irrigation

出典: meddic

  • n.
(傷などの)洗浄灌注潅漑潅水
cleaningcleansingirrigatelavagewashwashing

WordNet   license wordnet

「(medicine) cleaning a wound or body organ by flushing or washing out with water or a medicated solution」

WordNet   license wordnet

「supplying dry land with water by means of ditches etc」

PrepTutorEJDIC   license prepejdic

「潅漑(かんがい) / (傷口などの)洗浄」

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出典(authority):フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』「2014/01/14 21:23:02」(JST)

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英文文献

  • Sustainable agricultural use of natural water sources containing elevated radium activity.
  • Tripler E1, Haquin G2, Koch J2, Yehuda Z3, Shani U4.Author information 1Southern Arava Research and Development, Hevel-Eilot 88820, Israel. Electronic address: tripler@agri.huji.ac.il.2Radiation Safety Division, Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne 81800, Israel.3Southern Arava Research and Development, Hevel-Eilot 88820, Israel; Department of Soil and Water Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel.4Department of Soil and Water Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel.AbstractRelatively elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radium isotopes ((226)Ra, (228)Ra and (224)Ra) are found in two main aquifers in the arid southern part of Israel, in activity concentrations frequently exceeding the limits set in the drinking water quality regulations. We aimed to explore the environmental implications of using water containing Ra for irrigation. Several crops (cucumbers, melons, radish, lettuce, alfalfa and wheat), grown in weighing lysimeters were irrigated at 3 levels of (226)Ra activity concentration: Low Radium Water (LRW)<0.04BqL(-1); High Radium Water (HRW) at 1.8BqL(-1) and (3) Radium Enriched Water (REW) at 50 times the concentration in HRW. The HYDRUS 1-D software package was used to simulate the long-term (226)Ra distribution in a soil irrigated with HRW for 15years. Radium uptake by plants was found to be controlled by its activity in the irrigation water and in the soil solution, the physical properties of the soil and the potential evapotranspiration. The (226)Ra apeared to accumulate mainly in the leaves of crops following the evapotranspiration current, while its accumulation in the edible parts (fruits and roots) was minimal. The simulation of 15years of crop irrigation by HYDERUS 1-D, showed a low Ra activity concentration in the soil solution of the root zone and a limited downward mobility. It was therefore concluded that the crops investigated in this study can be irrigated with the natural occurring activity concentration of (226)Ra of 0.6-1.6BqL(-1). This should be accompanied by a continuous monitoring of radium in the edible parts of the crops.
  • Chemosphere.Chemosphere.2014 Jun;104:205-11. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.11.020. Epub 2013 Dec 15.
  • Relatively elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radium isotopes ((226)Ra, (228)Ra and (224)Ra) are found in two main aquifers in the arid southern part of Israel, in activity concentrations frequently exceeding the limits set in the drinking water quality regulations. We aimed to explore t
  • PMID 24345672
  • Metal speciation and potential bioavailability changes during discharge and neutralisation of acidic drainage water.
  • Simpson SL1, Vardanega CR2, Jarolimek C3, Jolley DF4, Angel BM3, Mosley LM5.Author information 1Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, Locked Bag 2007, Kirrawee, NSW 2232, Australia. Electronic address: stuart.simpson@csiro.au.2Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, Locked Bag 2007, Kirrawee, NSW 2232, Australia; School of Chemistry, University of Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.3Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, Locked Bag 2007, Kirrawee, NSW 2232, Australia.4School of Chemistry, University of Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.5Environment Protection Authority South Australia, GPO Box 2607, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia.AbstractThe discharge of acid drainage from the farm irrigation areas to the Murray River in South Australia represents a potential risk to water quality. The drainage waters have low pH (2.9-5.7), high acidity (up to 1190mgL(-1) CaCO3), high dissolved organic carbon (10-40mgL(-1)), and high dissolved Al, Co, Ni and Zn (up to 55, 1.25, 1.30 and 1.10mgL(-1), respectively) that represent the greatest concern relative to water quality guidelines (WQGs). To provide information on bioavailability, changes in metal speciation were assessed during mixing experiments using filtration (colloidal metals) and Chelex-lability (free metal ions and weak inorganic metal complexes) methods. Following mixing of drainage and river water, much of the dissolved aluminium and iron precipitated. The concentrations of other metals generally decreased conservatively in proportion to the dilution initially, but longer mixing periods caused increased precipitation or adsorption to particulate phases. Dissolved Co, Mn and Zn were typically 95-100% present in Chelex-labile forms, whereas 40-70% of the dissolved nickel was Chelex-labile and the remaining non-labile fraction of dissolved nickel was associated with fine colloids or complexed by organic ligands that increased with time. Despite the different kinetics of precipitation, adsorption and complexation reactions, the dissolved metal concentrations were generally highly correlated for the pooled data sets, indicating that the major factors controlling the concentrations were similar for each metal (pH, dilution, and time following mixing). For dilutions of the drainage waters of less than 1% with Murray River water, none of the metals should exceed the WQGs. However, the high concentrations of metals associated with fine precipitates within the receiving waters may represent a risk to some aquatic organisms.
  • Chemosphere.Chemosphere.2014 May;103:172-80. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.11.059. Epub 2013 Dec 18.
  • The discharge of acid drainage from the farm irrigation areas to the Murray River in South Australia represents a potential risk to water quality. The drainage waters have low pH (2.9-5.7), high acidity (up to 1190mgL(-1) CaCO3), high dissolved organic carbon (10-40mgL(-1)), and high dissolved Al, C
  • PMID 24359925
  • Ethoprophos fate on soil-water interface and effects on non-target terrestrial and aquatic biota under Mediterranean crop-based scenarios.
