MIT

出典: meddic

<raw></raw>


See Monoiodotyrosine
Monoiodotyrosine

See Monoiodotyrosine
Monoiodotyrosine

Wikipedia preview

出典(authority):フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』「2013/03/21 07:21:57」(JST)

wiki ja

<toggledisplay showtext="[Wiki ja表示]" hidetext="[隠す]">

<raw>
マサチューセッツ工科大学
MIT校舎「グレートドーム」
大学設置 1865年
創立 1861年
学校種別 私立
設置者 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Corporation
本部所在地 米国マサチューセッツ州ケンブリッジ市
学部 経営学部

工学部
人文・社会科学部
理学部

建築・計画学部
研究科 医科大学院

経営大学院
工科大学院
人文社会科学大学院
自然科学大学院

建築・計画大学院
ウェブサイト マサチューセッツ工科大学公式サイト
テンプレートを表示

マサチューセッツ工科大学(英語: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)は、米国マサチューセッツ州ケンブリッジ市に本部を置くアメリカ合衆国の私立大学である。1865年に設置された。

目次

  • 1 概要
  • 2 歴史
  • 3 組織
    • 3.1 スクールおよびカレッジ
    • 3.2 研究機関
    • 3.3 その他
  • 4 学生
    • 4.1 受験
  • 5 「ハック」
  • 6 著名な教員
  • 7 出身者
    • 7.1 あ行
    • 7.2 か行
    • 7.3 さ行
    • 7.4 た行
    • 7.5 な行
    • 7.6 は行
    • 7.7 ま行
    • 7.8 ら行
    • 7.9 日本人出身者
  • 8 連携大学
  • 9 脚注
  • 10 関連項目
  • 11 外部リンク

概要

マサチューセッツ州ケンブリッジ市に本部を置く私立大学。ノーベル賞受賞者を多数輩出している(2010年まで77名。この数はコロンビア大学、ケンブリッジ大学、シカゴ大学に次ぐ[1])。全米指折りのエリート名門校の1つとされる。通称、MIT(エム・アイ・ティー、注:「ミット」は誤用で主に日本の極めて一部で用いられる)とも呼ばれる。同じくケンブリッジ市にあるハーバード大学とはライバル校でありながらも、学生達はそれぞれの学校の授業を卒業単位に組み込める単位互換制度(Cross-registration system)が確立され、ケンブリッジ市は、「世界最高の学びのテーマパーク」とさえも称されている。

アメリカにおいて、シリコンバレーなどと並ぶ先端技術産業の集積地であるボストンのルート128地域においても、中核的な役割を果たす機関である。同大学のメディアラボは情報技術関連の先端を走る研究所としてマスメディアなどでも頻繁に取り上げられる。特筆すべきは、同研究所で開発された情報処理システム(アテネプロジェクト)がキャンパスネットワークの根幹を占めており、この研究成果はアメリカ以外の大学院大学等でも活用され成果を挙げている。

同大学は、ボストン所在の他大学(ハーバード大学、ウェルズリー大学、マサチューセッツ大学)との間で、学生や研究者同士の交流も推進している。近年、大学の全授業をweb上で公開する試み(オープンコースウェア)がなされており、遠隔教育関係者や教育関係者一般から広く注目を集めている。現在、建築家の槇文彦によってキャンパスの増築がなされている。

歴史

MITは自然哲学者ウィリアム・バートン・ロジャース(ウィリアム・アンド・メアリー大学卒業)によってボストンの地にボストン技術学校の名で設立され、1865年にマサチューセッツ工科大学に改称し開学した。

創立当初は一部の学生を除き、多くのMITの学生は一人前の大人(社会人)で、建設業者や熟練工、工事監督、熟練機械工、見習い工、熟練エンジニアなど既に一定の技能を身につけた人々だった。このため、明確な目的意識があり、必要と思われる講座のみを選択し受講しに来る者が多く、キャンパス・ライフは存在しなかった。MITには学生寮もなく、礼拝堂もなく、1867年まで食堂すら存在せず、学生はただ講義を聞くためだけに学校に来た[2]。最初のうちは学生は男性のみだったが、1870年代になって初めて少女たちの入学を受け入れはじめた。

ヨーロッパでは歴史的に技術系の職業が低く見られ、近代半ばまで大学での工系学部の位置づけも明確でなく、工学部設置も日本に先を越された。この状況はアメリカでも強く、理工系専門の教育機関として創設されたMITも人々から偏見の目で見られた。

20世紀初頭にボストンでは開発ブームが起こり、不動産の高騰などによってMITは、これまでいたコプリー・スクェアの地を立ち退かなければならない事態となった。皮肉なことに、この開発ブームに拍車をかけたのは1865年以来、MITが送り出してきた数千人に及ぶ卒業生達であった。MITは研究室ごとに高騰したボストン各地の不動産市場に散りぢりとなり、大学移転のために候補地を探したが、調達資金などの面から難航した。1909年、資金調達能力を有するリチャード・マクローリンが新学長に就任したことによって事態は収拾に向い、新キャンパスの候補地としてケンブリッジとボストンの境界を流れるチャールズ川の埋立地(ケンブリッジ側)が検討されるようになった。だが、移転に際していくつか問題があった。第一に土壌が埋め立てたばかりで軟弱であったこと、第二にケンブリッジを縄張りとしていたハーバードとの政治的・歴史的問題であった。特にハーバードとの問題は深刻で、MITの殆どの卒業生が、この時文科系人種をはじめとするボストンの人々から謂れのない偏見を受け、罵声を絶え間なく浴びせられたという[3]。この状況について関係者は「肘で誰かを押しのけて食事をするようなものだ」と語っている。

さらにMITがケンブリッジにキャンパスを移転してからは文科系的文化を根源として成り立つ、ハーバードとの対決が激しく、人々の中にはMITのことを「職業訓練学校」と侮辱する者もいた。ボストンのある名士が、ハーバードで教えるかわりに、MITへの奉職を考慮していた甥に対し次のような手紙を書いている。「この国では、常に金と鉄道と商売と発明の嵐が吹き荒れてる。公立学校だの、高校だの、職業専門学校(MITのこと)だのと言ったものは、どんな学校にも作れるが、ケンブリッジ(ハーバードのこと)のようなところだけが、学問にふさわしい雰囲気と歴史と思っている。大学とは、そうでなければならないのだ。大いなるハーモニーを学べるところでなくては」[4]

1940年、MITは軍事技術の研究開発にかかわるようになった。当時、アメリカ軍はイギリス海軍が開発したレーダーに関心を持っており、研究プロジェクトを行う上で、設備[5]や運営経験があったMITに注目した[6]。その一年後、太平洋戦争がはじまるとキャンパス北端に放射線研究所(Radiation Lab・ラドラブ)と称する軍事研究所が設置され、カリフォルニア工科大学などとともに戦争の一翼を担った。さらにMITは新兵器開発のために必要な資金や物資を得ることに成功するとともに、学生の徴兵猶予の権利を勝ちとった。この経験はマサチューセッツ工科大学の名を世界で高めるきっかけとなった。 「彼らは2万5800もの会社を設立し、300万人の雇用を生み出していた」ことが分かったという。これには、シリコンバレーの雇用の約4分の1を含む。「もしMITが国家だとすると、世界で11番目のGDPを有することになる」

ノーベル賞受賞者77人はハーバードを上回る。ハーバードは、英国のオックスフォードやケンブリッジをモデルに上流階級用の古典教育にこだわり、ラテン語やギリシャ語に力を入れていた。これに対してMITは、研究と実践的な実験による学習というドイツ的なシステムを採用した。「知識は重要だが、有用でなければならない」という考え方がMITの伝統で、米国の主要大学としては非常に小さい規模の大学であり学生数は約1万人、教員数は約1000人に過ぎない。日本の東大や早慶に比べてもだいぶ小さく、東京工業大学と同じ規模である。

スタッフの約40%が米国以外の生まれで、すぐに役には立ちそうにないことでも取り組むことが許される、財政的・精神的余裕を持っている。 

組織

5つのスクール(School)と1つのカレッジ(College)がある(これらが日本の大学における「学部」・「研究科」に相当する)。スクールとカレッジには、34の学部(Department)、学科(Division)、大学院・研究科・専攻(Degree-granting program)などがおかれている。さらには、教育研究プログラムとしてWHOIとのジョイントプログラムも実施している。

スクールおよびカレッジ

  • School of Architecture and Planning(建築および都市計画・地域計画)
  • School of Engineering(工学)
  • School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences(人文科学・社会科学)
  • Sloan School of Management(経営)
  • School of Science(理学)
  • Whitaker College of Health Sciences and Technology(健康科学・健康技術)

研究機関

51の研究機関がある。ここでは、メディア等で著名な研究機関を掲げる。

  • リンカーン研究所
  • ホワイトヘッド研究所
  • MITメディアラボ
  • MITコンピュータ科学・人工知能研究所

その他

各企業からの派遣研究員受け入れや受託研究を行う、寄附講座や記念講座が設置されている。

学生

中国系・韓国系を中心とするアジア系学生の割合は増加の一途であり、現在では在校生の27%を占めている。(College Board, fall 2005)

受験

  • リベラル・アーツとしてのマサチューセッツ工科大学に入学する際には、通常の試験及び外国人の場合には、TOEFL受験が義務付けられている。その他は、米国のビザ法に関する法による。
  • 大学院受験の場合には、「GREスコアカード」及び「卒業証明書(大学)」が必要。外国人の場合には、TOEFLの受験が義務付けられている。その他は、米国のビザ法に関する法による。特定研究室に該当する研究室を指定する場合には、紹介状2通が必要(直近の銀行残高証明書も必要)。

「ハック」

同校には伝統的に「ハック」(詳細はハッカーを参照)と呼ばれるゲリラ活動的なイタズラ[7] (en:Hacks at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology) が存在する。単なるイタズラというよりも、日頃研究した様々な技術を駆使する事から、時に超常現象かと見紛うばかりの物まであるとされる。

近くのハーバード橋の長さを測るために仲間の身長からスムートという新単位を作り、橋に印を書いたり(1958年)、学び舎のシンボルであるグレートドーム(上写真)頂上にパトロールカーが設置された(1994年)り、巨大なR2-D2に改装(1999年)されたり、『ゼルダの伝説シリーズ』のトライフォースが設置(2006年)されたりといったスケールの大きい物から、校内の碑文をこっそり自分達のメッセージにすり替えたり(1994年)、学長室の入り口を何ヶ月も前から掲示板があったかのようにしてしまった(1990年)りといった物まで報告されている。

これらのイタズラはあくまでも洒落の範疇に収める事が重要とされており、物や施設を汚損したり、誰かを傷つけたりするようなことは行われないとされる。1999年のR2-D2“ハック”では同校の安全対策室に、取り付けられたパネル等の片付け方を記したメモが届けられている。

著名な教員

以下、人名はすべて苗字の五十音順に並ぶ。

  • イアン・コンドリー - 文化人類学者。日本のヒップホップやアニメの研究。
  • ポール・サミュエルソン - 経済学者
  • ロバート・ソロー - 経済学者、ノーベル経済学賞受賞
  • リチャード・シュロック - 化学科教授、2005年ノーベル賞受賞
  • イサドール・シンガー - アーベル賞
  • ノーム・チョムスキー - 言語学、アメリカのメディアと外交政策の批評家としても知られる
  • アマー・G・ボーズ - 名誉教授。BOSE社の創設者。
  • ジョージ・ホワイトサイズ - 材料科学者、ナノ・マイクロマシン&加工、自己組織化の世界的権威
  • マービン・ミンスキー - コンピュータ科学者、認知科学者
  • アイセ・ヨハン・デ・ヨング - コール賞
  • ジョージ・ルスティック - コール賞
  • ロバート・ランガー - 生体工学者
  • ジェローム・レトビン - 神経生理学者

日本人</dt>

  • 石井裕 - タンジブル・ビット考案者、メディアアーツ&サイエンス
  • 神田駿 - 建築家・都市計画家
  • 利根川進 - 免疫研究、ノーベル生理学・医学賞
  • 増渕興一 - 機械工学科名誉教授
  • 宮川繁 - 言語学者
  • 伊藤穰一 - MITメディアラボ所長 ベンチャーキャピタリスト、実業家

出身者

あ行

  • コフィー・アナン - 前国際連合事務総長、ノーベル平和賞
  • ジェームズ・ウッズ - 俳優(中退)
  • ピエルマリア・オッドーネ - 物理学者
  • ロバート・オーマン - 経済学者
  • バズ・オルドリン - アポロ11号に搭乗した宇宙飛行士

か行

  • レイ・カーツワイル - 光学文字認識の第一人者
  • ケビン・カラン - ゲームクリエイター。「ミサイルコマンド」「パックマン」の改良版を製作。
  • ジョン・W・キャンベル - SF編集者、SF作家
  • デービッド・ダナ・クラーク - コンピューター学者
  • フェルナンド・J・コルバト - 情報工学者
  • ゲイリー・クライン - 自転車車体設計・製造
  • ブリュースター・ケール - インターネット起業家
  • マレー・ゲルマン - 物理学者、ノーベル物理学賞受賞

さ行

  • アイバン・サザランド - コンピュータ科学者
  • ローレンス・サマーズ - 政治家・経済学者
  • ルイス・サリヴァン - 建築家
  • トム・ショルツ - ロック・バンドボストンのリーダー
  • ジョージ・シュルツ - 政治家
  • ウィリアム・ショックレー - 物理学者
  • リチャード・ストールマン - ハッカー。フリーソフトウェア財団設立者
  • ジョージ・スムート - 物理学者

た行

  • アンドリュー・タネンバウム - コンピュータ科学者
  • アフマド・チャラビ - イラクの政治家
  • ホイットフィールド・ディフィー - 暗号学者
  • ゲイリー・タナカ - 馬主
  • ダニエル・M・タニ - 宇宙飛行士
  • ジミー・ドーリットル - 軍人
  • キム・エリック・ドレクスラー - ナノテクノロジーエンジニア

な行

  • ニコラス・ネグロポンテ - MITメディアラボの創設者
  • ベンヤミン・ネタニヤフ - イスラエルの政治家

は行

  • ベン・バーナンキ - 経済学者(第14代FRB議長)
  • アラン・パリス - 計算機科学者
  • アンドリュー・ビタビ - クアルコムの創設者、計算機科学者
  • ウィリアム・ヒューレット - ヒューレット・パッカードの創設者
  • アンドリュー・ファイアー - 生物学者
  • リチャード・P・ファインマン - 物理学者、ノーベル物理学賞(1965年)
  • ホセ・フィゲレス・フェレール - コスタリカの政治家
  • ウィリアム・クレイ・フォード・ジュニア - 実業家
  • マヌエル・ブラム - 計算機科学者
  • ジョージ・ヘール - 天文学者
  • イオ・ミン・ペイ - 建築家

