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- 1. アタマジラミ症 pediculosis capitis
- 2. 疥癬 scabies
- 3. 有機リン剤およびカルバメート中毒 organophosphate and carbamate poisoning
- 4. ケジラミ症と眼瞼ケジラミ症 pediculosis pubis and pediculosis ciliaris
- 5. 有機食品と小児 organic foods and children
- The effects of pesticide exposure on ultraviolet-B radiation avoidance behavior in tadpoles.
- Yu S1, Weir SM1, Cobb GP2, Maul JD3.Author information 1Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79416, USA.2Department of Environmental Science, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798, USA.3Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79416, USA. Electronic address: email@example.com.AbstractEffects of contaminants on behavior may have important consequences on wildlife populations because behaviors such as predation, predator avoidance, reproduction, and social interaction can affect population dynamics. As a common environmental stressor, ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation causes various deleterious effects and some aquatic organisms actively avoid UVB radiation in water. However, the extent to which environmental contaminants can impair UVB avoidance has not been evaluated, which may cause greater UVB exposure and toxicity. In the present study, we used Xenopus laevis tadpoles to determine if acute exposure to sublethal concentrations of agricultural chemicals can alter tadpole response to UVB radiation. We exposed tadpoles to four pesticides (malathion, endosulfan, α-cypermethrin, and chlorothalonil) for 96h. At the end of the exposure, tadpoles were transferred to tanks divided into UVB and no-UVB areas. We observed tadpoles for 30min and recorded time spent in the UVB area. We compared the proportion of time tadpoles spent in the UVB area among different concentrations for each pesticide. There was no significant difference between FETAX control and solvent control tadpoles. When combined, control tadpoles spent less than half of the time in the UVB area indicating that X. laevis tadpoles exhibit UVB avoidance behavior. Tadpoles exposed to 5μg/L endosulfan spent significantly more time under UVB than control tadpoles. Other pesticides had no effect on tadpole UVB avoidance behavior. Our results suggest that some neurotoxic pesticides can affect UVB avoidance in larval amphibians, which may increase their exposure and subsequently the risk of UVB-induced damage. The present study highlights the importance of examining the interaction between two stressors that co-occur across broad spatial scales and to consider behavioral alteration when evaluating the risk of pesticides to amphibians.
- The Science of the total environment.Sci Total Environ.2014 May 15;481:75-80. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.02.018. Epub 2014 Mar 2.
- Effects of contaminants on behavior may have important consequences on wildlife populations because behaviors such as predation, predator avoidance, reproduction, and social interaction can affect population dynamics. As a common environmental stressor, ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation causes various d
- PMID 24589757
- Determination of organothiophosphorus pesticides in water by liquid chromatography and post-column chemiluminescence with cerium(IV).
- Catalá-Icardo M1, Lahuerta-Zamora L2, Torres-Cartas S3, Meseguer-Lloret S3.Author information 1Instituto de Investigación para la Gestión Integrada de Zonas Costeras, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, C/Paranimf no.1, Grao de Gandía, 46730 Valencia, Spain. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.orgDepartamento de Farmacia, Universidad CEU-Cardenal Herrera, Avenida Seminario s/n, Moncada, 46113 Valencia, Spain.3Instituto de Investigación para la Gestión Integrada de Zonas Costeras, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, C/Paranimf no.1, Grao de Gandía, 46730 Valencia, Spain; Departamento de Farmacia, Universidad CEU-Cardenal Herrera, Avenida Seminario s/n, Moncada, 46113 Valencia, Spain.AbstractA new, fast, selective and sensitive method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of nine organothiophosphorus (OTP) pesticides, namely omethoate, dimethoate, disulfoton-sulfoxide, methidathion, phosmet, malathion, diazinon, pirimiphos-methyl and chlorpyrifos. The pesticides were separated on a Kinetex C18 column by gradient elution with acetonitrile:water. A post-column basic hydrolysis of the pesticides and later a chemiluminescence (CL) reaction with cerium (IV) in acid medium was carried out. Hexadecylpyridinium chloride highly enhanced the CL emission. Under optimized conditions, linearity, precision, limits of detection and quantification, and accuracy were determined. Both selectivity and sensitivity were compared with those obtained with UV detection. In combination with SPE, limits of detection in the range 15-80ng/L and 5-30ng/L were obtained when 250mL and 1000mL of solution were treated, respectively. When applied to 250mL of sample the inter-day precision of the method was between 3.5% and 7.3% and the intra-day precision between 2.9% and 6.0%. The method was applied to determine OTP pesticides in spiked water samples from different origins: irrigation, river, sea, ground, spring, mineral and tap waters, being the percentage of recovery of added amounts near 100% form most of the pesticides.