  • Leitão S1, Moreira-Santos M2, Van den Brink PJ3, Ribeiro R4, José Cerejeira M5, Sousa JP6.Author information 1Instituto Superior de Agronomia, University of Lisbon, Centro de Engenharia dos Biossistemas (CEER), Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal. Electronic address: saraleitao@isa.utl.pt.2IMAR-CMA, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, Apartado 3046, 3001-401 Coimbra, Portugal. Electronic address: matilde.santos@zoo.uc.pt.3Department of Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management, Wageningen University, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700AA Wageningen, The Netherlands; Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700AA Wageningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: Paul.vandenBrink@wur.nl.4IMAR-CMA, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, Apartado 3046, 3001-401 Coimbra, Portugal. Electronic address: rui.ribeiro@zoo.uc.pt.5Instituto Superior de Agronomia, University of Lisbon, Centro de Engenharia dos Biossistemas (CEER), Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal. Electronic address: mcerejeira@isa.utl.pt.6IMAR-CMA, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, Apartado 3046, 3001-401 Coimbra, Portugal. Electronic address: jps@zoo.uc.pt.AbstractThe present study aimed to assess the environmental fate of the insecticide and nematicide ethoprophos in the soil-water interface following the pesticide application in simulated maize and potato crops under Mediterranean agricultural conditions, particularly of irrigation. Focus was given to the soil-water transfer pathways (leaching and runoff), to the pesticide transport in soil between pesticide application (crop row) and non-application areas (between crop rows), as well as to toxic effects of the various matrices on terrestrial and aquatic biota. A semi-field methodology mimicking a "worst-case" ethoprophos application (twice the recommended dosage for maize and potato crops: 100% concentration v/v) in agricultural field situations was used, in order to mimic a possible misuse by the farmer under realistic conditions. A rainfall was simulated under a slope of 20° for both crop-based scenarios. Soil and water samples were collected for the analysis of pesticide residues. Ecotoxicity of soil and aquatic samples was assessed by performing lethal and sublethal bioassays with organisms from different trophic levels: the collembolan Folsomia candida, the earthworm Eisenia andrei and the cladoceran Daphnia magna. Although the majority of ethoprophos sorbed to the soil application area, pesticide concentrations were detected in all water matrices illustrating pesticide transfer pathways of water contamination between environmental compartments. Leaching to groundwater proved to be an important transfer pathway of ethoprophos under both crop-based scenarios, as it resulted in high pesticide concentration in leachates from Maize (130µgL(-1)) and Potato (630µgL(-1)) crop scenarios, respectively. Ethoprophos application at the Potato crop scenario caused more toxic effects on terrestrial and aquatic biota than at the Maize scenario at the recommended dosage and lower concentrations. In both crop-based scenarios, ethoprophos moved with the irrigation water flow to the soil between the crop rows where no pesticide was applied, causing toxic effects on terrestrial organisms. The two simulated agricultural crop-based scenarios had the merit to illustrate the importance of transfer pathways of pesticides from soil to groundwater through leaching and from crop rows to the surrounding soil areas in a soil-water interface environment, which is representative for irrigated agricultural crops under Mediterranean conditions.
  • Ecotoxicology and environmental safety.Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.2014 May;103:36-44. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.01.029. Epub 2014 Feb 21.
  • The present study aimed to assess the environmental fate of the insecticide and nematicide ethoprophos in the soil-water interface following the pesticide application in simulated maize and potato crops under Mediterranean agricultural conditions, particularly of irrigation. Focus was given to the s
  • PMID 24562181
  • A probabilistic quantitative microbial risk assessment model of norovirus disease burden from wastewater irrigation of vegetables in Shepparton, Australia.
  • Mok HF1, Barker SF2, Hamilton AJ3.Author information 1Department of Agriculture and Food Systems, Melbourne School of Land and Environment, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia.2Department of Resource Management and Geography, Melbourne School of Land and Environment, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia.3Department of Agriculture and Food Systems, Melbourne School of Land and Environment, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia. Electronic address: andrewjh@unimelb.edu.au.AbstractWastewater can be an important resource for water-scarce regions of the world, but a major barrier to its use is the associated health risk. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is a probabilistic modeling technique used to determine the health risks from wastewater reuse, but only a handful of QMRA studies have examined the norovirus health risks from consumption of vegetables irrigated with human wastewater, even though norovirus is a, if not the most, significant microbial cause of diarrheal disease world-wide. Furthermore, the majority of these studies have focused only on risks from lettuce consumption. To meet the knowledge gap in health risks for other vegetables, a QMRA model was constructed for agricultural wastewater irrigation in the regional city of Shepparton, Australia, using fecal shedding rates to estimate norovirus concentration in raw sewage. Annual norovirus disease burden was estimated for the consumption of lettuce, broccoli, cabbage, Asian vegetables, and cucumber after irrigation with treated wastewater. Results indicate that the waste stabilization pond treatment did not have sufficient virus removal to meet the World Health Organization (WHO) threshold for acceptable level of risk for wastewater reuse, but addition of disinfection treatments provided acceptable results for consumption of cucumber and broccoli. This is the first QMRA study to incorporate virus accumulation from previous wastewater irrigation events.
  • Water research.Water Res.2014 May 1;54:347-62. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2014.01.060. Epub 2014 Feb 6.
  • Wastewater can be an important resource for water-scarce regions of the world, but a major barrier to its use is the associated health risk. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is a probabilistic modeling technique used to determine the health risks from wastewater reuse, but only a handfu
  • PMID 24594660