ま行

  • ダグ・マクレー - 前述したケビン・カランの相棒
  • グレゴリー・マンキュー - 経済学者
  • マーヴィン・ミンスキー - 人工知能の権威
  • ロバート・メトカーフ - コンピュータ技術者

ら行

  • スティーブ・ラッセル - 世界で初めて不特定多数の人に楽しまれたTVゲーム『スペースウォー!』を製作。
  • ラリー・ローゼンタール - コンピュータ技術者。アーケードゲーム用のベクタースキャン技術を開発。
  • ヒュー・ロフティング - 『ドリトル先生』シリーズで知られる児童文学作家(中退)

日本人出身者

  • 青島矢一 - 一橋大学イノベーション研究センター准教授
  • 浅子和美 - 経済学者、マクロ分析経済学理論、日本経済の実証分析、一橋大学経済研究所教授
  • 安達保 - カーライルグループ 日本代表
  • 荒川實 - Nintendo of America(任天堂の米国法人)・元社長
  • 池原止戈夫 - 元東京工業大学教授、数学者
  • 板倉宏昭 - 香川大学教授、経営学
  • 猪口孝 - 中央大学教授、東京大学名誉教授
  • 岩井克人 - 東京大学教授、経済学者
  • 江端貴子 - 東京大学特任准教授、アステラス製薬社外取締役
  • 遠藤真由 - ミス・ユニバース・ジャパン(2000年)
  • 大前研一 - 経営コンサルタント・経営者
  • 小川進 - 神戸大学大学院経営学研究科教授
  • 加藤壹康 - キリンホールディングス・社長
  • 金井壽宏 - 神戸大学大学院経営学研究科教授
  • 小泉政利 - 東北大学大学院文学研究科准教授
  • 北澤宏一 - 科学技術振興機構・理事長
  • 畔柳信雄 - 三菱UFJフィナンシャル・グループ・社長
  • 齊藤誠 - 一橋大学大学院経済学研究科教授
  • 高橋義仁 - 専修大学商学部教授
  • 武石彰 - 京都大学大学院経済学研究科教授
  • 武田真彦 - 一橋大学大学院経済学研究科教授
  • 立川敬二 - NTT DoCoMo元社長、JAXA理事長
  • 田中明彦 - 東京大学東洋文化研究所教授
  • 團琢磨 - 三井合名会社・元理事長
  • 手嶋宣之 - 専修大学商学部教授
  • 延岡健太郎 - 一橋大学イノベーション研究センター教授
  • 畑山浩昭 - 桜美林大学教授
  • 平山嵩 - 元東京大学教授、建築家
  • 堀新太郎 - ベインキャピタル・ジャパン会長
  • 堀内敬三 - 音楽評論家・作詞家・作曲家
  • 舛重正一 - 東京農業大学生物応用化学科・バイオサイエンス学科名誉教授、東京聖栄大学教授
  • 松尾博文 - 神戸大学大学院経営学研究科教授
  • 御手洗肇 - キヤノン・元社長
  • 三井高修 - 三井化学・元会長
  • 薬師寺泰蔵 - 慶應義塾大学客員教授、内閣府総合科学技術会議議員
  • 矢島隆 - 建設大臣官房技術審議官
  • 山影進 - 東京大学大学院総合文化研究科長・教養学部長
  • 山形浩生 - 野村総合研究所研究員
  • 山田哲 - フェニックスリゾート・元社長兼最高経営責任者

日本国内においては大学出身者で作る「日本マサチューセッツ工科大学会」が存在する。同様の組織として日本ハーバード会、日本ケンブリッジ会、日本オックスフォード会などがあるが、これらは日本フルブライト会(会合は、在日米国大使館や六本木のアメリカンクラブなどで開かれる)から分かれて、大学別の同窓会(親睦会)として開かれているものである。各会員は1期から始まり、現在は各大学卒業毎に開かれている。

連携大学

  • 東京工科大学(提携)
  • 金沢工業大学(連携)
  • 名古屋商科大学大学院(スローン経営大学院への留学制度)

脚注

[ヘルプ]
  1. ^ List of Nobel laureates by university affiliation
  2. ^ この状況についてMITのある校長は「ここは(MIT)は子供が遊ぶ場ではなく、大人が学ぶための場所である」とその特徴について語っている
  3. ^ なかには思い上がった者がボールボーイなどと中傷する者もいた。
  4. ^ フレッド・ハプグッド著・鶴岡雄二訳「マサチューセッツ工科大学」1995年9月25日
  5. ^ MITには鉄道の引き込み線なども存在した
  6. ^ 正確にはボストン地区にあった他の候補に比べてという意味で、ほかの大学は実践経験が乏しい理論派学校か美術学校ばかりだったために軍の基準に合致しなかったためである。実際にプロジェクトを行う上で、政府はロチェスター大学のリー・ドゥブリッジを指導者として招いた
  7. ^ IHTFP Hack Gallery

関連項目

  • スムート
  • 工業大学

外部リンク

  • マサチューセッツ工科大学公式サイト(英語版)
  • マサチューセッツ工科大学大学同窓会(Alumni Association)(英語版)
  • OpenCourseWare(英語版)
  • MIT Tech(英語版) - 学生新聞
  • MIT Press(英語版)
  • IHTFP Hack Gallery(英語版)
  • MIT Sloan School of Management(英語版)
  • MIT Sloan Japan Club(英語版)
  • 日本MIT会
  • Japanese Association of MIT (JAM) - MIT日本人会

座標: 北緯42度21分35秒 西経71度5分32秒 / 北緯42.35972度 西経71.09222度 / 42.35972; -71.09222



</raw> </toggledisplay>

wiki en

<toggledisplay showtext="[Wiki en表示]" hidetext="[隠す]">

<raw>

Coordinates: 42°21′35″N 71°05′32″W / 42.35982°N 71.09211°W / 42.35982; -71.09211

Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Motto Mens et Manus (Latin)
Motto in English Mind and Hand[1]
Established 1861 (opened 1865)
Type Private
Endowment $ 10.150 billion (2012) [2]
President L. Rafael Reif
Provost Chris A. Kaiser
Academic staff 1,018[3]
Students 10,894[4]
Undergraduates 4,384[4]
Postgraduates 6,510
Location Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America
Campus Urban, 168 acres (68.0 ha)[5]
Nobel Laureates 78[6]
Colors Cardinal Red and Steel Gray[a]          
Athletics Division III (except for Rowing)
33 varsity teams
Mascot Tim the Beaver[8]
Affiliations NEASC, AAU, COFHE, APLU
Website MIT.edu

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. MIT has five schools and one college, containing a total of 32 academic departments, with a strong emphasis on scientific, engineering, and technological education and research. MIT is generally considered to be one of the top five universities in the world.[9][10][11]

Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, the institute used a polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction. MIT's early emphasis on applied technology at the undergraduate and graduate levels led to close cooperation with industry. Curricular reforms under Karl Compton and Vannevar Bush in the 1930s re-emphasized basic scientific research. MIT was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1934. Researchers worked on computers, radar, and inertial guidance during World War II and the Cold War. Post-war defense research contributed to the rapid expansion of the faculty and campus under James Killian.

The current 168-acre (68.0 ha) campus opened in 1916 and extends over 1 mile (1.6 km)along the northern bank of the Charles River basin. In the past 60 years, MIT's educational disciplines have expanded beyond the physical sciences and engineering into fields such as biology, economics, linguistics, and management.

MIT enrolled 4,384 undergraduates and 6,510 graduate students for the 2011–2012 school year. MIT received 18,109 undergraduate applicants for the class of 2016, with only 1,620 offered admittance, an acceptance rate of 8.9%. It employs around 1,000 faculty members. Seventy-eight Nobel laureates, 52 National Medal of Science recipients, 45 Rhodes Scholars, and 38 MacArthur Fellows are currently or have previously been affiliated with the university.

MIT has a strong entrepreneurial culture. The aggregated revenues of companies founded by MIT alumni would rank as the eleventh-largest economy in the world. MIT managed $718.2 million in research expenditures and an $8.0 billion endowment in 2009.

The "Engineers" sponsor 33 sports, most teams of which compete in the NCAA Division III's New England Women's and Men's Athletic Conference; the Division I rowing programs compete as part of the EARC and EAWRC.

Contents

  • 1 History
    • 1.1 Foundation and vision
    • 1.2 Early developments
    • 1.3 Curricular reforms
    • 1.4 Defense research
    • 1.5 Recent history
  • 2 Campus
    • 2.1 Architecture
    • 2.2 Housing
  • 3 Organization and administration
    • 3.1 Collaborations
  • 4 Academics
    • 4.1 Undergraduate program
    • 4.2 Graduate program
    • 4.3 Libraries, collections, and museums
  • 5 Research
  • 6 Traditions and student activities
    • 6.1 Activities
    • 6.2 Athletics
  • 7 People
    • 7.1 Students
    • 7.2 Faculty
    • 7.3 Alumni
  • 8 See also
  • 9 References
  • 10 External links

History

Foundation and vision

...a school of industrial science [aiding] the advancement, development and practical application of science in connection with arts, agriculture, manufactures, and commerce.

[12], Act to Incorporate the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Acts of 1861, Chapter 183

Stereographic card showing an MIT mechanical drafting studio, 19th century (photo by E.L. Allen), left/right inverted.
Original Rogers Building (MIT), Back Bay, Boston, 19th century (photo by E.L. Allen)

In 1859, a proposal was submitted to the Massachusetts General Court to use newly filled lands in Back Bay, Boston for a "Conservatory of Art and Science", but the proposal failed.[13][14] A proposal by William Barton Rogers led to a charter for the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, signed by the governor of Massachusetts on April 10, 1861.[15]

Rogers wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances.[16][17] He did not wish to found a professional school, but a combination with elements of both professional and liberal education,[18] writing that "The true and only practicable object of a polytechnic school is, as I conceive, the teaching, not of the minute details and manipulations of the arts, which can be done only in the workshop, but the inculcation of those scientific principles which form the basis and explanation of them, and along with this, a full and methodical review of all their leading processes and operations in connection with physical laws."[19] The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research as well as instruction oriented around seminars and laboratories.[20][21]

Early developments

A 1905 map of MIT's Boston campus.

Two days after the issuance of the charter, the first battle of the Civil War broke out. After a long delay, MIT's first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865.[22] The new institute had a mission that matched the intent of the 1862 Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to fund institutions "to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes", and was a land-grant school.[23][b] In 1866, the proceeds from land sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay.[24]

MIT was informally called "Boston Tech".[24] The institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date.[25] After a period of financial uncertainties, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker.[26] Programs in electrical, chemical, marine, and sanitary engineering were introduced,[27][28] new buildings were built, and the size of the student body increased to over a thousand.[26]

The curriculum became more vocational; with less focus on theoretical science.[29] During these "Boston Tech" years, MIT faculty and alumni rebuffed Harvard University president (and former MIT faculty) Charles W. Eliot's repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard College's Lawrence Scientific School.[30]

A plaque in Building 6 honoring George Eastman, founder of Eastman Kodak, and the anonymous "Mr. X" who helped maintain MIT's independence.

In 1916, MIT moved to a new campus on a mile-long tract along the Cambridge side of the Charles River, which was partially filled land.[31][32] The neoclassical "New Technology" campus was funded largely by donations from industrialist George Eastman, as the anonymous "Mr. X," and it was designed by William W. Bosworth.[33][34]

Curricular reforms

In the 1930s, President Karl Taylor Compton and Vice-President (effectively Provost) Vannevar Bush emphasized the importance of pure sciences like physics and chemistry and reduced the vocational practice required in shops and drafting studios.[35] The Compton reforms "renewed confidence in the ability of the Institute to develop leadership in science as well as in engineering."[36] Unlike Ivy League schools, MIT catered more to middle-class families, and depended more on tuition than on endowments or grants.[37] The school was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1934.[38]

Still, as late as 1949, the Lewis Committee lamented in its report on the state of education at MIT that "the Institute is widely conceived as basically a vocational school", a "partly unjustified" perception the committee sought to change. The report comprehensively reviewed the undergraduate curriculum, recommended offering a broader education, and warned against letting engineering and government-sponsored research detract from the sciences and humanities.[39][40] The School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences and the MIT Sloan School of Management were formed in 1950 to compete with the powerful Schools of Science and Engineering. Previously marginalized faculties in the areas of economics, management, political science, and linguistics emerged into cohesive and assertive departments by attracting respected professors and launching competitive graduate programs.[41][42] The School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences continued to develop under the successive terms of the more humanistically oriented presidents Howard W. Johnson and Jerome Wiesner between 1966 and 1980.[43]

Defense research

MIT's involvement in military research surged during World War II. In 1941, Vannevar Bush was appointed head of the federal Office of Scientific Research and Development and directed funding to only a select group of universities, including MIT.[44] Engineers and scientists from across the country gathered at MIT's Radiation Laboratory, established in 1940 to assist the British military in developing microwave radar. The work done there significantly impacted both the war and subsequent research in the area.[45] Other defense projects included gyroscope-based and other complex control systems for gunsight, bombsight, and inertial navigation under Charles Stark Draper's Instrumentation Laboratory;[46][47] the development of a digital computer for flight simulations under Project Whirlwind;[48] and high-speed and high-altitude photography under Harold Edgerton.[49][50] By the end of the war, MIT became the nation's largest wartime R&D contractor (attracting some criticism of Bush),[44] employing nearly 4000 in the Radiation Laboratory alone[45] and receiving in excess of $100 million ($1.2 billion in 2012 dollars) before 1946.[36] Work on defense projects continued even after then. Post-war government-sponsored research at MIT included SAGE and guidance systems for ballistic missiles and Project Apollo.[51]

These activities affected MIT profoundly. A 1949 report noted the lack of "any great slackening in the pace of life at the Institute" to match the return to peacetime, remembering the "academic tranquillity of the prewar years", though acknowledging the significant contributions of military research to the increased emphasis on graduate education and rapid growth of personnel and facilities.[52] Indeed, the faculty doubled and the graduate student body quintupled during the terms of Karl Taylor Compton, president of MIT between 1930 and 1948, James Rhyne Killian, president from 1948 to 1957, and Julius Adams Stratton, chancellor from 1952 to 1957, whose institution-building strategies shaped the expanding university. By the 1950s, MIT no longer merely benefited the industries it had worked so closely with three decades prior, and was much closer to its new patrons, philanthropic foundations and the federal government.[53]

In late 1960s and early 1970s, student and faculty activists protested against the Vietnam War and MIT's defense research.[54][55] The Union of Concerned Scientists was founded on March 4, 1969 during a meeting of faculty members and students seeking to shift the emphasis on military research towards environmental and social problems.[56] MIT ultimately divested itself from the Instrumentation Laboratory and moved all classified research off-campus to the Lincoln Laboratory facility in 1973 in response to the protests,[57][58] and the student body, faculty, and administration remained comparatively unpolarized during what was a tumultuous time for many other universities.[54][59]

Recent history

The MIT Media Lab houses researchers developing novel uses of computer technology. Shown here is the 1982 building, designed by I.M. Pei, with an extension (right of photo) designed by Fumihiko Maki opened in March 2010.

