- a basal part of the diencephalon governing autonomic nervous system
- of or relating to the hypothalamus
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- The GABA-synthetic enzyme GAD65 controls circadian activation of conditioned fear pathways.
- Bergado-Acosta JR1, Müller I1, Richter-Levin G2, Stork O3.Author information 1Department of Genetics & Molecular Neurobiology, Institute of Biology, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany.2Department of Neurobiology and Ethology and Department of Psychology, University of Haifa, and Institute for the Study of Affective Neuroscience, 31905 Haifa, Israel.3Department of Genetics & Molecular Neurobiology, Institute of Biology, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany; Center for Behavioural Brain Sciences, Magdeburg, Germany. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.AbstractCircadian fluctuations of fear and anxiety symptoms are observable in persons with post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety, and panic disorder; however, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are not sufficiently understood. In the present study, we investigated the putative role of inhibitory neurotransmission in the circadian fluctuation of fear symptoms, using mice with genetic ablation of the γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) synthesizing isoenzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase GAD65. We observed in these mutant mice an altered expression of conditioned fear with a profound reduction of freezing, and an increase of hyperactivity bouts occurring only when both fear conditioning training and retrieval testing were done at the beginning of their active phase. Mutants further showed an increased arousal response at this time of the day, although, circadian rhythm of home cage activity was unaltered. Hyperactivity and reduced freezing during fear memory retrieval were accompanied by an increased induction of the immediate early gene cFos suggesting hyperactivation of the hippocampus, amygdala, and medial hypothalamus. Our data suggest a role of GAD65-mediated GABA synthesis in the encoding of circadian information to fear memory. GAD65 deficits in a state-dependent manner result in increased neural activation in fear circuits and elicit panic-like flight responses during fear memory retrieval.
- Behavioural brain research.Behav Brain Res.2014 Mar 1;260:92-100. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2013.11.042. Epub 2013 Dec 1.
- Circadian fluctuations of fear and anxiety symptoms are observable in persons with post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety, and panic disorder; however, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are not sufficiently understood. In the present study, we investigated the putative role of i
- PMID 24300892
- Steroid exposure during larval development of Xenopus laevis affects mRNA expression of the reproductive pituitary-gonadal axis in a sex- and stage-dependent manner.
- Urbatzka R1, Lorenz C2, Wiedemann C3, Lutz I2, Kloas W4.Author information 1CIIMAR, Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Genomics and Evolution, Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050-123 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address: email@example.comDepartment of Ecophysiology and Aquaculture, Leibniz-Institute for Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Müggelseedamm 310, 12587 Berlin, Germany.3Reproduction Biology, Leibniz-Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, PF 601103, 10252 Berlin, Germany.4Department of Ecophysiology and Aquaculture, Leibniz-Institute for Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Müggelseedamm 310, 12587 Berlin, Germany; Department of Endocrinology, Institute of Biology, Humboldt-University, Berlin, Germany.AbstractSteroids are known to influence the reproductive pituitary-gonadal axis in adult amphibians. Here, we studied the effects of hormones on pituitary and gonadal mRNA expression during the development of Xenopus laevis. Tadpoles at NF 58 (prometamorphosis) and at NF 66 (freshly metamorphosed) were exposed for three days to 17β-estradiol (E2), tamoxifen (TAM), testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) at 10(-7)M, and flutamide (FLU) at 10(-6)M. In both genders at NF 58 and 66, T and DHT decreased luteinizing hormone beta (lhβ), but increased follicle stimulating hormone beta (fshβ), while FLU induced lhβ specifically in males. In the testis steroidogenic genes (p450 side chain cleavage enzyme, p450scc; steroid acute regulatory protein, star) at NF 58 showed a similar pattern as for lhβ, while the response at NF 66 was only partially present. In females, TAM induced lhβ at NF 58, while E2 decreased lhβ and increased fshβ at NF 66. In the ovaries, no alterations were observed for the steroidogenic genes. Summarizing, gonadotropic and steroidogenic mRNA expression may indicate control of androgen level during testis differentiation in male tadpoles at NF 58. In females the non-responsiveness of steroidogenic genes could be a sign of gonadal quiescence during pre-pubertal stages.
- Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Toxicology & pharmacology : CBP.Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol.2014 Mar;160:1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2013.11.003. Epub 2013 Nov 13.