和文文献

  • Arsenic-Induced Straighthead: An Impending Threat to Sustainable Rice Production in South and South-East Asia!
  • Rahman M. Azizur,Rahman M. Mamunur,Hasegawa Hiroshi
  • Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 88(3), 311-315, 2012-03
  • … The use of iAs-rich groundwater for irrigation, and the increase of iAs concentrations in agricultural soil in arsenic epidemic South and South-East Asia may cause a high incidence of straighthead in rice, resulting in a threat to sustainable rice production in this region. …
  • NAID 120003752535
  • 白内障術後外傷性無虹彩症の1例
  • 三田 覚/坂本 拡之/堀 貞夫
  • 東京女子医科大学雑誌 82(E1), E220-E225, 2012-01-31
  • 【目的】白内障手術後に鈍的外傷による外傷性無虹彩症を呈した症例を経験したので報告する。,【症例】59歳女性。眼既往に髄膜腫の眼窩内進展に対し放射線治療歴があり、左眼は放射線白内障および網膜症の合併がある。左眼白内障に対し手術を施行した。術14日後、左眼の鈍的外傷による視力低下にて再診した。前房出血をみとめ視力は光覚弁。手術創は閉鎖しており離解はなかった。虹彩が全周性に消失していたが眼内レンズ(IO …
  • NAID 110008767980
  • タクラマカン砂漠北縁地域の塩類集積と土壌の物理的性質(<特集>水・食料問題と地盤工学)
  • 神谷 光彦,長谷川 周一,山本 忠男,長澤 徹明
  • 地盤工学会誌 60(1), 20-23, 2012-01-01
  • … Effects of soil physical properties on the salinization of farmlands at northern region of Taklamakan desert were investigated by basin and drip irrigation methods. … Regardless of the irrigation methods, salt did not accumulate on the surface for soils having higher permeability conductivity but it appeared on the surface of soils having fine impervious subsoil because of insufficient salt leaching. …
  • NAID 110008897648