MIT has kept pace with and helped to advance the digital age. In addition to developing the predecessors to modern computing and networking technologies,[60][61] students, staff, and faculty members at Project MAC, the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, and the Tech Model Railroad Club wrote some of the earliest interactive computer video games like Spacewar! and created much of modern hacker slang and culture.[62] Several major computer-related organizations have originated at MIT since the 1980s: Richard Stallman's GNU Project and the subsequent Free Software Foundation were founded in the mid-1980s at the AI Lab; the MIT Media Lab was founded in 1985 by Nicholas Negroponte and Jerome Wiesner to promote research into novel uses of computer technology;[63] the World Wide Web Consortium standards organization was founded at the Laboratory for Computer Science in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee;[64] the OpenCourseWare project has made course materials for over 2,000 MIT classes available online free of charge since 2002;[65] and the One Laptop per Child initiative to expand computer education and connectivity to children worldwide was launched in 2005.[66]

MIT was named a sea-grant college in 1976 to support its programs in oceanography and marine sciences and was named a space-grant college in 1989 to support its aeronautics and astronautics programs.[67][68] Despite diminishing government financial support over the past quarter century, MIT launched several successful development campaigns to significantly expand the campus: new dormitories and athletics buildings on west campus; the Tang Center for Management Education; several buildings in the northeast corner of campus supporting research into biology, brain and cognitive sciences, genomics, biotechnology, and cancer research; and a number of new "backlot" buildings on Vassar Street including the Stata Center.[69] Construction on campus in the 2000s included expansions of the Media Lab, the Sloan School's eastern campus, and graduate residences in the northwest.[70][71] In 2006, President Hockfield launched the MIT Energy Research Council to investigate the interdisciplinary challenges posed by increasing global energy consumption.[72]

In 2001, inspired by the open source and open access movements,[73] MIT launched OpenCourseWare to make the lecture notes, problem sets, syllabuses, exams, and lectures from the great majority of its courses available online for no charge, though without any formal accreditation for coursework completed.[74] While the cost of supporting and hosting the project is high,[75] OCW expanded in 2005 to include other universities as a part of the OpenCourseWare Consortium, which currently includes more than 250 academic institutions with content available in least six languages.[76] In 2011, MIT announced it would offer formal certification (but not credits or degrees) to online participants completing coursework in its "MITx" program, for a modest fee.[77] The "edX" online platform supporting MITx was initially developed in partnership with Harvard and its analogous "Harvardx" initiative. The courseware platform is open source, and other universities have already joined and added their own course content.[78]

Campus

The central and eastern sections of MIT's campus as seen from above Massachusetts Avenue and the Charles River. In the center is the Great Dome overlooking Killian Court with Kendall Square in the background.
MIT's Building 10 and Great Dome overlooking Killian Court

MIT's 168-acre (68.0 ha) campus spans approximately a mile of the north side of the Charles River basin in the city of Cambridge.[5] The campus is divided roughly in half by Massachusetts Avenue, with most dormitories and student life facilities to the west and most academic buildings to the east. The bridge closest to MIT is the Harvard Bridge, which is known for being marked off in a non-standard unit of length – the smoot.[79][80] The Kendall MBTA Red Line station is located on the far northeastern edge of the campus in Kendall Square. The Cambridge neighborhoods surrounding MIT are a mixture of high tech companies occupying both modern office and rehabilitated industrial buildings as well as socio-economically diverse residential neighborhoods.[81][82]

Each building at has a number (possibly preceded by a W, N, E, or NW) designation and most have a name as well. Typically, academic and office buildings are referred to primarily by number while residence halls are referred to by name. The organization of building numbers roughly corresponds to the order in which the buildings were built and their location relative (north, west, and east) to the original center cluster of Maclaurin buildings.[83] Many of the buildings are connected above ground as well as through an extensive network of underground tunnels, providing protection from the Cambridge weather as well as a venue for roof and tunnel hacking.[84][85]

MIT's on-campus nuclear reactor[86] is one of the most powerful university-based nuclear reactors in the United States. The prominence of the reactor's containment building in a densely populated area has been controversial,[87] but MIT maintains that it is well-secured.[88] Other notable campus facilities include a pressurized wind tunnel and a towing tank for testing ship and ocean structure designs.[89][90] MIT's campus-wide wireless network was completed in the fall of 2005 and consists of nearly 3,000 access points covering 9,400,000 square feet (870,000 m2) of campus.[91]

In 2001, the Environmental Protection Agency sued MIT for violating Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act with regard to its hazardous waste storage and disposal procedures.[92] MIT settled the suit by paying a $155,000 fine and launching three environmental projects.[93] In connection with capital campaigns to expand the campus, the Institute has also extensively renovated existing buildings to improve their energy efficiency. MIT has also taken steps to reduce its environmental impact by running alternative fuel campus shuttles, subsidizing public transportation passes, and building a low-emission cogeneration plant that serves most of the campus electricity, heating, and cooling requirements.[94]

Between 2007 and 2009,[dated info] campus security and local police received reports of 8 forcible sex offences, 5 robberies, 9 aggravated assaults, 409 burglaries, 2 cases of arson, and 15 cases of motor vehicle theft, affecting a community of around 13,000 students and employees.[95]

Architecture

The Stata Center houses CSAIL, LIDS, and the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy

MIT's School of Architecture, now the School of Architecture and Planning, was the first in the United States,[96] and it has a history of commissioning progressive buildings.[97][98] The first buildings constructed on the Cambridge campus, completed in 1916, are sometimes called the "Maclaurin buildings" after Institute president Richard Maclaurin who oversaw their construction. Designed by William Welles Bosworth, these imposing buildings were built of reinforced concrete, a first for a non-industrial – much less university – building in the US.[99] Bosworth's design was influenced by the City Beautiful Movement of the early 1900s,[99] and features the Pantheon-esque Great Dome housing the Barker Engineering Library. The Great Dome overlooks Killian Court, where commencement is held each year. The friezes of the limestone-clad buildings around Killian Court are engraved with the names of important scientists and philosophers.[c] The imposing Building 7 atrium along Massachusetts Avenue is regarded as the entrance to the Infinite Corridor and the rest of the campus.[82]

Alvar Aalto's Baker House (1947), Eero Saarinen's Chapel and Auditorium (1955), and I.M. Pei's Green, Dreyfus, Landau, and Wiesner buildings represent high forms of post-war modernist architecture.[102][103][104] More recent buildings like Frank Gehry's Stata Center (2004), Steven Holl's Simmons Hall (2002), Charles Correa's Building 46 (2005), Fumihiko Maki's Media Lab Extension (2009) stand out among the Boston area's classical architecture and serve as examples of contemporary campus "starchitecture".[97][105] These buildings have not always been well received;[106][107] in 2010, The Princeton Review included MIT in a list of twenty schools whose campuses are "tiny, unsightly, or both".[108]

Housing

Simmons Hall was completed in 2002

Undergraduates are guaranteed four-year housing in one of MIT's 12 undergraduate dormitories,[109] Those living on campus can receive support and mentoring from live-in graduate student tutors, resident advisors, and faculty housemasters.[110] Because housing assignments are made based on the preferences of the students themselves, diverse social atmospheres can be sustained in different living groups; for example, according to the Yale Daily News Staff's The Insider's Guide to the Colleges, 2010, "The split between East Campus and West Campus is a significant characteristic of MIT. East Campus has gained a reputation as a thriving counterculture."[111] MIT also has 5 dormitories for single graduate students and 2 apartment buildings on campus for married student families.[112]

MIT has a very active Greek and co-op housing system which includes 36 fraternities, sororities, and independent living groups (FSILGs).[113] In 2009, 92% of all undergraduates lived on MIT-affiliated housing, 50 percent of the men in fraternities and 34% of the women in sororities.[114] Most FSILGs are located across the river in the Back Bay owing to MIT's history there, and there is also a cluster of fraternities on MIT's West Campus.[115] After the 1997 death of Scott Krueger, a new member at the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity, MIT required all freshmen to live in the dormitory system starting in 2002.[116] Because FSILGs had previously housed as many as 300 freshmen off-campus, the new policy did not take effect until 2002 after Simmons Hall opened.[117]

Organization and administration

Building 7 (at 77 Massachusetts Avenue) is regarded as the entrance to campus

MIT is chartered as a non-profit organization and is owned and governed by a privately appointed board of trustees known as the MIT Corporation.[118] The current board consists of 43 members elected to five-year terms,[119] 25 life members who vote until their 75th birthday,[120] 3 elected officers (President, Treasurer, and Secretary),[121] and 4 ex officio members (the president of the alumni association, the Governor of Massachusetts, the Massachusetts Secretary of Education, and the Chief Justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court).[122][123] The board is chaired by John S. Reed, the former chairman of the New York Stock Exchange and Citigroup.[124][125] The corporation approves the budget, new programs, degrees, and faculty appointments as well as electing the President to serve as the chief executive officer of the university and presiding over the Institute's faculty.[82][126] MIT's endowment and other financial assets are managed through a subsidiary MIT Investment Management Company (MITIMCo).[127] Valued at $9.7 billion in 2011, MIT's endowment is the sixth-largest among American colleges and universities.[128][129]

MIT has five schools (Science, Engineering, Architecture and Planning, Management, and Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences) and one college (Whitaker College of Health Sciences and Technology), but no schools of law or medicine.[130][d] While faculty committees assert substantial control over many areas of MIT's curriculum, research, student life, and administrative affairs,[132] the chair of each of MIT's 32 academic departments reports to the dean of that department's school, who in turn reports to the Provost under the President.[133] The current president is L. Rafael Reif, who formerly served as provost under President Susan Hockfield, the first woman to hold the post.[134][135]

Collaborations

Eero Saarinen's Kresge Auditorium (1955) is a classic example of the post-war architecture

The university historically pioneered research and training collaborations between academia, industry and government.[136][137]  In 1946 President Compton, Harvard Business School professor Georges Doriot, and Massachusetts Investor Trust chairman Merrill Grisswold founded American Research & Development Corp., the first American venture-capital firm.[138][139]  In 1948, Compton established the MIT Industrial Liaison Program.[140]  Throughout the late 1980s and early 1990s, American politicians and business leaders accused MIT and other universities of contributing to a declining economy by transferring taxpayer-funded research and technology to international – especially Japanese — firms that were competing with struggling American businesses.[141][142] On the other hand, MIT's extensive collaboration with the federal government on research projects has led to several MIT leaders serving as Presidential scientific advisers since 1940.[e] MIT established a Washington Office in 1991 to continue to lobby for research funding and national science policy.[144][145]

The Justice Department began an antitrust investigation in 1989, and in 1991 filed an antitrust suit against MIT, the eight Ivy League colleges, and eleven other institutions for allegedly engaging in price-fixing in their annual "Overlap Meetings", which were held to prevent bidding wars over promising prospective students from consuming funds for need-based scholarships.[146][147] While the Ivy League institutions settled,[148] MIT contested the charges, arguing that the practice was not anti-competitive because it ensured the availability of aid for the greatest number of students.[149][150] MIT ultimately prevailed when the Justice Department dropped the case in 1994.[151][152]

Walker Memorial is a monument to MIT's 4th president, Francis Amasa Walker

MIT's proximity[f] to Harvard University ("the other school up the river") has led to a substantial number of research collaborations such as the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology and Broad Institute.[153] In addition, students at the two schools can cross-register for credits toward their own school's degrees without any additional fees.[153] A cross-registration program between MIT and Wellesley College has also existed since 1969, and in 2002 the Cambridge–MIT Institute launched an undergraduate exchange program between MIT and the University of Cambridge.[153] MIT has more modest cross-registration programs with Boston University, Brandeis University, Tufts University, Massachusetts College of Art, and the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.[153]

MIT maintains substantial research and faculty ties with independent research organizations in the Boston area, such as the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution as well as international research and educational collaborations through the Singapore-MIT Alliance, MIT-Politecnico di Milano,[153][154] MIT-Zaragoza International Logistics Program, and other countries through the MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) program.[153][155] Since the establishment of Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, MIT has been co-operating with the new institution to adapt an academic curriculum and credit system for the first time to Bangladesh.[dubious ]

The mass-market magazine Technology Review is published by MIT through a subsidiary company, as is a special edition that also serves as an alumni magazine.[156][157] The MIT Press is a major university press, publishing over 200 books and 30 journals annually emphasizing science and technology as well as arts, architecture, new media, current events, and social issues.[158]

Academics

University rankings
National
Forbes[159] 11
U.S. News & World Report[160] 6
Washington Monthly[161] 15
Global
ARWU[162] 3
QS[163] 1
Times[164] 5

MIT is a large, highly residential, research university with a majority of enrollments in graduate and professional programs.[165] The university has been accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges since 1929.[166][167] MIT operates on a 4–1–4 academic calendar with the fall semester beginning after Labor Day and ending in mid-December, a 4-week "Independent Activities Period" in the month of January, and the spring semester beginning in early February and ending in late May.[168]

MIT places among the top ten in many overall rankings of universities (see right) and rankings based on students' revealed preferences.[169][170] For several years, U.S.News & World Report, the QS World University Rankings, and the Academic Ranking of World Universities have ranked MIT's School of Engineering first, as did the 1995 National Research Council report. In the same lists, MIT's strongest showings apart from in engineering are in computer science, the natural sciences, business, economics, linguistics, mathematics, and, to a lesser extent, political science and philosophy.[171][172][173][174][175][176][177][178]

MIT students refer to both their majors and classes using numbers or acronyms alone.[179] Departments and their corresponding majors are numbered in the approximate order of their foundation; for example, Civil and Environmental Engineering is Course 1, while Linguistics and Philosophy is Course 24.[180] Students majoring in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), the most popular department, collectively identify themselves as "Course 6". MIT students use a combination of the department's course number and the number assigned to the class to identify their subjects; the introductory calculus-based classical mechanics course is simply "8.01" at MIT.[181][g]

Undergraduate program

The four-year, full-time undergraduate program maintains a balance between professional majors and those in the arts and sciences, and is selective, admitting few transfer students[165] and 9.7% of its applicants in the 2010–2011 application season.[183] MIT offers 44 undergraduate degrees across its five schools.[184] In the 2010–2011 academic year, 1,161 bachelor of science (abbreviated SB) degrees were granted, the only type of undergraduate degree MIT now awards.[185][186] In the 2011 fall term, among students who had designated a major, the School of Engineering was the most popular division, enrolling 62.7% of students in its 19-degree programs, followed by the School of Science (28.5%), School of Humanities, Arts, & Social Sciences (3.7%), Sloan School of Management (3.3%), and School of Architecture and Planning (1.8%). The largest undergraduate degree programs were in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (Course 6–2), Computer Science and Engineering (Course 6–3), Mechanical Engineering (Course 2), Physics (Course 8), and Mathematics (Course 18).[4]