- Steroids are known to influence the reproductive pituitary-gonadal axis in adult amphibians. Here, we studied the effects of hormones on pituitary and gonadal mRNA expression during the development of Xenopus laevis. Tadpoles at NF 58 (prometamorphosis) and at NF 66 (freshly metamorphosed) were expo
- PMID 24239592
- Molecular characterization and differential expression of multiple goose dopamine D2 receptors.
- Wang C1, Liu Y1, Wang H1, Wu H1, Gong S1, Chen W2, He D3.Author information 1Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai 201106, PR China.2Zhedong White Goose Institute of Xiangshan County, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315700, PR China.3Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai 201106, PR China. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.AbstractDopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene, a member of the dopamine receptors gene family, has been studied as a candidate gene for broodiness due to its special effects on avian prolactin secretion. Here, the genomic DNA and cDNA sequences of goose (Anser cygnoides) DRD2 gene were cloned and characterized for the first time. The goose DRD2 cDNA is 1353bp in length and encodes a protein of 450 amino acids. The length of goose DRD2 genomic DNA is 8350bp, including seven exons and six introns. We identified four goose DRD2 variants, which were generated due to alternative splicing. Bioinformatics analysis indicates that all the deduced DRD2 amino acid sequences contain seven putative transmembrane domains and four potential N-glycosylation sites. A phylogenetic tree based on amino acid sequences displays that the goose DRD2 protein is closely related to those of avian species. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrates that the DRD2-1, DRD2-2 and DRD2-4 transcripts are differentially expressed in the pituitary, ovary, hypothalamus, as well as in the kidney, whereas the DRD2-3 transcript is widely expressed in all the examined tissues at different levels. Meanwhile, 54 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 4 insert-deletion (indel) variations were identified in the coding region and partial intron region of the goose DRD2 gene. Those findings will help us gain insight into the functions of the DRD2 gene in geese.
- Gene.Gene.2014 Feb 10;535(2):177-83. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2013.11.037. Epub 2013 Dec 2.
- Dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene, a member of the dopamine receptors gene family, has been studied as a candidate gene for broodiness due to its special effects on avian prolactin secretion. Here, the genomic DNA and cDNA sequences of goose (Anser cygnoides) DRD2 gene were cloned and characterized f
- PMID 24309374
- 頭痛 (特集 概日リズムと疾患 : 病態・診断・治療の最新知見)
- Age-Dependent Changes in the mRNA Levels of Neuropeptide Y, Proopiomelanocortin, and Corticotropin-Releasing Factor in the Hypothalamus in Growing Broiler Chicks
- Saneyasu Takaoki,Nakanishi Kiwako,Atsuta Hiroyuki [他]
- Journal of poultry science 50(4), 364-369, 2013-10
- NAID 40019836735
- Electroconvulsive seizures activate anorexigenic signals in the ventromedial nuclei of the hypothalamus.
- Segi-Nishida Eri,Sukeno Mamiko,Imoto Yuki,Kira Toshihiko,Sakaida Mari,Tsuchiya Soken,Sugimoto Yukihiko,Okuno Yasushi
- Neuropharmacology 71, 164-173, 2013-08
- … The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) plays an important role in feeding and energy homeostasis. … Furthermore, gold-thioglucose-induced hypothalamic lesions, including the VMH and the arcuate nucleus, abolished the anorexigenic effects of ECS, indicating the requirement for the activation of the hypothalamus. …
- NAID 120005295921
- The hypothalamus has a central neuroendocrine function, most notably by its control of the anterior pituitary, which in turn regulates various endocrine glands and organs. Releasing hormones (also called releasing factors) are ...
- HYPOTHALAMUS.COM - The hypothalamus is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions. ... The hypothalamus is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety ...
- hypothalamus (KH)
- 翼板の下部を形成する視床下部は多数の核域に分化し、睡眠、消化、体温、および情緒行動のような内臓機能調節中枢として役立つ。乳頭体はこの核域の一つ (L.413)
- hypothalamus、lamina terminalis、OVLT
- ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei、ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus、ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus、VMH
- ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei、ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus、ventromedial hypothalamus、VMH
- medial hypothalamus
- lateral hypothalamic area