関連リンク

The Irrigation Association is the leading membership organization for irrigation companies and professionals. Together with our members, we are committed to promoting efficient irrigation and to long-term sustainability of water ...
irrigationとは。意味や和訳。[名][U]1 潅漑(かんがい);注水;潅漑された状態,潤うことan irrigation ditch潅漑用水路.2 医学潅注,洗浄an intestinal irrigation洗腸.ir・ri・ga・tive[形] - goo辞書は国語、英和、和英、中国語、百科事典等から ...
drip irrigation, green house, drip tape, drip hose, drip pipe, fertilizer

関連画像

irrigationOriginal file ‎ (2,100 × 1,500 pixels Original file ‎ (2,100 × 1,500 pixels spray irrigation4 1024x731 Agricultural IrrigationirrigationTheImpacts of Irrigated AgricultureIrrigation Systems * Landscape Lighting


★リンクテーブル★
リンク元wash」「胃洗浄」「irrigate」「cleaning」「lavage
拡張検索colonic irrigation」「irrigation ditch」「gastric irrigation

wash」

  [★]

  • v.
  • 洗浄する
  • n.
cleaningcleansingirrigateirrigationlavagerinsingwashing

WordNet   license wordnet

「separate dirt or gravel from (precious minerals)」

WordNet   license wordnet

「cleanse (one''s body) with soap and water」
lave

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「form by erosion; "The river washed a ravine into the mountainside"」

WordNet   license wordnet

「to cleanse (itself or another animal) by licking; "The cat washes several times a day"」

WordNet   license wordnet

「a watercolor made by applying a series of monochrome washes one over the other」
wash drawing

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「the work of cleansing (usually with soap and water)」
washing, lavation

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「a thin coat of water-base paint」

WordNet   license wordnet

「any enterprise in which losses and gains cancel out; "at the end of the year the accounting department showed that it was a wash"」

WordNet   license wordnet

「the dry bed of an intermittent stream (as at the bottom of a canyon)」
dry wash

WordNet   license wordnet

「cleanse with a cleaning agent, such as soap, and water; "Wash the towels, please!"」
launder

WordNet   license wordnet

「clean with some chemical process」
rinse

WordNet   license wordnet

「remove by the application of water or other liquid and soap or some other cleaning agent; "he washed the dirt from his coat"; "The nurse washed away the blood"; "Can you wash away the spots on the windows?"; "he managed to wash out the stains"」
wash out, wash off, wash away