All undergraduates are required to complete a core curriculum called the General Institute Requirements (GIRs).[187] The Science Requirement, generally completed during freshman year as prerequisites for classes in science and engineering majors, comprises two semesters of physics, two semesters of calculus, one semester of chemistry, and one semester of biology. There is a Laboratory Requirement, usually satisfied by an appropriate class in a course major. The Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences (HASS) Requirement consists of eight semesters of classes in the humanities, arts, and social sciences, including at least one semester from each division as well as the courses required for a designated concentration in a HASS division. Under the Communication Requirement, two of the HASS classes, plus two of the classes taken in the designated major must be "communication-intensive",[188] including "substantial instruction and practice in oral presentation".[189] Finally, all students are required to complete a swimming test; non-varsity athletes must also take four quarters of physical education classes.[187]

The Infinite Corridor is the primary passageway through campus

Most classes rely on a combination of lectures, recitations led by associate professors or graduate students, weekly problem sets ("p-sets"), and tests. Although keeping up with the pace and difficulty of MIT coursework has been compared to "drinking from a fire hose",[190][191] the freshmen retention rate at MIT is similar to that at other national research universities.[192] The "pass/no-record" grading system relieves some of the pressure for first-year undergraduates. For each class taken in the fall term, freshmen transcripts will either report only that the class was passed, or otherwise not have any record of it. In the spring term, passing grades (A, B, C) appear on the transcript while non-passing grades are again not recorded.[193] (Grading had previously been "pass/no record" all freshman year, but was amended for the Class of 2006 to prevent students from gaming the system by completing required major classes in their freshman year.[194]) Also, freshmen may choose to join alternative learning communities, such as Experimental Study Group, Concourse, or Terrascope.[193]

In 1969, Margaret MacVicar founded the Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP) to enable undergraduates to collaborate directly with faculty members and researchers. Students join or initiate research projects ("UROPs") for academic credit, pay, or on a volunteer basis through postings on the UROP website or by contacting faculty members directly.[195] A substantial majority of undergraduates participate.[196][197] Students often become published, file patent applications, and/or launch start-up companies based upon their experience in UROPs.[198][199]

In 1970, the then-Dean of Institute Relations, Benson R. Snyder, published The Hidden Curriculum, arguing that education at MIT was often slighted in favor of following a set of unwritten expectations, and that graduating with good grades was more often the product of figuring out the system rather than a solid education. The successful student, according to Snyder, was the one who was able to discern which of the formal requirements were to be ignored in favor of which unstated norms. For example, organized student groups had compiled "course bibles", collections of problem-set and examination questions and answers to be used as references for later students. This sort of gamesmanship, Snyder argued, hindered the development of a creative intellect and contributed to student discontent and unrest.[200][201]

Graduate program

Robert Engman's Möbius Strip hangs from the crown of the Barker Engineering Library's reading room located inside the Great Dome

MIT's graduate program has high coexistence with the undergraduate program and offers a comprehensive doctoral program with degrees in the humanities, social sciences, and STEM fields as well as professional degrees.[165] The Institute offers graduate programs leading to academic degrees such as the Master of Science (SM), various Engineer's Degrees, Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), and Doctor of Science (ScD); professional degrees such as Master of Architecture (MArch),[202] Master of Business Administration (MBA),[203] Master of City Planning (MCP),[204] Master of Engineering (MEng),[205] and Master of Finance (MFin); and interdisciplinary graduate programs such as the MD/PhD (with Harvard Medical School).[206][207] Admission to graduate programs is decentralized; applicants apply directly to the department or degree program. More than 90% of doctoral students are supported by fellowships, research assistantships, or teaching assistantships.[208] MIT awarded 1,547 master's degrees and 609 doctoral degrees in the 2010–11 academic year.[185] In the 2011 fall term, the School of Engineering was the most popular academic division, enrolling 45.0% of graduate students, followed by the Sloan School of Management (19%), School of Science (16.9%), School of Architecture and Planning (9.2%), Whitaker College of Health Sciences (5.1%),[h] and School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences (4.7%). The largest graduate degree programs were the Sloan MBA, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, and Mechanical Engineering.[4]

Libraries, collections, and museums

The MIT library system consists of five subject libraries: Barker (Engineering), Dewey (Economics), Hayden (Humanities and Science), Lewis (Music), and Rotch (Arts and Architecture). There are also various specialized libraries and archives. The libraries contain more than 2.9 million printed volumes, 2.4 million microforms, 49,000 print or electronic journal subscriptions, and 670 reference databases. The past decade has seen a trend of increased focus on digital over print resources in the libraries.[209] Notable collections include the Lewis Music Library with an emphasis on 20th and 21st-century music and electronic music,[210] the List Visual Arts Center's rotating exhibitions of contemporary art,[211] and the Compton Gallery's cross-disciplinary exhibitions.[212] MIT allocates a percentage of the budget for all new construction and renovation to commission and support its extensive public art and outdoor sculpture collection.[213][214] The MIT Museum was founded in 1971 and collects, preserves, and exhibits artifacts significant to the life and history of MIT as well as collaborating with the nearby Museum of Science.[215]

Research

MIT was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1934 and remains a research university with a very high level of research activity;[38][165] research expenditures totaled $718.2 million in 2009.[216] The federal government was the largest source of sponsored research, with the Department of Health and Human Services granting $255.9 million, Department of Defense $97.5 million, Department of Energy $65.8 million, National Science Foundation $61.4 million, and NASA $27.4 million.[216] MIT employs approximately 1300 researchers in addition to faculty.[217] In 2011, MIT faculty and researchers disclosed 632 inventions, were issued 153 patents, earned $85.4 million in cash income, and received $69.6 million in royalties.[218] Through programs like the Deshpande Center, MIT faculty leverage their research and discoveries into multi-million-dollar commercial ventures.[219]

The GNU project and free software movement originated at MIT

In electronics, magnetic core memory, radar, single electron transistors, and inertial guidance controls were invented or substantially developed by MIT researchers.[220][221] Harold Eugene Edgerton was a pioneer in high speed photography and sonar.[222][223] Claude E. Shannon developed much of modern information theory and discovered the application of Boolean logic to digital circuit design theory.[224] In the domain of computer science, MIT faculty and researchers made fundamental contributions to cybernetics, artificial intelligence, computer languages, machine learning, robotics, and cryptography.[221][225] At least nine Turing Award laureates and seven recipients of the Draper Prize in engineering have been or are currently associated with MIT.[226][227]

Current and previous physics faculty have won eight Nobel Prizes,[228] four Dirac Medals,[229] and three Wolf Prizes predominantly for their contributions to subatomic and quantum theory.[230] Members of the chemistry department have been awarded three Nobel Prizes and one Wolf Prize for the discovery of novel syntheses and methods.[228] MIT biologists have been awarded six Nobel Prizes for their contributions to genetics, immunology, oncology, and molecular biology.[228] Professor Eric Lander was one of the principal leaders of the Human Genome Project.[231][232] Positronium atoms,[233] synthetic penicillin,[234] synthetic self-replicating molecules,[235] and the genetic bases for Lou Gehrig's disease and Huntington's disease were first discovered at MIT.[236] Jerome Lettvin transformed the study of cognitive science with his paper "What the frog's eye tells the frog's brain".[237]

In the domain of humanities, arts, and social sciences, MIT economists have been awarded five Nobel Prizes and nine John Bates Clark Medals.[228][238] Linguists Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle authored seminal texts on generative grammar and phonology.[239][240] The MIT Media Lab, founded in 1985 within the School of Architecture and Planning and known for its unconventional research,[241][242] has been home to influential researchers such as constructivist educator and Logo creator Seymour Papert.[243]

Spanning many of the above fields, MacArthur Fellowships (the so-called "Genius Grants") have been awarded to 38 people associated with MIT.[244] Four Pulitzer Prize winning writers currently work at or have retired from MIT.[245] Four current or former faculty are members of the American Academy of Arts and Letters.[246]

Given MIT's prominence, allegations of research misconduct or improprieties have received substantial press coverage. Professor David Baltimore, a Nobel Laureate, became embroiled in a misconduct investigation starting in 1986 that led to Congressional hearings in 1991.[247][248] Professor Ted Postol has accused the MIT administration since 2000 of attempting to whitewash potential research misconduct at the Lincoln Lab facility involving a ballistic missile defense test, though a final investigation into the matter has not been completed.[249][250] Associate Professor Luk Van Parijs was dismissed in 2005 following allegations of scientific misconduct and found guilty of the same by the United States Office of Research Integrity in 2009.[251][252]

Traditions and student activities

The faculty and student body highly value meritocracy and technical proficiency.[253][254] MIT has never awarded an honorary degree, nor does it award athletic scholarships, ad eundem degrees, or Latin honors upon graduation.[255] However, MIT has twice awarded honorary professorships: to Winston Churchill in 1949 and Salman Rushdie in 1993.[256]

Many upperclass students and alumni wear a large, heavy, distinctive class ring known as the "Brass Rat".[257][258] Originally created in 1929, the ring's official name is the "Standard Technology Ring."[259] The undergraduate ring design (a separate graduate student version exists as well) varies slightly from year to year to reflect the unique character of the MIT experience for that class, but always features a three-piece design, with the MIT seal and the class year each appearing on a separate face, flanking a large rectangular bezel bearing an image of a beaver.[257] The initialism IHTFP, representing the informal school motto "I Hate This Fucking Place" and jocularly euphemized as "I Have Truly Found Paradise," "Institute Has The Finest Professors," "It's Hard to Fondle Penguins," and other variations, has occasionally been featured on the ring given its historical prominence in student culture.[260]

Activities

MIT has over 380 recognized student activity groups,[261] including a campus radio station, The Tech student newspaper, an annual entrepreneurship competition, and weekly screenings of popular films by the Lecture Series Committee. Less traditional activities include the "world's largest open-shelf collection of science fiction" in English, a model railroad club, and a vibrant folk dance scene. Students, faculty, and staff are involved in over 50 educational outreach and public service programs through the MIT Museum, Edgerton Center, and MIT Public Service Center.[262]

The Independent Activities Period is a four-week long "term" offering hundreds of optional classes, lectures, demonstrations, and other activities throughout the month of January between the Fall and Spring semesters. Some of the most popular recurring IAP activities are the 6.270, 6.370, and MasLab competitions,[263] the annual "mystery hunt",[264] and Charm School.[265][266] More than 250 students pursue externships annually at companies in the US and abroad.[267][268]

Many MIT students also engage in "hacking," which encompasses both the physical exploration of areas that are generally off-limits (such as rooftops and steam tunnels), as well as elaborate practical jokes.[269][270] Recent high-profile hacks have included the abduction of Caltech's cannon,[271] reconstructing a Wright Flyer atop the Great Dome,[272] and adorning the John Harvard statue with the Master Chief's Spartan Helmet.[273]

Athletics

The Zesiger sports and fitness center houses a two-story fitness center as well as swimming and diving pools

MIT sponsors 31 varsity sports and has one of the three broadest NCAA Division III athletic programs.[274][275]  MIT participates in the NCAA's Division III, the New England Women's and Men's Athletic Conference, the New England Football Conference, the Pilgrim League for men's lacrosse and NCAA's Division I Eastern Association of Women's Rowing Colleges (EAWRC) for women's crew. Men's crew competes outside the NCAA in the Eastern Association of Rowing Colleges (EARC). In April 2009, budget cuts lead to MIT eliminating eight of its 41 sports, including the mixed men’s and women’s teams in alpine skiing and pistol; separate teams for men and women in ice hockey and gymnastics; and men’s programs in golf and wrestling.[276][277]

The official logo of MIT Athletics

The Institute's sports teams are called the Engineers, their mascot since 1914 being a beaver, "nature's engineer." Lester Gardner, a member of the Class of 1898, provided the following justification:

The beaver not only typifies the Tech, but his habits are particularly our own. The beaver is noted for his engineering and mechanical skills and habits of industry. His habits are nocturnal. He does his best work in the dark.[278]

MIT fielded several dominant intercollegiate Tiddlywinks teams through 1980, winning national and world championships.[279] MIT has produced 188 Academic All-Americans, the third largest membership in the country for any division and the highest number of members for Division III.[275]

The Zesiger sports and fitness center (Z-Center) which opened in 2002, significantly expanded the capacity and quality of MIT's athletics, physical education, and recreation offerings to 10 buildings and 26 acres (110,000 m2) of playing fields. The 124,000-square-foot (11,500 m2) facility features an Olympic-class swimming pool, international-scale squash courts, and a two-story fitness center.[275]

People

Students

Demographics of MIT student body[4][280][281]
Undergraduate Graduate
White American 34% 40.8%
Asian American 30% 9.4%
Hispanic American 15% 3.3%
African American 10% 2.1%
Native American 1.0% 0.4%
Other/International 8% 44.0%

MIT enrolled 4,384 undergraduates and 6,510 graduate students in 2011–2012.[4] Women constituted 45 percent of undergraduate students.[4][282] Undergraduate and graduate students are drawn from all 50 states as well as 115 foreign countries in the 2011–2012 school year.[283]

MIT received 17,909 applications for admission to the undergraduate Class of 2015; 1,742 were admitted (9.7 percent) and 1128 enrolled (64.8 percent).[114] 19,446 applications were received for graduate and advanced degree program across all departments; 2,991 were admitted (15.4 percent) and 1,880 enrolled (62.8 percent).[284] The interquartile range on the SAT was 2030–2320 and 95 percent of students ranked in the top tenth of their high school graduating class.[114] 97 percent of the Class of 2012 returned as sophomores; 82.3 percent of the Class of 2007 graduated within 4 years, and 91.3 percent (92 percent of the men and 96 percent of the women) graduated within 6 years.[114][285]

Undergraduate tuition and fees total $40,732 and annual expenses are estimated at $52,507 as of 2012. 62 percent of students received need-based financial aid in the form of scholarships and grants from federal, state, institutional, and external sources averaging $38,964 per student.[286] MIT awarded $87.6 million in scholarships and grants, the vast majority ($73.4 million) coming from institutional support.[114] The annual increase in expenses has led to a student tradition (dating back to the 1960s) of tongue-in-cheek "tuition riots".[287]

MIT has been nominally coeducational since admitting Ellen Swallow Richards in 1870. Richards also became the first female member of MIT's faculty, specializing in sanitary chemistry.[288] Female students remained a very small minority (less than 3 percent) prior to the completion of the first wing of a women's dormitory, McCormick Hall, in 1962.[289][290] Between 1993 and 2009, the proportion of women rose from 34 percent to 45 percent of undergraduates and from 20 percent to 31 percent of graduate students.[4][291] Women currently outnumber men in Biology, Brain & Cognitive Sciences, Architecture, Urban Planning, and Biological Engineering.[4][282]

A number of student deaths in the late 1990s and early 2000s resulted in considerable media attention to MIT's culture and student life.[292][293] After the alcohol-related death of Scott Krueger in September 1997 as a new member at the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity,[294] MIT began requiring all freshmen to live in the dormitory system.[294][295] The 2000 suicide of MIT undergraduate Elizabeth Shin drew attention to suicides at MIT and created a controversy over whether MIT had an unusually high suicide rate.[296][297] In late 2001 a task force's recommended improvements in student mental health services were implemented,[298][299] including expanding staff and operating hours at the mental health center.[300] These and later cases were significant as well because they sought to prove the negligence and liability of university administrators in loco parentis.[296]

Faculty

Institute Professors Emeriti and Nobel Laureates (from left to right) Franco Modigliani (now deceased), Paul Samuelson (also deceased), and Robert Solow

MIT has 1,018 faculty members, of whom 217 are women.[3] Faculty are responsible for lecturing classes, advising both graduate and undergraduate students, and sitting on academic committees, as well as conducting original research. Between 1964 and 2009, a total of seventeen faculty and staff members affiliated with MIT were awarded Nobel Prizes (thirteen in the last 25 years).[301] MIT faculty members past or present have won a total of twenty-seven Nobel Prizes, the majority in Economics or Physics.[6] Among current faculty and teaching staff, there are eighty Guggenheim Fellows, six Fulbright Scholars, and twenty-nine MacArthur Fellows.[3] Faculty members who have made extraordinary contributions to their research field as well as the MIT community are granted appointments as Institute Professors for the remainder of their tenures.

