- leg、lower extremity、peduncle、pedunculus
- (nautical) the distance traveled by a sailing vessel on a single tack
- a cloth covering consisting of the part of a pair of trousers that covers a persons leg
- one of the supports for a piece of furniture
- a human limb; commonly used to refer to a whole limb but technically only the part of the limb between the knee and ankle
- a structure in animals that is similar to a human leg and used for locomotion
- the limb of an animal used for food
- stalk bearing an inflorescence or solitary flower
- the thin process of tissue that attaches a polyp to the body
- a bundle of myelinated neurons joining different parts of the brain (同)cerebral_peduncle
- (人・動物の)『脚』 / (ズボン・靴下などの)脚をおおう部分,脚部 / (家具などの)脚,形(機能)が脚に似た物 / (三角形の底辺を除く)一辺 / (旅などの全行程の中の)一区切り,一区間
- 花柄 / (クラゲ・エビなどの)柄
- Nutritionally driven differential gene expression leads to heterochronic brain development in honeybee castes.
- Moda LM1, Vieira J, Guimarães Freire AC, Bonatti V, Bomtorin AD, Barchuk AR, Simões ZL.Author information 1Departamento de Genética, Universidade de São Paulo-FMRP, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.AbstractThe differential feeding regimes experienced by the queen and worker larvae of the honeybee Apis mellifera shape a complex endocrine response cascade that ultimately gives rise to differences in brain morphologies. Brain development analyzed at the morphological level from the third (L3) through fifth (L5) larval instars revealed an asynchrony between queens and workers. In the feeding phase of the last larval instar (L5F), two well-formed structures, pedunculi and calyces, are identifiable in the mushroom bodies of queens, both of which are not present in workers until a later phase (spinning phase, L5S). Genome-wide expression analyses and normalized transcript expression experiments monitoring specific genes revealed that this differential brain development starts earlier, during L3. Analyzing brains from L3 through L5S1 larvae, we identified 21 genes with caste-specific transcription patterns (e.g., APC-4, GlcAT-P, fax, kr-h1 and shot), which encode proteins that are potentially involved in the development of brain tissues through controlling the cell proliferation rate (APC4, kr-h1) and fasciculation (GlcAT-P, fax, and shot). Shot, whose expression is known to be required for axon extension and cell proliferation, was found to be transcribed at significantly higher levels in L4 queens compared with worker larvae. Moreover, the protein encoded by this gene was immunolocalized to the cytoplasm of cells near the antennal lobe neuropiles and proximal to the Kenyon cells in the brains of L4 queens. In conclusion, during the larval period, the brains of queens are larger and develop more rapidly than workers' brains, which represents a developmental heterochrony reflecting the effect of the differential feeding regime of the two castes on nervous system development. Furthermore, this differential development is characterized by caste-specific transcriptional profiles of a set of genes, thus pointing to a link between differential nutrition and differential neurogenesis via genes that control cell proliferation and fasciculation.
- PloS one.PLoS One.2013 May 30;8(5):e64815. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064815. Print 2013.
- The differential feeding regimes experienced by the queen and worker larvae of the honeybee Apis mellifera shape a complex endocrine response cascade that ultimately gives rise to differences in brain morphologies. Brain development analyzed at the morphological level from the third (L3) through fif
- PMID 23738002
- Epilepsy in adult X-linked adrenoleucodystrophy due to the deletion c.1415-1416delAG in exon 5 of the ABCD1-gene.
- Brownstone E1, Voigtländer T, Baumhackl U, Finsterer J.Author information 14th Medical Department, Krankenanstalt Rudolfstiftung, Vienna, Austria.AbstractSeizures in cerebral X-linked adrenoleucodystrophy (X-ALD) more frequently occur in the early-onset compared to the late-onset form. Here we describe an adult in whom X-ALD deteriorated after head trauma and who developed epilepsy with progression of X-ALD. In a 50 year-old Caucasian male, cerebral X-ALD was diagnosed upon progressive gait disturbance, intellectual decline, elevated very-long chain fatty acids in the serum or leucocytes, cerebral MRI, showing extensive, symmetric, homogenous demyelination in the parieto-occipital areas, the splenium corporis callosum, the thalamus, the crura cerebri, the brain stem, and the pedunculi cerebelli, and the deletion c.1415-1416delAG in the ABCD1-gene. After a head trauma the phenotype deteriorated to mutism, dysphagia, and severe spastic quadruparesis. At an age of 50 years the patient experienced his first, self-limiting, tonic-clonic seizure during an infection, which is why valproic acid was started. Recurrence of seizures after discharge required repeated adaptation of the valproic acid-dosage. Adult X-ALD may be associated with late-onset seizures, which respond favourably to valproic acid. Since any type of seizure episode in adult-onset cerebral X-ALD is usually followed by neurological decline, prophylactic treatment with antiepileptic drugs should be considered not only in early-onset but also in adult-onset epilepsy in X-ALD.
- Gene.Gene.2013 Jan 15;513(1):71-4. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2012.10.076. Epub 2012 Nov 12.
