- a minor chemical constituent that gives a wine or liquor its distinctive character
- a whole (a thing or person) of the same kind or category as another; "lard was also used, though its congener, butter, was more frequently employed"; "the American shopkeeper differs from his European congener"
- belonging to the same genus (同)congenerical, congenerous
- 同種類の人(物) / 同属の動(植)物
Congener (from Latin congener "of the same race or kind", from com- "together" + gener-, stem of genus "kind") has several different meanings depending on the field in which it is used. Colloquially, it is used to mean a person or thing like another, in character or action.
- 1 Biology
- 2 Chemistry
- 3 Genetics
- 4 In alcoholic beverages
- 5 References
- 6 External links
In biology, congeners are organisms within the same genus. A related term—referring to members of the same species -- is conspecific.
Example of a congener: the number and locations of Cl groups can vary
In chemistry, congeners are related chemicals, e.g., elements in the same group of the periodic table, or derivatives thereof.
- There are 209 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) as well as 209 congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE).
- Congeners of oleic acids can modify cell membrane behavior protecting against tumors or having effects on blood pressure.
- Congeners refer to the other elements in a group in the periodic table. For example, the congeners of the Group 11 element copper are silver and gold. Similarly, sodium chloride and potassium chloride may be considered congeners.
In genetics, congenic organisms are organisms with very similar genomes, except for a small fraction. For example, recombinant congenic mice strains are produced in laboratories as a tool to study genetic disease.
In alcoholic beverages
In the alcoholic beverages industry, congeners, also known as fusel oils, are substances produced during fermentation. These substances include small amounts of chemicals such as acetone, acetaldehyde, and other higher alcohols, esters, and aldehydes (e.g. propanol, glycols, ethyl acetate). Congeners are responsible for most of the taste and aroma of distilled alcoholic beverages, and contribute to the taste of non-distilled drinks. It has been suggested that these substances contribute to the symptoms of a hangover.
- ^ Congener, Merriam-Webster.com. Accessed 2009-03-25
- ^ Understanding Congeners in Wine, Wines & Vines. Accessed 2011-4-20
- ^ Whisky hangover 'worse than vodka, a study suggests', BBC News. Accessed 2009-12-19
- Relationships of Sweetness in Lager to Selected Volatile Congeners
- Effects of oleic acid and its congeners, elaidic and stearic acids, on the structural properties of phosphatidylethanolamine membranes
- Resource partitioning by sunfish (centrarchidae) populations in an Adirondack lake
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- Simultaneous determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in human serum and plasma.
- Lin YP, Pessah IN, Puschner B.SourceDepartment of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. email@example.com
- Talanta.Talanta.2013 Sep 15;113:41-8. doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2013.04.001. Epub 2013 Apr 8.
- Sensitive and reliable methods for simultaneous determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in limited volumes of human serum or plasma need to be further documented especially when they accumulate at low levels that are still capable of disrupting en
- PMID 23708622
- Histopathological effects of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in the gills, intestine and liver of turbot (Psetta maxima).
- Barja-Fernández S, Míguez JM, Alvarez-Otero R.SourceLaboratorio de Biología Celular, Departamento de Biología Funcional y Ciencias de la Salud, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain.
- Ecotoxicology and environmental safety.Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.2013 Sep;95:60-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2013.05.028. Epub 2013 Jun 28.
- Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have become ubiquitous environmental pollutants because of their widespread use as flame retardants in various consumer products (plastics, textiles, electronic appliances and building materials) and their long half-life. BDE-47 (2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl et
- PMID 23816362
- Assessment of PCDD/Fs levels in soil at a contaminated sawmill site in Sweden - A GIS and PCA approach to interpret the contamination pattern and distribution.
- Henriksson S, Hagberg J, Bäckström M, Persson I, Lindström G.SourceArvika kommun, 15 Miljöstaben, 671 81 Arvika, Sweden; MTM Research Centre, Örebro University, 701 82 Örebro, Sweden. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987).Environ Pollut.2013 Sep;180:19-26. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2013.05.002. Epub 2013 May 28.
- Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-furans (PCDD/Fs) were analysed in soil from a Swedish sawmill site where chlorophenols (CPs) had been used more than 40 years ago. The most contaminated area at the site was the preservation subarea where the PCDD/F WHO2005-TEQ level wa
- PMID 23727563
- Separation of closely eluting chloronaphthalene congeners by two-dimensional gas chromatography/quadrupole mass spectrometry: An advanced tool in the study and risk analysis of dioxin-like chloronaphthalenes.
- Hanari N, Falandysz J, Nakano T, Petrick G, Yamashita N.SourceNational Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8563, Japan. Electronic address: email@example.com.
- Journal of chromatography. A.J Chromatogr A.2013 Aug 2;1301:209-14. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2013.05.070. Epub 2013 Jun 6.
- Two capillary columns of different polarity were applied in a two-dimensional gas chromatography system coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometric detection (GCxGC/qMS) in order to separate and identify all of the possible 22 isomers of tetra-, 14 of penta- and 10 of hexachloronaphthalene that may o
- PMID 23796417
- 降雨による都市水路中のダイオキシン類濃度と組成の変化 : 古綾瀬川汚染実態調査
- Female Sex Pheromone of Cystidia couaggaria couaggaria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae): Identification and Field Attraction
- YAMAKAWA Rei,TAKUBO Yoshiko,OHBAYASHI Kanako,NAKA Hideshi,ANDO Tetsu
- Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 76(7), 1303-1307, 2012
- … Males of Cystidia truncangulata, a sympatric diurnal congener of C. …
- NAID 130001862718
- A bottle of Budweiser has six times the congener content of a Long Island iced tea, but about two-thirds the amount of alcohol. ... congener con·ge·ner (kŏn'jə-nər) n. A member of the same kind, class, or group. An organism of the ...
- congenerとは。意味や和訳。[名]1 同種[同類]の物；（性格・行動などが）似た人.2 同属の動植物. - goo英和辞書は14万項目以上を収録し、発音、音声、慣用句、例文が分かる英和辞書です。
- congener [kon´jĕ-ner] something closely related to another thing, or derived from the same source or stock, such as a member of the same genus, a muscle having the same function as another, or a chemical compound closely ...
- estrogen analog、estrogen analogue、synthetic estrogen
- synthetic progestin
- synthetic androgen