A 1998 MIT study concluded that a systemic bias against female faculty existed in its college of science,[302] although the study's methods were controversial.[303][304] Since the study, though, women have headed departments within the Schools of Science and Engineering, and MIT has appointed several female vice presidents, although allegations of sexism continue to be made.[305] Susan Hockfield, a molecular neurobiologist, was MIT's president from 2004 to 2012 and was the first woman to hold the post.[135]

Tenure outcomes have vaulted MIT into the national spotlight on several occasions. The 1984 dismissal of David F. Noble, a historian of technology, became a cause célèbre about the extent to which academics are granted freedom of speech after he published several books and papers critical of MIT's and other research universities' reliance upon financial support from corporations and the military.[306] Former materials science professor Gretchen Kalonji sued MIT in 1994 alleging that she was denied tenure because of sexual discrimination.[305][307] In 1997, the Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination issued a probable cause finding supporting James Jennings' allegations of racial discrimination after a senior faculty search committee in the Department of Urban Studies and Planning did not offer him reciprocal tenure.[308] In 2006–2007, MIT's denial of tenure to African-American biological engineering professor James Sherley reignited accusations of racism in the tenure process, eventually leading to a protracted public dispute with the administration, a brief hunger strike, and the resignation of Professor Frank L. Douglas in protest.[309][310]

MIT faculty members have often been recruited to lead other colleges and universities. Alumnus and faculty member George Ellery Hale played a central role in the development of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and other faculty members have been key founders of Franklin W. Olin College of Engineering in nearby Needham, Massachusetts. More recently, former provost Robert A. Brown is president of Boston University; former provost Mark Wrighton is chancellor of Washington University in St. Louis; former associate provost Alice Gast is president of Lehigh University; former dean of the School of Science Robert J. Birgeneau is the chancellor of the University of California, Berkeley; former professor John Maeda is president of Rhode Island School of Design (RISD); and former professor David Baltimore had been president of Caltech. In addition, faculty members have been recruited to lead governmental agencies; for example, former professor Marcia McNutt is the director of the United States Geological Survey,[311] urban studies professor Xavier de Souza Briggs is currently the associate director of the White House Office of Management and Budget,[312] and biology professor Eric Lander is a co-chair of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology.[313] In 2013, faculty member Ernest Moniz was nominated by President Obama to become the new United States Secretary of Energy.[314][315]

Alumni

Many of MIT's over 120,000 alumni have had considerable success in scientific research, public service, education, and business. As of 2011, twenty-four MIT alumni have won the Nobel Prize, forty-four have been selected as Rhodes Scholars, and fifty-five have been selected as Marshall Scholars.[316][317]

Alumni in American politics and public service include Chairman of the Federal Reserve Ben Bernanke, former MA-1 Representative John Olver, former CA-13 Representative Pete Stark, former National Economic Council chairman Lawrence H. Summers, and former Council of Economic Advisors chairwoman Christina Romer. MIT alumni in international politics include Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, President of the European Central Bank Mario Draghi, Chief Economic Adviser of India Raghuram Rajan, physicist Richard Feynman, former British Foreign Minister David Miliband, former Greek Prime Minister Lucas Papademos, former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, and former Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister Ahmed Chalabi.

MIT alumni founded or co-founded many notable companies, such as Intel, McDonnell Douglas, Texas Instruments, 3Com, Qualcomm, Bose, Raytheon, Koch Industries, Rockwell International, Genentech, Dropbox, and Campbell Soup. According to the British newspaper, The Guardian, "a survey of living MIT alumni found that they have formed 25,800 companies, employing more than three million people including about a quarter of the workforce of Silicon Valley. Those firms between them generate global revenues of about $1.9tn (£1.2tn) a year. If MIT was a country, it would have the 11th highest GDP of any nation in the world."[318][319][320]

Prominent institutions of higher education have been led by MIT alumni, including the University of California system, Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University, Carnegie Mellon University, Tufts University, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rhode Island School of Design (RISD), Northeastern University, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Purdue University, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and Quaid-e-Azam University.

More than one third of the United States' manned spaceflights have included MIT-educated astronauts (among them Apollo 11 Lunar Module Pilot Buzz Aldrin), more than any university excluding the United States service academies.[321] Alumnus and former faculty member Qian Xuesen was instrumental in the PRC rocket program.[322]

Noted alumni in non-scientific fields include author Hugh Lofting,[323] sculptor Daniel Chester French, Boston guitarist Tom Scholz, the British BBC and ITN correspondent and political advisor David Walter, The New York Times columnist and Nobel Prize Winning economist Paul Krugman, The Bell Curve author Charles Murray, United States Supreme Court building architect Cass Gilbert, Pritzker Prize-winning architects I.M. Pei and Gordon Bunshaft.


See also

MIT related articles can also be found through the info bars at the end of this article.

  • Boston portal
  • Massachusetts portal
  • University portal

References

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ "We looked up and discussed many colors. We all desired cardinal red; it has stood for a thousand years on land and sea in England's emblem; it makes one-half of the stripes on America's flag; it has always stirred the heart and mind of man; it stands for 'red blood' and all that 'red blood' stands for in life. But we were not unanimous for the gray; some wanted blue, I recall. But it (the gray) seemed to me to stand for those quiet virtues of modesty and persistency and gentleness, which appealed to my mind as powerful; and I have come to believe, from observation and experience, to really be the most lasting influences in life and history....We recommended 'cardinal and steel gray.'" (Alfred T. Waite, Chairman of School Color Committee, Class of 1879)[7]
  2. ^ In 1863, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded under the same act the Massachusetts Agricultural College, which became the University of Massachusetts Amherst.
  3. ^ The friezes of the marble-clad buildings surrounding Killian Court are carved in large Roman letters with the names of Aristotle, Newton, Pasteur, Lavoisier, Faraday, Archimedes, da Vinci, Darwin, and Copernicus; each of these names is surmounted by a cluster of appropriately related names in smaller letters. Lavoisier, for example, is placed in the company of Boyle, Cavendish, Priestley, Dalton, Gay Lussac, Berzelius, Woehler, Liebig, Bunsen, Mendelejeff [sic], Perkin, and van't Hoff.[100][101]
  4. ^ The Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology (HST) offers joint MD, MD-PhD, or Medical Engineering degrees in collaboration with Harvard Medical School.[131]
  5. ^ Vannevar Bush was the director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development and general advisor to Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry Truman, James Rhyne Killian was Special Assistant for Science and Technology for Dwight D. Eisenhower, and Jerome Wiesner advised John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson.[143]
  6. ^ MIT's Building 7 and Harvard's Johnston Gate, the traditional entrances to each school, are 1.72 miles (2.77 km) apart along Massachusetts Avenue.
  7. ^ Course numbers are sometimes presented in Roman numerals, e.g. "Course XVIII" for mathematics.[4] At least one MIT style guide frowns upon this usage.[182]
  8. ^ Figure includes 196 students working on Harvard degrees only.