WordNet   license wordnet

「admit to testing or proof; "This silly excuse won''t wash in traffic court"」

WordNet   license wordnet

「apply a thin coating of paint, metal, etc., to」

WordNet   license wordnet

「be capable of being washed; "Does this material wash?"」

WordNet   license wordnet

「move by or as if by water; "The swollen river washed away the footbridge"」

PrepTutorEJDIC   license prepejdic

「…‘を'洗う,洗濯する / 〈汚れ・しみなど〉‘を'『洗い落とす』《+名+away(off, out),+away(off, out)+名》;(…から)…‘を'洗い落とす《+名+off(out of)+名》 / 〈人・舟・家屋など〉‘を'『洗い流す』,押し流す《+名+away(along,down,up),+away(along,down,up)+名》,(…から)…‘を'洗い流す《+名+off(away from)+名》 / 〈波などが〉〈岸など〉‘を'『洗う』,‘に'打ち寄せる;〈雨などが〉…‘を'ぬらす,うるおす / (塗料などで)…‘を'薄く塗る;…‘を'メッキする《+名+with+名》 / 〈雨水などが〉…‘を'浸食する《+名+away(out),+away(out)+名》;〈雨だれなどが〉〈穴など》‘を'うがつ / (特に手・顔・体を)『洗う』 / 『洗濯する』 / 〈布地が〉洗濯がきく;〈洗剤などが〉よごれを落とす;〈しみなどが〉洗って落ちる《+off(out);(…から)〈しみなどが〉洗って落ちる《+off(out of)+名》 / 〈波などが〉(…に)『打ち寄せる』,(…を)洗う《+against(over)+名》 / 〈U〉《しばしば a~》『洗うこと』,洗濯 / 〈U〉《時に a~》《集合的に》(一度の洗濯の)『洗い物』,洗濯物 / 〈U〉〈C〉《しばしば複合語を作って》洗い薬,洗浄剤;(…のための)洗い薬《+for+名》 / 〈U〉《the~》(波の)打ち寄せ,(波の)打ち寄る音《+of+名》 / 〈C〉(絵の具・塗料などの)薄い一塗り;薄いメッキ / 〈U〉(船のあとに引く)白波,航跡;(飛行機などのあとに残る)気流の渦 / 洗濯のきく」


胃洗浄」

  [★]

lavage irrigation
gastric lavage, gastric irrigation, gastrolavage


適応

SQ.116
  • 1. 誤飲・誤食、化学物質摂取時
  • 毒物の経口摂取後1時間以内
  • 毒性の高い物質の摂取
  • 数時間経過後であっても胃に大量に残存していると考えられる場合
  • 2. 上部消化管出血に対する緊急胃十二指腸内視鏡施行のための前処置
  • 3. 幽門部通過障害時の胃内容物の排泄
たばこアスピリン、中性洗剤、ナフタリン樟脳

禁忌

  • 1. 腐食性物質(強酸、強アルカリなど)の服用
  • 2. 有機溶剤や石油製剤の服用(重篤な化学性肺炎のおそれ。気管挿管すればok):ガソリン、石油、灯油、シンナー、クレゾール
  • 3. 大量出血を来しうる食道病変(食道静脈瘤、マロリー・ワイス症候群、出血性潰瘍)
  • 4. 胃切除後
  • 5. 意識レベルの低下(誤嚥性肺炎のおそれ。気管挿管すればok)
  • 6. ストリキニーネ中毒:反射誘発の恐れ。気管挿管すればok



irrigate」

  [★]

  • v.
  • 洗浄する、灌注する
cleaningcleansingirrigationlavagewashwashing

WordNet   license wordnet

「supply with a constant flow or sprinkling of some liquid, for the purpose of cooling, cleansing, or disinfecting; "irrigate the wound"」

PrepTutorEJDIC   license prepejdic

「〈土地〉‘に'水を引く,‘を'潅漑(かんがい)する / 〈傷口など〉‘を'洗浄する」

cleaning」

  [★]

  • n.
cleancleansingirrigateirrigationlavagescavengewashwashing

WordNet   license wordnet

「the act of making something clean; "he gave his shoes a good cleaning"」
cleansing, cleanup

PrepTutorEJDIC   license prepejdic

「きれいにすること,掃除;クリーニング」


lavage」

  [★]

  • n.
  • (医)洗浄、洗浄液
  • vt.
  • (医)洗浄する
cleaningcleansingirrigateirrigationwashwashing

WordNet   license wordnet

「washing out a hollow organ (especially the stomach) by flushing with water」

PrepTutorEJDIC   license prepejdic

「(特に胃などの)洗浄」


colonic irrigation」

  [★]

WordNet   license wordnet

「a water enema given to flush out the colon」
colonic

irrigation ditch」

  [★]

WordNet   license wordnet

「a ditch to supply dry land with water artificially」

gastric irrigation」

  [★] 胃洗浄 gastric lavage




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