- baboons (同)genus Mandrillus
- undergo military training or do military exercises
- similar to the mandrill but smaller and less brightly colored (同)Mandrillus leucophaeus
- (military) the training of soldiers to march (as in ceremonial parades) or to perform the manual of arms
- a tool with a sharp point and cutting edges for making holes in hard materials (usually rotating rapidly or by repeated blows)
- learn by repetition; "We drilled French verbs every day"; "Pianists practice scales" (同)exercise, practice, practise
- teach by repetition
- train in the military, e.g., in the use of weapons
- baboon of west Africa with a bright red and blue muzzle and blue hindquarters (同)Mandrillus sphinx
- 〈C〉『きり』,『ドリル』,穴あけ機 / 〈U〉練兵,教練 / 〈U〉〈C〉『反復練習』,(系統的な)けいこ / 〈U〉〈C〉(事態に処するための)訓練 / 〈穴〉‘を'『あける』;…‘に'穴をあける / (…を)〈人〉‘に'『繰り返し教え込む』《+『名』〈人〉+『in』+『名』》;(人に)〈物事〉‘を'厳しく訓練して教え込む《+『名』+『into』+『名』〈人〉》 / 〈兵士〉‘を'教練する / 《米俗》〈人〉‘を'撃ち抜く / (きりなどで)貫く,穴をあける / (軍事などの)訓練を受ける,練習する
- (種をまくための)小みぞ / 種まき機 / (筋まきした)種の列 / 〈種〉‘を'筋まきする,〈苗〉‘を'筋植えする
- Loss of memory CD4+ T-cells in semi-wild mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) naturally infected with species-specific simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmnd-1.
- Greenwood EJ, Schmidt F, Liégeois F, Kondova I, Herbert A, Ngoubangoye B, Rouet F, Heeney JL.Author information University of Cambridge, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Cambridge CB3 0ES, UK.AbstractSimian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection is found in a number of African primate species and is thought to be generally non-pathogenic. However, studies of wild primates are limited to two species, with SIV infection appearing to have a considerably different outcome in each. Further examination of SIV-infected primates exposed to their natural environment is therefore warranted. We performed a large cross-sectional study of a cohort of semi-wild mandrills with naturally occurring SIV infection, including 39 SIV-negative and 33 species-specific SIVmnd-1-infected animals. This study was distinguished from previous reports by considerably greater sample size, examination of exclusively naturally infected animals in semi-wild conditions and consideration of simian T-lymphotropic virus (STLV) status in addition to SIVmnd-1 infection. We found that SIVmnd-1 infection was associated with a significant and progressive loss of memory CD4(+) T-cells. Limited but significant increases in markers of immune activation in the T-cell populations, significant increases in plasma neopterin and changes to B-cell subsets were also observed in SIV-infected animals. However, no increase in plasma soluble CD14 was observed. Histological examination of peripheral lymph nodes suggested that SIVmnd-1 infection was not associated with a significant disruption of the lymph node architecture. Whilst this species has evolved numerous strategies to resist the development of AIDS, significant effects of SIV infection could be observed when examined in a natural environment. STLVmnd-1 infection also had significant effects on some markers relevant to understanding SIV infection and thus should be considered in studies of SIV infection of African primates where present.
- The Journal of general virology.J Gen Virol.2014 Jan;95 Pt 1:201-12. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.059808-0. Epub 2013 Nov 8.
- Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection is found in a number of African primate species and is thought to be generally non-pathogenic. However, studies of wild primates are limited to two species, with SIV infection appearing to have a considerably different outcome in each. Further examinatio
- PMID 24214347
- Testing for post-copulatory selection for major histocompatibility complex genotype in a semi-free-ranging primate population.