Citations

  1. ^ "Symbols: Seal". MIT Graphic Identity. MIT. http://web.mit.edu/graphicidentity/symbols/seal.html. Retrieved September 8, 2010.
  2. ^ As of June 30, 2012. "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2012 Endowment Market Value and Percentage Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2011 to FY 2012" (PDF). 2012 NACUBO-Commonfund Study of Endowments. National Association of College and University Business Officers. http://www.nacubo.org/Documents/research/2012NCSEPublicTablesEndowmentMarketValuesFinalJanuary232013.pdf.
  3. ^ a b c <Please add first missing authors to populate metadata.> (January 2009). "MIT facts 2009: Faculty and staff". MIT Bulletin 144 (4). http://web.mit.edu/facts/faculty.html.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Enrollment Statistics". MIT Office of the Registrar. http://web.mit.edu/registrar/stats/yrpts/index.html. Retrieved June 26, 2012.
  5. ^ a b "The Campus". MIT Facts 2012. http://web.mit.edu/facts/campus.html. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
  6. ^ a b "Awards and Honors". Institutional Research, Office of the Provost. http://web.mit.edu/ir/pop/awards/nobel.html. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
  7. ^ "Symbols: Colors". MIT Graphic Identity. http://web.mit.edu/graphicidentity/symbols/colors.html. Retrieved June 18, 2008.
  8. ^ "Symbols: Mascot". MIT Graphic Identity. MIT. http://web.mit.edu/graphicidentity/symbols/mascot.html. Retrieved September 8, 2010.
  9. ^ http://www.usnews.com/education/worlds-best-universities-rankings/top-400-universities-in-the-world
  10. ^ http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/world-university-rankings/2012-13/world-ranking
  11. ^ http://www.topuniversities.com/university-rankings/world-university-rankings/2012
  12. ^ "Charter of the MIT Corporation". http://web.mit.edu/corporation/charter.html. Retrieved March 22, 2007.
  13. ^ Kneeland, Samuel (March 1859). "Committee Report:Conservatory of Art and Science" (PDF). Massachusetts House of Representatives, House No. 260. http://libraries.mit.edu/archives/mithistory/pdf/house260.pdf.
  14. ^ "MIT Timeline". MIT History. MIT Institute Archives. http://libraries.mit.edu/sites/mithistory/mit-timeline/. Retrieved May 28, 2012.
  15. ^ "Acts and Resolves of the General Court Relating to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology". MIT History. MIT Institute Archives. http://libraries.mit.edu/archives/mithistory/pdf/1861%20Charter.pdf. Retrieved May 29, 2012.
  16. ^ "MIT Facts 2012: Origins and Leadership". MIT Facts. MIT. http://web.mit.edu/facts/origins.html. Retrieved May 29, 2012.
  17. ^ Rogers, William (1861). "Objects and Plan of an Institute of Technology: including a Society of Arts, a Museum of Arts, and a School of Industrial Science; proposed to be established in Boston" (PDF). The Committee of Associated Institutions of Science and Arts. http://libraries.mit.edu/archives/mithistory/pdf/objects-plan.pdf.
  18. ^ Lewis 1949, p. 8.
  19. ^ "Letter from William Barton Rogers to His Brother Henry". Institute Archives, MIT. March 13, 1846. http://libraries.mit.edu/archives/timeline/letter1846.html. Retrieved October 2, 2010.
  20. ^ Angulo, A.J.. William Barton Rogers and the Idea of MIT. The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 155–156. ISBN 0-8018-9033-0.
  21. ^ Angulo, A.J.. "The Initial Reception of MIT, 1860s–1880s". In Geiger, Roger L.. Perspectives on the History of Higher Education. pp. 1–28.
  22. ^ Andrews, Elizabeth; Nora Murphy and Tom Rosko (2000). "William Barton Rogers: MIT's Visionary Founder". MIT Archives. http://libraries.mit.edu/archives/exhibits/wbr-visionary/.
  23. ^ Stratton, Julius Adams; Mannix, Loretta H. (2005). "The Land-Grant Act of 1862". Mind and Hand: The Birth of MIT. MIT Press. pp. 251–276. ISBN 0-262-19524-0.
  24. ^ a b Prescott, Samuel C (1954). When M.I.T. Was "Boston Tech", 1861–1916. MIT Press.
  25. ^ Angulo, A.J.. William Barton Rogers and the Idea of MIT. The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 155–156. ISBN 0-8018-9033-0.
  26. ^ a b Dunbar, Charles F. (July 1897). "The Career of Francis Amasa Walker". Quarterly Journal of Economics 11 (4): 446–447. http://www.jstor.org/stable/info/1880719.
  27. ^ "Explore campus, visit Boston, and find out if MIT fits you to a tea". 2006-12-16. http://web.mit.edu/spotlight/tea-party/. Retrieved 2006-12-16.
  28. ^ Munroe, James P. (1923). A Life of Francis Amasa Walker. New York: Henry Holt & Company. pp. 233, 382.
  29. ^ Lewis 1949, p. 12.
  30. ^ "Alumni Petition Opposing MIT-Harvard Merger, 1904–05". Institute Archives, MIT. http://libraries.mit.edu/archives/exhibits/harvard-mit/index.html. Retrieved October 1, 2010.
  31. ^ "Souvenir Program, Dedication of Cambridge Campus, 1916". Object of the Month. MIT Institute Archives & Special Collections. http://libraries.mit.edu/archives/exhibits/pageant/index.html. Retrieved May 29, 2012.
  32. ^ J. B. Shields (1852). Middlesex Canal (Massachusetts) map, 1852 (Map). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Middlesex_Canal_%28Massachusetts%29_map,_1852.jpg. Retrieved September 17, 2010.
  33. ^ "Freeman's 1912 Design for the "New Technology"". Object of the Month. MIT Institute Archives & Special Collections. http://libraries.mit.edu/archives/exhibits/freeman/index.html. Retrieved May 29, 2012.
  34. ^ Separating MIT Fact from Fiction Eric Plosky, The Tech, August 27, 1999
  35. ^ Lecuyer, Christophe (1992). "The making of a science based technological university: Karl Compton, James Killian, and the reform of MIT, 1930–1957". Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences 23 (1): 153–180.
  36. ^ a b Lewis 1949, p. 13.
  37. ^ Geiger, Roger L. (2004). To advance knowledge: the growth of American research universities, 1900–1940. pp. 13–15, 179–9. ISBN 0-19-503803-7.
  38. ^ a b "Member Institutions and Years of Admission". Association of American Universities. http://www.aau.edu/about/default.aspx?id=5476. Retrieved June 26, 2012.
  39. ^ Lewis 1949, p. 113.
  40. ^ Bourzac, Katherine, "Rethinking an MIT Education: The faculty reconsiders the General Institute Requirements", Technology Review, Monday, March 12, 2007
  41. ^ "History: School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences". MIT Archives. Archived from the original on March 11, 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20100311064018/http://libraries.mit.edu/archives/mithistory/histories-offices/sch-hum.html. Retrieved July 25, 2008.
  42. ^ "History: Sloan School of Management". MIT Archives. Archived from the original on June 21, 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20100621002719/http://libraries.mit.edu/archives/mithistory/histories-offices/sch-sloan.html. Retrieved July 25, 2008.
  43. ^ Johnson, Howard Wesley (2001). Holding the Center: Memoirs of a Life in Higher Education. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-60044-7. http://www.google.com/books?id=9qpmDJQPEZEC&printsec=frontcover.
  44. ^ a b Zachary, Gregg (1997). Endless Frontier: Vannevar Bush, Engineer of the American Century. Free Press. pp. 248–249. ISBN 0-684-82821-9.
  45. ^ a b "MIT's Rad Lab". IEEE Global History Network. http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/MIT_Rad_Lab. Retrieved July 25, 2008.
  46. ^ "Doc Draper & His Lab". History. The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc.. http://www.draper.com/doc_draper.html. Retrieved May 30, 2012.
  47. ^ "Charles Draper: Gyroscopic Apparatus". Inventor of the Week. MIT School of Engineering. http://web.mit.edu/invent/iow/draper.html. Retrieved May 30, 2012.
  48. ^ "Project Whirlwind". Object of the Month. MIT Institute Archives & Special Collections. http://libraries.mit.edu/archives/exhibits/project-whirlwind/index.html. Retrieved May 30, 2012.
  49. ^ "Wartime Strobe: 1939–1945 – Harold "Doc" Edgerton". http://edgerton-digital-collections.org/docs-life/wartime-strobe. Retrieved November 28, 2009.
  50. ^ Bedi, Joyce (May 2010). "MIT and World War II: Ingredients for a Hot Spot of Invention". Prototype. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  51. ^ Leslie, Stuart (1993). The Cold War and American Science: The Military-Industrial-Academic Complex at MIT and Stanford. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-07959-1.
  52. ^ Lewis 1949, p. 49.
  53. ^ Lecuyer, 1992
  54. ^ a b Todd, Richard (May 18, 1969). "The 'Ins' and 'Outs' at M.I.T". The New York Times. 
  55. ^ <Please add first missing authors to populate metadata.> (February 28, 1969). "A Policy of Protest". Time. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,900700,00.html. Retrieved August 13, 2008.
  56. ^ "Founding Document: 1968 MIT Faculty Statement". Union of Concerned Scientists, USA. Archived from the original on January 15, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080115200053/http://www.ucsusa.org/ucs/about/founding-document-1968-mit-faculty-statement.html. Retrieved August 12, 2008.
  57. ^ Hechinger, Fred (November 9, 1969). "Tension Over Issue of Defense Research". The New York Times. 
  58. ^ Stevens, William (May 5, 1969). "MIT Curb on Secret Projects Reflects Growing Antimilitary Feeling Among Universities' Researchers". The New York Times. 
  59. ^ Warsh, David (June 1, 1999). "A tribute to MIT's Howard Johnson". The Boston Globe. http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/1999/johnson-0609.html. Retrieved April 4, 2007. "At a critical time in the late 1960s, Johnson stood up to the forces of campus rebellion at MIT. Many university presidents were destroyed by the troubles. Only Edward Levi, University of Chicago president, had comparable success guiding his institution to a position of greater strength and unity after the turmoil."
  60. ^ Lee, J.A.N.; J. McCarthy, J.C.R. Licklider (1992). "The beginnings at MIT". IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 14 (1): 18–54. doi:10.1109/85.145317. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=145317&contentType=Journals+%26+Magazines&sortType%3Dasc_p_Sequence%26filter%3DAND%28p_IS_Number%3A3898%29. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
  61. ^ "Internet History". Computer History Museum. http://www.computerhistory.org/internet_history/. Retrieved August 13, 2008.
  62. ^ Raymond, Eric S.. "A Brief History of Hackerdom". http://www.catb.org/~esr/writings/cathedral-bazaar/hacker-history/ar01s02.html. Retrieved August 11, 2008.
  63. ^ "The Media Lab – Retrospective". MIT Media Lab. Archived from the original on April 17, 2009. http://web.archive.org/web/20090417085247/http://media.mit.edu/?page_id=16. Retrieved August 12, 2008.
  64. ^ "About W3C: History". World Wide Web Consortium. http://www.w3.org/Consortium/facts#history. Retrieved August 11, 2008.
  65. ^ "MIT OpenCourseWare". MIT. http://ocw.mit.edu/. Retrieved June 12, 2008.
  66. ^ "Mission – One Laptop Per Child". One Laptop Per Child. http://www.laptop.org/en/vision/mission/. Retrieved August 11, 2008.
  67. ^ "Massachusetts Space Grant Consortium". Massachusetts Space Grant Consortium. http://web.mit.edu/masgc/www/index.shtml. Retrieved August 26, 2008.
  68. ^ "MIT Sea Grant College Program". MIT Sea Grant College Program. Archived from the original on April 9, 2009. http://web.archive.org/web/20090404013114/http://seagrant.mit.edu/about_us/index.php. Retrieved August 26, 2008.
  69. ^ Simha., O. R. (2003). MIT campus planning 1960–2000: An annotated chronology. MIT Press. pp. 120–149. ISBN 978-0-262-69294-6. http://books.google.com/?id=ldq-ZgxszzMC&lpg=PA120&pg=PA120.
  70. ^ "MIT Facilities: In Development & Construction". MIT. Archived from the original on March 12, 2009. http://web.archive.org/web/20090312070340/http://web.mit.edu/facilities/construction/ki/index.html. Retrieved July 22, 2008.
  71. ^ Bombardieri, Marcella (September 14, 2006). "MIT will accelerate its building boom: $750m expansion to add 4 facilities". The Boston Globe. Retrieved August 13, 2008. 
  72. ^ "About MITEI". MIT Energy Initiative. http://web.mit.edu/mitei/about/index.html. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
  73. ^ Attwood, Rebecca (September 24, 2009). "Get it out in the open". Times Higher Education. 
  74. ^ Goldberg, Carey (April 4, 2001). "Auditing Classes at M.I.T., on the Web and Free". The New York Times. 
  75. ^ Hafner, Katie (April 16, 2010). "An Open Mind". The New York Times. 
  76. ^ Guttenplan, D.D. (November 1, 2010). "For Exposure, Universities Put Courses on the Web". The New York Times. 
  77. ^ Lewin, Tamar (December 19, 2011). "M.I.T. Expands Its Free Online Courses". The New York Times. 
  78. ^ "What is edX?". MIT News Office. May 2, 2012. 
  79. ^ Durant, Elizabeth. "Smoot's Legacy: 50th anniversary of famous feat nears". Technology Review. http://www.technologyreview.com/article/20983/. Retrieved August 13, 2008.
  80. ^ Fahrenthold, David (December 8, 2005). "The Measure of This Man Is in the Smoot; MIT's Human Yardstick Honored for Work". The Washington Post. 
  81. ^ "Cambridge: Just the Facts (City Facts Brochure)". City of Cambridge. http://www.cambridgema.gov. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
  82. ^ a b c "MIT Course Catalogue: Overview". MIT. http://web.mit.edu/catalog/overv.chap1.html. Retrieved July 16, 2008.
  83. ^ "Building History and Numbering System". Mind and Hand Book, MIT. http://studentlife.mit.edu/mindandhandbook/campus-life/building-history. Retrieved August 13, 2008.
  84. ^ "MIT Campus Subterranean Map" (PDF). MIT Department of Facilities. Archived from the original on July 31, 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20100731034447/http://mit.edu/facilities/maps/tunnelMap.pdf. Retrieved August 13, 2008.
  85. ^ Abel, David (March 30, 2000). "'Hackers' Skirt Security in Late-Night MIT Treks". The Boston Globe. 
  86. ^ "MIT Course Catalogue". MIT. Archived from the original on January 4, 2009. http://web.archive.org/web/20090104182125/http://web.mit.edu/catalogue/overv.chap6-nrl.shtml. Retrieved July 14, 2008.
  87. ^ "Loose Nukes: A Special Report". ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/LooseNukes/. Retrieved April 14, 2007.
  88. ^ "MIT Assures Community of Research Reactor Safety". MIT News Office. October 13, 2005. Retrieved October 5, 2006. 
  89. ^ "Supersonic Tunnel Open; Naval Laboratory for Aircraft Dedicated at M.I.T". The New York Times. December 2, 1949. 
  90. ^ "Ship Test Tank for M.I.T.; Dr. Killian Announces Plant to Cost $500,000". The New York Times. February 6, 1949. 
  91. ^ "MIT maps wireless users across campus". MIT. November 4, 2005. Archived from the original on September 5, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060905081952/http://senseable.mit.edu/news/on_us/CNN4November2005.htm. Retrieved March 3, 2007.
  92. ^ "Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Clean Air Act, and the Clean Water Act". Environmental Protection Agency. May 3, 2001. http://www.epa.gov/EPA-WATER/2001/May/Day-03/w11123.htm. Retrieved July 16, 2008–.
  93. ^ Sales, Robert (April 21, 2001). "MIT to create three new environmental projects as part of agreement with EPA". MIT News Office. Retrieved July 16, 2008. 
  94. ^ "The Environment at MIT: Conservation". MIT. Archived from the original on January 4, 2009. http://web.archive.org/web/20090104133307/http://web.mit.edu/environment/commitment/conservation.html. Retrieved August 11, 2008.
  95. ^ "Safety & Crime Report – Massachusetts Institute of Technology". American School Search. http://www.american-school-search.com/safety/massachusetts-institute-of-technology. Retrieved July 29, 2010.
  96. ^ "MIT Architecture: Welcome". MIT Department of Architecture. Archived from the original on March 23, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070323150619/http://architecture.mit.edu/welcome.html. Retrieved April 4, 2007.
  97. ^ a b Dillon, David (February 22, 2004). "Starchitecture on Campus". The Boston Globe. Retrieved October 24, 2006. 
  98. ^ Flint, Anthony (October 13, 2002). "At MIT, Going Boldly Where No Architect Has Gone Before". The Boston Globe. 
