- an antifungal agent usually administered in the form of a nitrate (trade name Monistat) (同)Monistat
|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Trade names||Desenex, Monistat, Zeasorb-AF|
|Legal status||POM (UK) OTC (US)|
|ATC code||A01A07 D01 G01 J02 S02|
|Mol. mass||416.127 g/mol|
| Y (what is this?)
Miconazole is an imidazole antifungal agent, developed by Janssen Pharmaceutica, commonly applied topically to the skin or to mucus membranes to cure fungal infections. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a critical component of fungal cell membranes. It can also be used against certain species of Leishmania protozoa which are a type of unicellular parasite that also contain ergosterol in their cell membranes. In addition to its antifungal and antiparasitic actions, it also has some limited antibacterial properties. It is marketed in various formulations under various brand names.
Miconazole is also used in Ektachrome film developing in the final rinse of the Kodak E-6 process and similar Fuji CR-56 process, replacing formaldehyde. Fuji Hunt also includes miconazole as a final rinse additive in their formulation of the C-41RA rapid access color negative developing process.
Miconazole is mainly used externally for the treatment of athlete's foot, ringworm and jock itch. Internal application is used for oral or vaginal thrush (yeast infection). The oral gel may also be used for the lip disorder angular cheilitis.
In the UK miconazole may be used to treat neonatal oral thrush, while the alternative nystatin is only licensed for patients over the age of one month; but drug interactions are possible.
Unlike nystatin, some miconazole is absorbed by the intestinal tract when used orally (and possibly if used vaginally); this may lead to drug interactions.
Interactions are possible with anticoagulants, phenytoin, terbinafine, some newer atypical antipsychotics, ciclosporin and some statins used to treat hypercholesterolemia.
Brand names and formulations
Oral treatment: (brands: Daktarin in UK)
- Oral gel 24 mg/ml (20 mg/g)
- Oravig 50 mg once daily buccal tablet:
In 2010 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Oravig (miconazole) buccal tablets once daily for the local treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), more commonly known as thrush, in adults and children age 16 and older. Oravig is the only local, oral prescription formulation of miconazole approved for this use in the U.S.
External skin treatment: (brands: Desenex and Zeasorb-AF in US and Canada, Micatin, Monistat-Derm, Daktarin in UK, Australia, Belgium and the Philippines, Decocort in Malaysia)
- Topical cream: 2%.
- Combination: Hydrocortisone/miconazole cream with 1% and 2%, respectively (Daktacort in UK, Daktodor in Greece)
- Dusting powder: 2% powder with chlorhexidine hydrochloride (mycoDust)
Vaginal treatment: (brands: Miconazex, Monistat, Femizol or Gyno-Daktarin in UK)
- Pessaries: 200 mg or 100 mg
- Vaginal cream: 2% (7-day treatment); 4% (3-day treatment)
- Combination: 2% cream with either 100 mg or 200 mg.
Miconazole has recently gained some popularity as a hair-growth aid, although there is little evidence of its efficacy. Topical application of ketoconazole, a similar drug, has been shown to increase hair growth. However, oral administration of ketoconazole has also been shown to reduce hair growth in cases of hirsutism.
The solubilities of miconazole nitrate powder are 0.03% in water 0.76% in ethanol and up to 4% in acetic acid.
- Antifungal medication
- Castor oil
- Cremophor EL
- E-6 process
- British National Formulary '45' March 2003
- "Strange Beauty: Monistat Effectively Increases Hair Growth?". Black Girl With Long Hair. http://blackgirllonghair.com/2012/04/strange-beauty-monistat-effectively-increases-hair-growth/. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- Ketoconazole Shampoo: Effect of Long-Term Use in Androgenic Alopecia
- Ju, Jiang; Tsuboi, Ryoji ; Kojima, Yuko ; Ogawa, Hideoki (2005). "Topical application of ketoconazole stimulates hair growth in C3H/HeN mice". Journal of dermatology 32: 243-247. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=16886507.
- S., Venturoli; O. Marescalchi, F. M. Colombo, S. Macrelli, B. Ravaioli, A. Bagnoli, R. Paradisi and C. Flamigni (April 1999). "A Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing Low Dose Flutamide, Finasteride, Ketoconazole, and Cyproterone Acetate-Estrogen Regimens in the Treatment of Hirsutism". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 84 (4): 1304-1310. http://jcem.endojournals.org/content/84/4/1304.short. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- United States Patent 5461068
- Miconazole (www.meds-help.com)
- Miconazole (National Institutes of Health)
- United States Patent 5461068 Imidazole derivative tincture and method of manufacture
- Kodak process E6 Ektachrome (color transparency) processing manual Z-119
- Kodak process E6 Q-LAB processing manual Z-6 (more details than processing manual Z119 above)
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- In Vitro Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Vaginal Tablets of Antifungal Drugs Prepared with Thiolated Polymer and Development of a New Dissolution Technique for Vaginal Formulations
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- CHEMICAL & PHARMACEUTICAL BULLETIN 59(8), 952-958, 2011
- … Econazole nitrate (EN) and miconazole nitrate (MN) were used as antifungal drugs to prepare the vaginal tablet formulations. …
- NAID 130000960925
- 平間 祐志,兼俊 明夫,長南 隆夫
- 北海道立衛生研究所報 (60), 33-37, 2010
- NAID 40018740138
- Miconazole is an imidazole antifungal agent, developed by Janssen Pharmaceutica, commonly applied topically to the skin or to mucus membranes to cure fungal infections. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a critical component ...
- miconazole, MCZ
- 硝酸ミコナゾール miconazole nitrate