- Setchell JM, Abbott KM, Gonzalez JP, Knapp LA.Author information Evolutionary Anthropology Research Group, Department of Anthropology, Durham University, Durham, United Kingdom. firstname.lastname@example.orgAbstractA large body of evidence suggests that major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genotype influences mate choice. However, few studies have investigated MHC-mediated post-copulatory mate choice under natural, or even semi-natural, conditions. We set out to explore this question in a large semi-free-ranging population of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) using MHC-DRB genotypes for 127 parent-offspring triads. First, we showed that offspring MHC heterozygosity correlates positively with parental MHC dissimilarity suggesting that mating among MHC dissimilar mates is efficient in increasing offspring MHC diversity. Second, we compared the haplotypes of the parental dyad with those of the offspring to test whether post-copulatory sexual selection favored offspring with two different MHC haplotypes, more diverse gamete combinations, or greater within-haplotype diversity. Limited statistical power meant that we could only detect medium or large effect sizes. Nevertheless, we found no evidence for selection for heterozygous offspring when parents share a haplotype (large effect size), genetic dissimilarity between parental haplotypes (we could detect an odds ratio of ≥1.86), or within-haplotype diversity (medium-large effect). These findings suggest that comparing parental and offspring haplotypes may be a useful approach to test for post-copulatory selection when matings cannot be observed, as is the case in many study systems. However, it will be extremely difficult to determine conclusively whether post-copulatory selection mechanisms for MHC genotype exist, particularly if the effect sizes are small, due to the difficulty in obtaining a sufficiently large sample.
- American journal of primatology.Am J Primatol.2013 Oct;75(10):1021-31. doi: 10.1002/ajp.22166. Epub 2013 May 15.
- A large body of evidence suggests that major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genotype influences mate choice. However, few studies have investigated MHC-mediated post-copulatory mate choice under natural, or even semi-natural, conditions. We set out to explore this question in a large semi-free-ran
- PMID 23677678
- Nasopalatine ducts and flehmen behavior in the mandrill: reevaluating olfactory communication in Old World primates.
- Charpentier MJ, Mboumba S, Ditsoga C, Drea CM.Author information CEFE-CNRS UMR 5175, Montpellier, France. email@example.comAbstractCompared to other modes of communication, chemical signaling between conspecifics generally has been overlooked in Old World primates, despite the presence in this group of secretory glands and scent-marking behavior, as well as the confirmed production and perception of olfactory signals. In other mammalian species, flehmen is a behavior thought to transport primarily nonvolatile, aqueous-soluble odorants via specialized ducts to the vomeronasal organ (VNO). By contrast, Old World primates are traditionally thought to lack a functional VNO, relying instead on the main olfactory system to process volatile odorants from their environment. Here, in the mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx), we document unusual morphological and behavioral traits that typically are associated with the uptake of conspecific chemical cues for processing by an accessory olfactory system. Notably, we confirmed that both sexes possess open nasopalatine ducts and, in response to the presentation of conspecific odorants, we found that both sexes showed stereotyped behavior consistent with the flehmen response. If, as in other species, flehmen in the mandrill serves to mediate social or reproductive information, we expected its occurrence to vary with characteristics of either the signaler or receiver. Flehmen, particularly in a given male, occurred most often in response to odorants derived from male, as opposed to female, conspecifics. Moreover, odorants derived during the breeding season elicited more flehmen responses than did odorants collected during the birthing season. Lastly, odorants from reproductively cycling females also elicited more responses than did odorants from contracepted females. Although confirming a link between the nasopalatine ducts, flehmen behavior, and olfactory processing in mandrills would require further study, our observations provide new information to suggest anatomical variability within Old World primates, calling further attention to the underappreciated role of chemical communication in this lineage.
- American journal of primatology.Am J Primatol.2013 Jul;75(7):703-14. doi: 10.1002/ajp.22146. Epub 2013 Mar 22.
- Compared to other modes of communication, chemical signaling between conspecifics generally has been overlooked in Old World primates, despite the presence in this group of secretory glands and scent-marking behavior, as well as the confirmed production and perception of olfactory signals. In other
- PMID 23526642
- NEWS AND PERSPECTIVES : New evidence from observations of progressions of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) : a multilevel or non-nested society?
- Nasal architecture in Procynocephalus wimani (Early Pleistocene, China) and implications for its phyletic relationship with Paradolichopithecus
- NISHIMURA TAKESHI D.,ITO TSUYOSHI,YANO WATARU,EBBESTAD JAN OVE R.,TAKAI MASANARU
- Anthropological Science, 2014
- … The inferior conchae are suspended from the superior portion of the nasal cavity in Papio/Theropithecus and Mandrillus, and the maxillary fossa is developed by major absorption of the maxillary cancellous bone in Papionina. …
- NAID 130004677978
- Muzzle size, paranasal swelling size and body mass in Mandrillus leucophaeus
- Elton Sarah,Morgan Bethan J.
- Primates : journal of primatology 47(2), 151-157, 2006-04-01
- NAID 10018124485
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