  99. ^ a b Jarzombek, Mark (2004). Designing MIT: Bosworth's New Tech. Boston: Northeastern University Press. pp. 50–51. ISBN 978-1-55553-619-0. http://books.google.com/?id=QiwRGc3E7Z8C&printsec=frontcover.
  100. ^ "Names of MIT Buildings". MIT Archives. http://libraries.mit.edu/archives/exhibits/names/index.html. Retrieved April 10, 2007.
  101. ^ "Names on Institute Buildings Lend Inspiration to Future Scientists". The Tech. December 22, 1922. Retrieved 2012-05-30. 
  102. ^ Campbell, Robert (March 2, 1986). "Colleges: More Than Ivy-Covered Halls". The Boston Globe. 
  103. ^ "Challenge to the Rectangle". TIME Magazine. June 29, 1953. Retrieved August 13, 2008. 
  104. ^ "Flagpole in the Square". TIME Magazine. August 22, 1960. Retrieved August 13, 2008. 
  105. ^ Campbell, Robert (May 20, 2001). "Architecture's Brand Names Come to Town". The Boston Globe. 
  106. ^ Paul, James (April 9, 1989). "The Campuses of Cambridge, A City Unto Themselves". The Washington Post. 
  107. ^ Lewis, Roger K. (November 24, 2007). "The Hubris of a Great Artist Can Be a Gift or a Curse". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 13, 2008. 
  108. ^ "2010 361 Best College Rankings: Quality of Life: Campus Is Tiny, Unsightly, or Both". Princeton Review. 2010. http://www.princetonreview.com/schools/college/CollegeRankings.aspx?iid=1023832. Retrieved July 6, 2010.
  109. ^ MIT Housing Office. "Undergraduate Residence Halls". http://housing.mit.edu/undergraduate/residences. Retrieved October 1, 2010.
  110. ^ "Residential Life Live-in Staff". MIT. http://web.mit.edu/reslife/rlp/ra-grt.html. Retrieved June 1, 2012.
  111. ^ Yale Daily News Staff (2009). The Insider's Guide to the Colleges, 2010. St. Martin's Griffin. pp. 377–380. ISBN 0-312-57029-5.
  112. ^ MIT Housing Office. "Graduate residences for singles & families". MIT. http://housing.mit.edu/graduatefamily/residences. Retrieved October 1, 2010.
  113. ^ "MIT Facts: Housing". 2010. http://web.mit.edu/facts/housing.html. Retrieved October 1, 2010.
  114. ^ a b c d e "Common Data Set". Institutional Research, Office of the Provost, MIT. 2010. http://web.mit.edu/ir/cds/2010/cds2010.html. Retrieved October 10, 2010.
  115. ^ "Undergraduate and Graduate Residence Halls, Fraternities, Sororities, and Independent Living Groups @ MIT". MIT Residential Life. http://web.mit.edu/reslife/fsilg/map.pdf. Retrieved June 1, 2012.
  116. ^ Zernike, Kate (August 27, 1998). "MIT rules freshmen to reside on campus". The Boston Globe. p. B1. 
  117. ^ Russell, Jenna (August 25, 2002). "For First Time, MIT Assigns Freshmen to Campus Dorms". The Boston Globe. 
  118. ^ "MIT Corporation". MIT Corporation. http://web.mit.edu/corporation/about.html. Retrieved March 18, 2007.
  119. ^ "Members of the MIT Corporation: Term Members". The MIT Corporation. http://web.mit.edu/corporation/membership/members-list.html. Retrieved September 7, 2010.
  120. ^ "Members of the MIT Corporation: Life Members". The MIT Corporation. http://web.mit.edu/corporation/membership/life-members-list.html. Retrieved September 7, 2010.
  121. ^ "Members of the MIT Corporation: Officers". The MIT Corporation. http://web.mit.edu/corporation/membership/officers.html. Retrieved September 7, 2010.
  122. ^ "Members of the MIT Corporation: Ex Officio Members". The MIT Corporation. http://web.mit.edu/corporation/membership/ex-officio-list.html. Retrieved September 7, 2010.
  123. ^ "Bylaws of the MIT Corporation – Section 2: Members". The MIT Corporation. http://web.mit.edu/corporation/bylaws/by2.html. Retrieved September 7, 2010.
  124. ^ "Members of the MIT Corporation – John Shepard Reed". The MIT Corporation. http://web.mit.edu/corporation/members/Reed-J.html. Retrieved September 7, 2010.
  125. ^ "Corporation elects new members, chair". MIT News Office. June 4, 2010. Retrieved September 7, 2010. 
  126. ^ "A Brief History and Workings of the Corporation". MIT Faculty Newsletter. http://web.mit.edu/fnl/volume/185/mead.html. Retrieved November 2, 2006.
  127. ^ "MIT Investment Management Company". MIT Investment Management Company. http://www.mitimco.org/. Retrieved January 8, 2007.
  128. ^ "MIT releases 2010 endowment figures". MIT News Office. September 27, 2010. 
  129. ^ "2011 NACUBO Endowment Student" (PDF). National Association of College and University Business Officers. 2011. http://www.nacubo.org/Documents/research/2011NCSEPublicTablesEndowmentMarketValues319.pdf. Retrieved May 29, 2012.
  130. ^ "MIT Facts: Academic Schools and Departments, Divisions & Sections". 2010. http://web.mit.edu/facts/academic.shtml. Retrieved October 1, 2010.
  131. ^ "Harvard-MIT HST Academics Overview". http://hst.mit.edu/servlet/ControllerServlet?handler=PublicHandler&action=browse&pageid=231. Retrieved August 5, 2007.
  132. ^ Rafael L. Bras (2004-2005). "Reports to the President, Report of the Chair of the Faculty" (PDF). MIT. http://web.mit.edu/annualreports/pres05/17.00.pdf. Retrieved December 1, 2006.
  133. ^ "Reporting List". MIT. http://web.mit.edu/orgchart/replist.html. Retrieved September 7, 2010.
  134. ^ Bradt, Steve (May 16, 2012). "L. Rafael Reif selected as MIT’s 17th president". MIT News. 
  135. ^ a b "Susan Hockfield, President, Massachusetts Institute of Technology – Biography". MIT. http://web.mit.edu/hockfield/biography.html. Retrieved September 19, 2008.
  136. ^ "A Survey of New England: A Concentration of Talent". The Economist. August 8, 1987. "MIT for a long time... stood virtually alone as a university that embraced rather than shunned industry."
  137. ^ Roberts, Edward B. (1991). "An Environment for Entrepreneurs". MIT: Shaping the Future. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. ISBN 0262631415. "The war made necessary the formation of new working coalitions... between these technologists and government officials. These changes were especially noteworthy at MIT."
  138. ^ Shlaes, Amity (May 14, 2008). "From the Ponderosa to the Googleplex: How Americans match money to ideas". State Department Press Release (U.S. Dep’t of State). "Griswold, [MIT president] Compton, and various politicians handpicked Doriot to head American Research & Development, a new firm that would invest in [the] small, innovative companies that had been underserved by traditional capital markets." 
  139. ^ Simon, Jane (July 1, 1985). "Route 128: How it developed, and why it’s not likely to be duplicated". New England Business (Boston). p. 15. "Compton co-founded in 1946 what is believed to be the nation’s first venture capital company.…  [He] and a group led by a Harvard professor [Doriot] founded one of the first venture capital companies, American Research & Development Corp." 
  140. ^ "Industrial Liaison Program: About Us". MIT. 2011. http://ilp.mit.edu/about.jsp. "Established in 1948, the ILP continues … making industrial connections for MIT."
  141. ^ Kolata, Gina (December 19, 1990). "MIT Deal with Japan Stirs Fear on Competition". The New York Times. Retrieved June 9, 2008. 
  142. ^ Booth, William (June 14, 1989). "MIT Criticized for Selling Research to Japanese Firms". The Washington Post. 
  143. ^ "Nearly half of all US Presidential science advisers have had ties to the Institute". MIT News Office. May 2, 2001. Retrieved March 18, 2007. 
  144. ^ "MIT Washington Office". MIT Washington Office. http://web.mit.edu/dc/. Retrieved March 18, 2007.
  145. ^ "Hunt Intense for Federal Research Funds: Universities Station Lobbyists in Washington". February 11, 2001. 
  146. ^ Johnston, David (August 10, 1989). "Price-Fixing Inquiry at 20 Elite Colleges". The New York Times. Retrieved December 16, 2008. 
  147. ^ Chira, Susan (March 13, 1991). "23 College Won't Pool Discal Data". The New York Times. Retrieved December 16, 2008. 
  148. ^ DePalma, Anthony (May 23, 1991). "Ivy Universities Deny Price-Fixing But Agree to Avoid It in the Future". The New York Times. Retrieved December 16, 2008. 
  149. ^ DePalma, Anthony (September 2, 1992). "MIT Ruled Guilty in Anti-Trust Case". The New York Times. Retrieved July 16, 2008. 
  150. ^ DePalma, Anthony (June 26, 1992). "Price-Fixing or Charity? Trial of M.I.T. Begins". The New York Times. Retrieved August 13, 2008. 
  151. ^ "Settlement allows cooperation on awarding financial-aid". MIT Tech Talk. 1994. http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/1994/settlement-0105.html. Retrieved March 3, 2007.
  152. ^ Honan, William (December 21, 1993). "MIT Suit Over Aid May Be Settled". The New York Times. Retrieved July 16, 2008. 
  153. ^ a b c d e f "MIT Facts: Educational Partnerships". 2010. Archived from the original on January 4, 2009. http://web.archive.org/web/20090104171108/http://web.mit.edu/facts/partnerships.html. Retrieved September 7, 2010.
  154. ^ "Roberto Rocca Project". MIT. http://web.mit.edu/progettorocca. Retrieved Novembre 19, 2009.
  155. ^ "MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives". MIT. http://web.mit.edu/misti/. Retrieved March 17, 2007.
  156. ^ "About Us". Technology Review. MIT. http://www.technologyreview.com/about/. Retrieved June 5, 2012.
  157. ^ "Alumni Benefits". MIT Alumni Association. http://alum.mit.edu/benefits/AlumniBenefits. Retrieved June 5, 2012.
  158. ^ "History – The MIT Press". MIT. http://mitpress.mit.edu/mitpress/history/default.asp. Retrieved March 18, 2007.
  159. ^ "America's Best Colleges". Forbes. 2012. http://www.forbes.com/top-colleges/list/. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
  160. ^ "National Universities Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. September 13, 2011. http://colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/best-colleges. Retrieved September 25, 2011.
  161. ^ "The Washington Monthly National University Rankings". The Washington Monthly. 2012. http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/college_guide/rankings_2012/national_university_rank.php. Retrieved November 11, 2012.
  162. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities: Global". Institute of Higher Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University. 2012. http://www.shanghairanking.com/ARWU2012.html. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  163. ^ "QS World University Rankings". QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. 2012. http://www.topuniversities.com/university-rankings/world-university-rankings/2012. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
  164. ^ "World University Rankings 2012-2013". The Times Higher Education. 2012. http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/world-university-rankings/2012-13/world-ranking. Retrieved October 11, 2012.
  165. ^ a b c d "Massachusetts Institute of Technology". Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. http://classifications.carnegiefoundation.org/lookup_listings/view_institution.php?unit_id=166683. Retrieved June 22, 2012.
  166. ^ "MIT Facts: Accreditation". MIT. 2010. http://web.mit.edu/facts/accreditation.html. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
  167. ^ "Roster of Institutions". Commission on Institutions of Higher Education, New England Association of Schools and Colleges. http://cihe.neasc.org/about_our_institutions/roster_of_institutions/details/13437. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
  168. ^ "Academic Calendar". Officer of the Registrar, MIT. http://web.mit.edu/registrar/calendar/index.html. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
  169. ^ Avery, Christopher; Glickman, Mark E.; Hoxby, Caroline M; Metrick, Andrew (December 2005). A Revealed Preference Ranking of U.S. Colleges and Universities, NBER Working Paper No. W10803. National Bureau of Economic Research. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=601105.
  170. ^ "2012 Parchment Top Choice College Rankings: All Colleges". Parchment Inc.. http://www.parchment.com/c/college/college-rankings.php. Retrieved June 5, 2012.
  171. ^ "Massachusetts Institute of Technology". U.S. News Best Colleges Rankings. U.S.News & World Report. http://colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/best-colleges/massachusetts-institute-of-technology-166683/overall-rankings. Retrieved June 5, 2012.
  172. ^ "MIT undergraduate engineering again ranked No. 1". MIT News Office. August 17, 2010. 
  173. ^ "World's Best Universities". U.S.News & World Report. http://www.usnews.com/education/worlds-best-universities-rankings. Retrieved June 5, 2012.
  174. ^ "Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)". QS World University Rankings. QS. http://www.topuniversities.com/institution/massachusetts-institute-technology-mit. Retrieved June 5, 2012.
  175. ^ "Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)". Academic Ranking of World Universities. http://www.shanghairanking.com/Institution.jsp?param=Massachusetts%20Institute%20of%20Technology%20%28MIT%29. Retrieved June 5, 2012.
  176. ^ "NRC Rankings". http://www.stat.tamu.edu/~jnewton/nrc_rankings/nrc1.html. Retrieved October 9, 2008.
  177. ^ In in 2012 and 2013, MIT was first among US Universities for internet media buzz by the TrendTopper MediaBuzz rankings.
  178. ^ "What's the Buzz? Exclusive TrendTopper MediaBuzz ("TTMB")Rankings". UniversityBusiness. http://www.universitybusiness.com/trendtopper2013. Retrieved January 26, 2013.
  179. ^ "Majors & Minors". MIT Admissions Office. http://www.mitadmissions.org/topics/learning/majors_minors/index.shtml. Retrieved August 13, 2008. "MIT is organized into academic departments, or Courses, which you will often hear referred to by their Course number or acronym."
  180. ^ Butcher, Ev. "Course Code Designation Key". MIT Club of San Diego. Archived from the original on July 25, 2011. http://web.archive.org/web/20110725142703/http://alumweb.mit.edu/clubs/sandiego/contents_courses.shtml.
  181. ^ "MIT Course Catalogue: Degree Programs". MIT. http://web.mit.edu/catalog/degre.intro.html. Retrieved July 16, 2008.
  182. ^ "Style Sheet | Report Preparation Guidelines". MIT. http://web.mit.edu/annualreports/stylesheet.html. Retrieved June 6, 2012.
  183. ^ "MIT Facts 2012: MIT at a Glance". MIT. 2012. http://web.mit.edu/facts/faqs.html.
  184. ^ "MIT Course Catalog: Degree Charts". Officer of the Registrar, MIT. http://web.mit.edu/catalog/front.degre.html. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
  185. ^ a b "MIT Degrees Awarded". Institutional Research, Office of the Provost. http://web.mit.edu/ir/pop/students/degrees.html. Retrieved June 26, 2012.
  186. ^ "MIT Course Catalog: Academic Programs". Officer of the Registrar, MIT. http://web.mit.edu/catalog/overv.chap3.html. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
  187. ^ a b "MIT Course Catalog: Undergraduate General Institute Requirements". Officer of the Registrar, MIT. http://web.mit.edu/catalog/overv.chap3-gir.html. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
  188. ^ "About the Requirement". Undergraduate Communication Requirement. MIT. http://web.mit.edu/commreq/index.html. Retrieved May 30, 2012.
  189. ^ "Faculty and Instructors". Undergraduate Communication Requirement. MIT. http://web.mit.edu/commreq/faculty.html. Retrieved May 30, 2012.
  190. ^ Schön, Donald A. (1986). "Leadership as Reflection-in-Action". In Thomas J. Sergiovanni, John Edward Corbally. Leadership and Organizational Culture: New Perspectives on Administrative Theory and Practice. University of Illinois Press. p. 59. ISBN 0-252-01347-6. http://books.google.com/?id=wfjpFezRhuYC&pg=PA59&lpg=PA59. Retrieved August 13, 2008. "[In the sixties] Students spoke of their undergraduate experience as "drinking from a fire hose.""
  191. ^ Mattuck, Arthur (2009). The Torch or the Firehose. MIT OpenCourseWare. pp. 1. http://ocw.mit.edu/resources/res-18-004-the-torch-or-the-firehose-a-guide-to-section-teaching-spring-2009/online-publication/.
  192. ^ "Average Freshmen Retention Rates: National Universities". U.S. News and World Report. http://colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/best-colleges/rankings/national-universities/freshmen-least-most-likely-return. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