- Journal of chromatography. A.J Chromatogr A.2014 May 9;1341:31-40. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2014.03.024. Epub 2014 Mar 15.
- A new, fast, selective and sensitive method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of nine organothiophosphorus (OTP) pesticides, namely omethoate, dimethoate, disulfoton-sulfoxide, methidathion, phosmet, malathion, diazinon, pirimiphos-methyl and chlorpyrifos. The pesticides were sep
- PMID 24685163
- Microbial degradation of an organophosphate pesticide, malathion.
- Singh B1, Kaur J, Singh K.Author information 1Punjab Pollution Control Board , Patiala, Punjab , India and.AbstractOrganophosphorus pesticide, malathion, is used in public health, residential, and agricultural settings worldwide to control the pest population. It is proven that exposure to malathion produce toxic effects in humans and other mammals. Due to high toxicity, studies are going on to design effective methods for removal of malathion and its associated compounds from the environment. Among various techniques available, degradation of malathion by microbes proves to be an effective and environment friendly method. Recently, research activities in this area have shown that a diverse range of microorganisms are capable of degrading malathion. Therefore, we aimed at providing an overview of research accomplishments on this subject and discussed the toxicity of malathion and its metabolites, various microorganisms involved in its biodegradation and effect of various environmental parameters on its degradation.
- Critical reviews in microbiology.Crit Rev Microbiol.2014 May;40(2):146-54. doi: 10.3109/1040841X.2013.763222. Epub 2013 Feb 26.
- Organophosphorus pesticide, malathion, is used in public health, residential, and agricultural settings worldwide to control the pest population. It is proven that exposure to malathion produce toxic effects in humans and other mammals. Due to high toxicity, studies are going on to design effective
- PMID 23442144
- Detection of Pesticides on Tomato Fruit Surface by Ultraviolet Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry
- GHOLIPOUR Yousef,ERRA-BALSELLS Rosa,NONAMI Hiroshi
- Environment Control in Biology 50(2), 107-116, 2012
- … Fruits grown in the hydroponic system in a greenhouse were sprayed with a mixture of four pesticides including benomyl, triforine, milbemycin and malathion and collected one week later. … A malathion degradation product was also detected on the sprayed fruit pericarp. …
- NAID 130002145349
- Hepatoprotective effects of vitamin E/selenium against malathion-induced injuries on the antioxidant status and apoptosis-related gene expression in rats
- ABOUL-SOUD Mourad A. M.,AL-OTHMAN Abdulaziz M.,EL-DESOKY Gaber E.,AL-OTHMAN Zeid A.,YUSUF Kareem,AHMAD Javed,AL-KHEDHAIRY Abdulaziz A.
- Journal of toxicological sciences 36(3), 285-296, 2011-06-01
- … The present study is undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of vitamin E (α-tocopherol) and selenium (Se) against malathion (MTN)-induced oxidative stress and hepatic injuries in experimental rats. …
- NAID 10029135776
- タイのAedes (ヤブカ)属蚊の殺虫剤感受性の現状
- Raweewan Srisawat,Narumon Komalamisra,Theerawit Phanphoowong,高崎 智彦,Lucky Ronald Runtuwene,倉根 一郎,成田 弘成,江下 優樹
- 日本赤十字豊田看護大学紀要 6(1), 31-37, 2011-03-31
- デング熱の伝播を止めるのに現在使われている方法は、流行地域に殺虫剤を噴霧することである。そのような場合、媒介昆虫の殺虫剤感受性についての情報があれば、適切な殺虫剤を散布できるであろう。このことは対策プログラムの重要な要素でもある。そこで、WHO 感受性評価キットを使って、ネッタイシマカAedes aegypti とヒトスジシマカAe.albopictus の殺虫剤に対する感受性を調べた。2008 …
- NAID 110008439809
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