- Seizures in cerebral X-linked adrenoleucodystrophy (X-ALD) more frequently occur in the early-onset compared to the late-onset form. Here we describe an adult in whom X-ALD deteriorated after head trauma and who developed epilepsy with progression of X-ALD. In a 50 year-old Caucasian male, cerebral
- PMID 23154058
- Cerebellar grey-matter deficits, cannabis use and first-episode schizophrenia in adolescents and young adults.
- Cohen M1, Rasser PE1, Peck G2, Carr VJ1, Ward PB3, Thompson PM4, Johnston P5, Baker A1, Schall U1.Author information 1Schizophrenia Research Institute, Sydney, Australia.2Priority Centre for Brain & Mental Health Research, The University of Newcastle, Australia.3School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.4Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, University of California Los Angeles, CA, USA.5Department of Psychology, University of York, UK.AbstractEpidemiological data link adolescent cannabis use to psychosis and schizophrenia, but its contribution to schizophrenia neuropathology remains controversial. First-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients show regional cerebral grey- and white-matter changes as well as a distinct pattern of regional grey-matter loss in the vermis of the cerebellum. The cerebellum possesses a high density of cannabinoid type 1 receptors involved in the neuronal diversification of the developing brain. Cannabis abuse may interfere with this process during adolescent brain maturation leading to 'schizophrenia-like' cerebellar pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging and cortical pattern matching techniques were used to investigate cerebellar grey and white matter in FES patients with and without a history of cannabis use and non-psychiatric cannabis users. In the latter group we found lifetime dose-dependent regional reduction of grey matter in the right cerebellar lobules and a tendency for more profound grey-matter reduction in lobule III with younger age at onset of cannabis use. The overall regional grey-matter differences in cannabis users were within the normal variability of grey-matter distribution. By contrast, FES subjects had lower total cerebellar grey-matter:total cerebellar volume ratio and marked grey-matter loss in the vermis, pedunculi, flocculi and lobules compared to pair-wise matched healthy control subjects. This pattern and degree of grey-matter loss did not differ from age-matched FES subjects with comorbid cannabis use. Our findings indicate small dose-dependent effects of juvenile cannabis use on cerebellar neuropathology but no evidence of an additional effect of cannabis use on FES cerebellar grey-matter pathology.
- The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology / official scientific journal of the Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum (CINP).Int J Neuropsychopharmacol.2012 Apr;15(3):297-307. doi: 10.1017/S146114571100068X. Epub 2011 May 4.
- Epidemiological data link adolescent cannabis use to psychosis and schizophrenia, but its contribution to schizophrenia neuropathology remains controversial. First-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients show regional cerebral grey- and white-matter changes as well as a distinct pattern of regional gre
- PMID 21557880
- 飯沼 壽孝
- 耳鼻咽喉科臨床 107(4), 339-343, 2014
- … The nerve fibers from each semicircular canal ended at the corresponding cerebellar pedunculi. …
- NAID 130003395649
- Crossed cerebellar atrophy in cases with cerebrovascular disease. Inestigation using X-ray computed tomography.:Inestigation using X-ray computed tomography
- 八木下 敏志行,岩淵 定,小島 重幸,平山 惠造
- 脳卒中 11(5), 557-563, 1989
- … The attack of the cerebrovascular disease had occured in these patients with CCA more than 2 months previously.<BR>It was observed that in 5 of the 8 cases with CCA, atrophy was present in the basis pedunculi and the basis pontis on the side of the cerebral lesion. … The cortico-ponto-cerebellar pathway begins chiefly in the frontal and temporal lobes, and it passes through the basis pedunculi and the basis pontis. …
- NAID 130003630834
- THE DEGENERATING PATTERN OF THE MONKEY PYRAMIDAL TRACT FIBERS FOLLOWING THE VARIOUS CORTICAL LESIONS: INCLUDING THE CORTICOBULBAR AND CORTICOCEREBELLAR TRACT:PART 1. THE QUALITATIVE STUDY
- NAITO HIROKAZU
- Ｔｈｅ Ｋｅｉｏ Ｊｏｕｒｎａｌ ｏｆ Ｍｅｄｉｃｉｎｅ 22(4), 163-171, 1973
- … Extensive intermingling of the projection fields is demonstrated at the cerebral peduncle but there is a denser aggregation of the face fibers toward the medial side, arm fibers in the middle and foot fibers toward the lateral side of the middle 3/5 of the cerebral peduncle.The parietopontine tract passes at the lateral 2/5 of the pes pedunculi. …
- NAID 130000872952
- By this definition, the cerebral peduncles are also known as the basis pedunculi, while the large ventral bundle of efferent fibers is referred to as the crus cerebri or the pes pedunculi. There are numerous nerve tracts located within this section ...
- lower extremity、peduncle、pedunculi、pedunculus
- leg、lower extremity、peduncle、pedunculus、pedunculi
- leg、lower extremity、pedunculi、pedunculus
- leg、lower extremity、peduncle、pedunculi