalk (NV) infection. However, NV infection produced stool viral titers approximately 2 logs higher than those seen in SMV infections. Both NV and SMV were shed in stools for up to 3 weeks after the resolution of symptoms, but long shedding durations were more common in NV infections. For each challenge virus, shedding titers and patterns were not correlated with subject demographics or clinical course. This is the first study to report shedding dynamics in experimental GII norovirus infection. J. Med. Virol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Journal of medical virology.J Med Virol.2014 Feb 14. doi: 10.1002/jmv.23905. [Epub ahead of print]
- Norovirus is the most common cause of acute infectious gastroenteritis, causing approximately 21 million cases annually in the USA. The virus is highly contagious and resistant to decontamination, making outbreaks difficult to control. To facilitate the development of better control methods, this st
- PMID 24531909
- Seroepidemiology of norovirus-associated travelers' diarrhea.
- Ajami NJ1, Kavanagh OV, Ramani S, Crawford SE, Atmar RL, Jiang ZD, Okhuysen PC, Estes MK, DuPont HL.Author information 1Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; School of Public Health, Center for Infectious Diseases, Houston, TX, USA.AbstractBACKGROUND: Noroviruses (NoVs) are the most common cause of epidemic gastroenteritis, responsible for at least 50% of all gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide and were recently identified as a leading cause of travelers' diarrhea (TD) in US and European travelers to Mexico, Guatemala, and India.
- Journal of travel medicine.J Travel Med.2014 Jan-Feb;21(1):6-11. doi: 10.1111/jtm.12092.
- BACKGROUND: Noroviruses (NoVs) are the most common cause of epidemic gastroenteritis, responsible for at least 50% of all gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide and were recently identified as a leading cause of travelers' diarrhea (TD) in US and European travelers to Mexico, Guatemala, and India.METHO
- PMID 24383649
- Structural and inhibitor studies of norovirus 3C-like proteases.
- Takahashi D1, Kim Y, Lovell S, Prakash O, Groutas WC, Chang KO.Author information 1Department of Biochemistry, Kansas State University, 141 Chalmers Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA.AbstractNoroviruses have a single-stranded, positive sense 7-8kb RNA genome, which encodes a polyprotein precursor processed by a virus-encoded 3C-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) to generate mature non-structural proteins. Because processing of the polyprotein is essential for virus replication, norovirus 3CLpro has been targeted for the discovery of anti-norovirus small molecule therapeutics. Thus, we performed functional, structural and inhibition studies of norovirus 3CLpro with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay, X-ray crystallography, and NMR spectroscopy with a synthetic protease inhibitor. Three 3CLpro from Norwalk virus (NV, genogroup I), MD145 (genogroup II) and murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1, genogroup V) were optimized for a FRET assay, and compared for the inhibitory activities of a synthetic protease inhibitor (GC376). The apo 3D structures of NV 3CLpro determined with X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy were further analyzed. In addition, the binding mode of NV 3CLpro-GC376 was compared with X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy. The results of this report provide insight into the interaction of NV 3CLpro with substrate/inhibitor for better understanding of the enzyme and antiviral drug development.
- Virus research.Virus Res.2013 Dec 26;178(2):437-44. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2013.09.008. Epub 2013 Sep 17.
- Noroviruses have a single-stranded, positive sense 7-8kb RNA genome, which encodes a polyprotein precursor processed by a virus-encoded 3C-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) to generate mature non-structural proteins. Because processing of the polyprotein is essential for virus replication, norovirus 3
- PMID 24055466
- High Efficiency Cross-Reactive Monoclonal Antibody Production by Oral Immunization with Recombinant Norwalk Virus-Like Particles
- TANAKA Tomoyuki,KITAMOTO Noritoshi,JIANG Xi,ESTES Mary K.
- Microbiology and immunology 50(11), 883-888, 2006-11-20
- NAID 10018398315
- Replication and packaging of Norwalk virus RNA in cultured mammalian cells
- Norwalk Virus and Norwalk-like Viruses What are Norwalk and Norwalk-like viruses? These viruses, also known as small round structured viruses or caliciviruses, are an important cause of gastrointestinal illness throughout the United ...
- This is the home of norwalkvirus.ca ... Norwalk Virus is the most common of the Norovirus group which affects the gastrointestinal system resulting in vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, among other symptoms.
- Norwalk-like virus, small round-structured virus
(wikipedia en - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norwalk-like_viruses)
- Noroviruses (NoV) are a genetically diverse group of single stranded RNA, nonenveloped viruses belonging to the Caliciviridae family. According to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Virus, the genus Norovirus has one species, which is called "Norwalk virus" and assigned the abbreviation "NV". Serotypes, strains and isolates include:
- Norwalk virus [M87661] (Hu/NLV/NV/1968/US)
- Hawaii virus [U07611] (Hu/NLV/HV/1971/US)
- Snow Mountain virus [L23831] (Hu/NLV/SMV/1976/US)
- Mexico virus [U22498] (Hu/NLV/MX/1989/MX)
- Desert Shield virus [U04469] (Hu/NLV/DSV395/1990/SR)
- Southampton virus [L07418] (Hu/NLV/SHV/1991/UK)
- Lordsdale virus [X86557] (Hu/NLV/LD/1993/UK)
- Approximately 50% of persons challenged with Norwalk virus become ill and acquire short-term immunity against the infecting strain.
- Norwalk virus
- ノーウォーク因子 Norwalk agent
- Norwalk virus