  193. ^ a b "MIT Course Catalog: Freshman Year". Officer of the Registrar, MIT. http://web.mit.edu/catalog/overv.chap3.html#fre. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
  194. ^ Keuss, Nancy (October 17, 2000). "The Evolution of MIT's Pass/No Record System". The Tech 120 (50). Retrieved September 6, 2010. 
  195. ^ "MIT UROP: Basic Information". MIT. http://web.mit.edu/UROP/basicinfo/index.html. Retrieved June 21, 2012.
  196. ^ "MIT Research and Teaching Firsts". MIT News Office. Archived from the original on September 15, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060915023328/http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/special/firsts.html. Retrieved October 6, 2006.
  197. ^ "Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program". MIT Admissions. http://wiki.mitadmissions.org/UROP. Retrieved June 21, 2012.
  198. ^ Maeroff, Gene I. (January 11, 1976). "Use of Undergraduates in Research Is Hailed by M.I.T.; Inventions by Students". The New York Times. 
  199. ^ Palmer, Matthew (October 5, 1999). "An MIT Original, the Oft Replicated UROP Program Reaches 30 Years". The Tech. 
  200. ^ Benson, Snyder (1970). The Hidden Curriculum. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-69043-8. http://mitpress.mit.edu/catalog/item/default.asp?tid=4398&ttype=2.
  201. ^ Mahoney, Matt (May 2012). "Unwritten Rules". Technology Review. Retrieved June 21, 2012. 
  202. ^ "NAAB: Schools Database (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)". NAAB. http://www.naab.org/schools/view.aspx?id=14406&origin=results&QS='&vSchoolYMGHFREschool_name=&vSchoolYMGHFREState=MA&startrec=1&searchtype=A&nextbttn=Search&union=AND&top_parent=99. Retrieved April 16, 2011.
  203. ^ "AACSB – General". AASCB. https://www.aacsb.net/eweb/DynamicPage.aspx?Site=AACSB&WebKey=ED088FF2-979E-48C6-B104-33768F1DE01D. Retrieved April 16, 2011.
  204. ^ "Planning Accreditation Board: Accredited Planning Programs". Planning Accreditation Board. http://www.planningaccreditationboard.org/index.php?id=30. Retrieved April 16, 2011.
  205. ^ "Accredited Programs Search". ABET. http://www.abet.org/AccredProgramSearch/AccreditationSearch.aspx. Retrieved April 16, 2011.
  206. ^ "MIT Course Catalog: Graduate Education: General Degree Requirements". Officer of the Registrar, MIT. http://web.mit.edu/catalog/overv.chap4-gdr.html. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
  207. ^ "Interdisciplinary Graduate Programs". Officer of the Registrar, MIT. http://web.mit.edu/catalog/inter.gradu.html. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
  208. ^ "Graduate Education". MIT Facts 2012. MIT. http://web.mit.edu/facts/graduate.html. Retrieved June 25, 2012.
  209. ^ Geraci, Diane. "Information Resources". MIT Reports to the President 2009–2010. MIT Reference Publications Office. http://web.mit.edu/annualreports/pres10/2010.13.00.pdf. Retrieved June 26, 2012.
  210. ^ "Lewis Music Library". MIT. http://libraries.mit.edu/music/contents.html. Retrieved October 10, 2010.
  211. ^ "MIT List Visual Arts Center". MIT. http://listart.mit.edu/about. Retrieved October 1, 2010.
  212. ^ "Compton Gallery". MIT Museum. http://web.mit.edu/museum/exhibitions/compton.html. Retrieved October 1, 2010.
  213. ^ "MIT Percent-for-Art Program". MIT. http://www.mit.edu/~lvac/percent/index.html. Retrieved October 1, 2010.
  214. ^ "MIT Public Art Collection". MIT. http://listart.mit.edu:8080/Prt2*1$15*1943. Retrieved October 1, 2010.
  215. ^ "MIT Museum: Mission and History". MIT. http://web.mit.edu/museum/about/mission.html. Retrieved October 1, 2010.
  216. ^ a b "Research at MIT". MIT Facts. MIT. http://web.archive.org/web/20100802071524/http://web.mit.edu/facts/research.html. Retrieved July 1, 2012.
  217. ^ Office of the Provost. "MIT Faculty and Staff". MIT. http://web.mit.edu/ir/pop/faculty_staff.html. Retrieved April 17, 2011.
  218. ^ "TLO Statistics for Fiscal Year 2011". MIT. http://web.mit.edu/tlo/www/about/office_statistics.html. Retrieved July 1, 2012.
  219. ^ Bishop, Matthew; Michael Green (Spring 2012). "Innovation for the Real World". Philanthropy. Retrieved June 5, 2012. 
  220. ^ "IEEE History Center: MIT Radiation Laboratory". IEEE. http://www.ieee.org/about/ieee_history.html. Retrieved June 9, 2008.
  221. ^ a b "Research Laboratory of Electronics at MIT: History". MIT. http://www.rle.mit.edu/about/about_history.html. Retrieved June 9, 2008.
  222. ^ "High Speed Camera " Harold "Doc" Edgerton". November 28, 2009. http://edgerton-digital-collections.org/techniques/high-speed-photography. Retrieved November 28, 2009.
  223. '^ The Edgerton Digital Collections Project <b>When a strobe would not do the trick in murky waters, Edgerton began working on sonar techniques to “see” with sound.</b>
  224. ^ "MIT Professor Claude Shannon dies; was founder of digital communications". MIT News Office. February 27, 2001. Retrieved October 4, 2010. 
  225. ^ Guttag, John (2003). The Electron and the Bit, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT, 1902–2002.
  226. ^ Office of the Provost. "A. M. Turing Award". MIT. http://web.mit.edu/ir/pop/awards/acm-turing.html. Retrieved April 17, 2011.
  227. ^ Robert N. Noyce, Robert Langer, Bradford W. Parkinson, Ivan A. Getting, Butler W. Lampson, Timothy J. Berners-Lee, Rudolph Kalman,
  228. ^ a b c d "Nobel Prize". Office of Institutional Research, MIT. http://web.mit.edu/ir/pop/awards/nobel.html. Retrieved December 31, 2008.
  229. ^ "Dirac Medal". Office of Institutional Research, MIT. http://web.mit.edu/ir/pop/awards/dirac.html. Retrieved December 31, 2008.
  230. ^ "Prize in Physics". Wolf Foundation. http://www.wolffund.org.il/cat.asp?id=25&cat_title=PHYSICS. Retrieved October 4, 2010.
  231. ^ Lander, Eric; Linton, LM; Birren, B; Nusbaum, C; Zody, MC; Baldwin, J; Devon, K; Dewar, K et al. (2001). "Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome". Nature (Nature) 409 (6822): 860. doi:10.1038/35057062. PMID 11237011.
  232. ^ "Eric S. Lander". Broad Institute. http://www.broadinstitute.org/about/bios/bio-lander.html. Retrieved June 9, 2008.
  233. ^ "Martin Deutsch, MIT physicist who discovered positronium, dies at 85". August 20, 2002. Retrieved June 12, 2008. 
  234. ^ "Professor John C. Sheehan Dies at 76". MIT News Office. April 1, 1992. Retrieved June 12, 2008. 
  235. ^ "Self-Reproducing Molecules Reported by MIT Researchers". MIT News Office. May 9, 1990. Archived from the original on May 16, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080516120912/http://w3.mit.edu/newsoffice/tt/1990/may09/23124.html. Retrieved June 12, 2008.
  236. ^ "MIT Research and Teaching Firsts". MIT. Archived from the original on May 31, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080531233441/http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/special/firsts.html. Retrieved June 12, 2008.
  237. ^ Hilts, Philip J. (March 31, 1998). "Last Rites for a 'Plywood Palace' That Was a Rock of Science". The New York Times. Retrieved October 4, 2010. 
  238. ^ "John Bates Clark Medal". Office of Institutional Research, MIT. http://web.mit.edu/ir/pop/awards/clark.html. Retrieved December 31, 2008.
  239. ^ Fox, Margalit (December 5, 1998). "A Changed Noam Chomsky Simplifies". The New York Times. 
  240. ^ Jaggi, Maya (January 20, 2001). "Conscience of a nation". The Guardian (London). Retrieved August 12, 2008. 
  241. ^ Herper, Matthew (January 8, 2002). "MIT Media Lab Tightens Its Belt". Forbes. Retrieved August 12, 2008. 
  242. ^ Guernsey, Lisa (April 7, 2009). "M.I.T. Media Lab at 15: Big Ideas, Big Money". The New York Times. 
  243. ^ Matchan, Linda (July 12, 2008). "In Search of A Beautiful Mind". The Boston Globe. Retrieved August 12, 2008. 
  244. ^ Office of the Provost. "MacArthur Fellows". MIT. http://web.mit.edu/ir/pop/awards/macarthur.html. Retrieved April 17, 2011.
  245. ^ Office of the Provost. "Pulitzer Prize". MIT. http://web.mit.edu/ir/pop/awards/pulitzer.html. Retrieved April 17, 2011.
  246. ^ Office of the Provost. "American Academy of Arts and Letters". MIT. http://web.mit.edu/ir/pop/awards/artsandletters.html. Retrieved April 17, 2011.
  247. ^ Saltus, Richard (September 28, 1990). "Journal Cites New Evidence ex-MIT Scientist Faked Data". The Boston Globe. 
  248. ^ Boffey, Philip (April 12, 1988). "Nobel Winner Is Caught Up in a Dispute Over Study". The New York Times. 
  249. ^ Abel, David (November 29, 2002). "MIT Faces Charges of Fraud, Cover-up on Missile Test Study". The Boston Globe. 
  250. ^ Pierce, Charles P. (October 23, 2005). "Going Postol". The Boston Globe. Retrieved January 27, 2008. 
  251. ^ "Case Summary – Luk Van Parijs". Office of Research Integrity, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. January 23, 2009. http://ori.hhs.gov/misconduct/cases/VanParijs.shtml. Retrieved December 2, 2009.
  252. ^ Reich, Eugenie (February 3, 2009). "Former MIT biologist penalized for falsifying data". Nature News. 
  253. ^ Jones, Marilee. "MIT freshman application & financial aid information" (PDF). MIT Admissions Office. Archived from the original on November 7, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20061107035149/http://web.mit.edu/admissions/pdf/MITinstructions.pdf. Retrieved January 2, 2007. "We are a meritocracy. We judge each other by our ideas, our creativity and our accomplishments, not by who our families are."
  254. ^ Bernanke, Ben S. (June 9, 2006). "2006 Commencement Speech at MIT". http://www.federalreserve.gov/boardDocs/speeches/2006/20060609/default.htm. Retrieved January 2, 2007. "Mathematical approaches to economics have at times been criticized as lacking in practical value. Yet the MIT Economics Department has trained many economists who have played leading roles in government and in the private sector, including the current heads of four central banks: those of Chile, Israel, Italy, and, I might add, the United States."
  255. ^ "No honorary degrees is an MIT tradition going back to... Thomas Jefferson". MIT News Office. June 8, 2001. http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2001/commdegrees.html. Retrieved May 7, 2006. "MIT's founder, William Barton Rogers, regarded the practice of giving honorary degrees as 'literary almsgiving ...of spurious merit and noisy popularity...'"
  256. ^ Stevenson, Daniel C. "Rushdie Stuns Audience 26–100". The Tech. 
  257. ^ a b Gellerman, Bruce; Erik Sherman (2004). Massachusetts Curiosities: Quirky Characters, Roadside Oddities, & Other Offbeat Stuff. Globe Pequot. pp. 65–66. ISBN 0-7627-3070-6.
  258. ^ Pourian, Jessica J. (February 15, 2011). "2013's Brass Rat unveiled". The Tech. Retrieved June 12, 2011. 
  259. ^ "Ring History ('93 class webpage)". http://alumweb.mit.edu/classes/1993/brassrat.html. Retrieved December 26, 2006.
  260. ^ Bauer, M.J.. "IHTFP". http://www.mit.edu/people/mjbauer/ihtfp.html. Retrieved November 23, 2005.
  261. ^ "MIT Association of Student Activities". http://web.mit.edu/asa/resources/group-list.html. Retrieved November 1, 2006.
  262. ^ "MIT Outreach Database". MIT. http://mitpsc.mit.edu/outreach/home/search. Retrieved September 7, 2010.
  263. ^ Dowling, Claudia Glenn (June 5, 2005). "MIT Nerds". Discover Magazine. Retrieved August 17, 2007. 
  264. ^ Bridges, Mary (January 23, 2005). "Her Mystery achievement: to boldly scavenge at MIT". The Boston Globe. Retrieved January 16, 2007. 
  265. ^ "Charm School". MIT Student Activities Office. MIT Division of Student Life. http://studentlife.mit.edu/sao/charm. Retrieved July 3, 2011.
  266. ^ Chang, Kenneth (February 6, 2001). "What, Geeks at M.I.T.? Not With This Class". The New York Times. Retrieved August 12, 2008. 
  267. ^ Kirkpatrick, J. (2011). "Students head off to varied externships". The Tech 131 (59). 
  268. ^ Kirkpatrick, J. (2011). "Record 294 participate in MIT Externship Program". The Tech 131 (57). 
  269. ^ Peterson, T.F. (2003). Nightwork: A History of Hacks and Pranks at MIT. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-66137-9.
  270. ^ Biskup, Agnieska (April 1, 2003). "These Are Not Your Ordinary College Pranks". The Boston Globe. 
  271. ^ "Howe & Ser Moving Co". http://www.mitcannon.com/. Retrieved April 4, 2007.
  272. ^ Bombadieri, Marcella (December 18, 2003). "MIT Pranksters Wing It For Wright Celebration". The Boston Globe. 
  273. ^ "MIT Hackers & Halo 3". The Tech. http://tech.mit.edu/V127/N41/graphics/halo3.html. Retrieved September 25, 2007.
  274. ^ Kathryn Krtnick, Asst. Dir. of Communications (November 28, 2012). "Re: NCAA Media Inquiry". Natl. Collegiate Athletic Assn. http://mitcrimeclub.org/ncaa121128.pdf. "List of institutions that sponsor the most sports: Bowdoin College and Williams College – 32; MIT – 31."
  275. ^ a b c Dept. of Athletics (Aug. 2012). "2012–13 Quick Facts". MIT. http://mit.edu/athletics/www/department/DAPERQuickFacts09.pdf. "Intercollegiate Athletics: 33 varsity sports."
  276. ^ Cohen, Rachel (May 18, 2010). "MIT the No. 1 jock school? You're kidding, right?". Associated Press. Retrieved 2011-06-25. 
  277. ^ Powers, John (April 24, 2009). "MIT forced to cut 8 varsity sports". The Boston Globe. 
  278. ^ "MIT Graphic Identity: Mascot". http://mit.edu/graphicidentity/symbols/mascot.html. Retrieved November 22, 2012.
  279. ^ Shapiro, Fred (April 25, 1975). "MIT's World Champions" (PDF) 92. The Tech. p. 7. Retrieved October 4, 2006. 
  280. ^ <Please add first missing authors to populate metadata.> (January 2009). "MIT facts 2009: International students and scholars". MIT Bulletin 144 (4). http://web.mit.edu/facts/international.html.
  281. ^ "Class of 2015 admission rate sinks to 9.6 percent". The Tech, MIT. 2011. http://tech.mit.edu/V131/N14/admissions.html. Retrieved July 4, 2012.
  282. ^ a b MIT, Office of the Registrar. (October 9, 2009url=http://web.mit.edu/registrar/stats/gender/index.html).&#32;Enrollment statistics: Women students, Fall term 2009–2010.
  283. ^ "Geographic Distribution of Students". Office of the Registrar, MIT. 2009–2010. http://web.mit.edu/registrar/stats/geo/index.html. Retrieved October 1, 2010.
  284. ^ <Please add first missing authors to populate metadata.> (January 2009). "MIT facts: Admission to MIT". MIT Bulletin 144 (4). http://web.mit.edu/facts/admission.html.
  285. ^ U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (September 2009). College Navigator: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Retention and graduation rates. http://nces.ed.gov/collegenavigator/?id=166683#retgrad.
  286. ^ "MIT Facts: Tuition and Financial Aid". 2010. http://web.mit.edu/facts/tuition.html.
  287. ^ Bolotin, Mark (January 14, 1966). "Tuition hike provokes student riot". The Tech 85 (32). http://tech.mit.edu/V85/PDF/N32.pdf.
  288. ^ Chemical Heritage Foundation (2005). "Ellen Swallow Richards". Chemical Achievers, The Human Face of Chemical Sciences. http://www.chemheritage.org/discover/chemistry-in-history/themes/public-and-environmental-health/public-health-and-safety/richards-e.aspx. Retrieved November 4, 2006.
  289. ^ Simha, O. R. (2003). MIT campus planning 1960–2000: An annotated chronology. MIT Press. pp. 32–33. ISBN 978-0-262-69294-6. http://books.google.com/?id=ldq-ZgxszzMC&lpg=PA32&pg=PA32. "In 1959, 158 women were enrolled at MIT."
  290. ^ Stratton, J. A. (1960). The president's report 1960. p. 49. http://libraries.mit.edu/archives/mithistory/presidents-reports/1960.pdf. "Registration: In 1959–60 ... [o]ne hundred and fifty-five women were enrolled, [2.5 percent of student body]...."
  291. ^ EECS Women Undergraduate Enrollment Committee (January 3, 1995). "Chapter 1: Male/Female enrollment patterns in EECS at MIT and other schools". Women Undergraduate Enrollment in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT. http://groups.csail.mit.edu/mac/users/hal/women-enrollment-comm/final-report-ch1.html. Retrieved December 8, 2006.
  292. ^ Healy, Patrick (February 5, 2001). "11 years, 11 suicides – Critics Say Spate of MIT Jumping Deaths Show a 'Contagion'". The Boston Globe. pp. A1. 
  293. ^ Smith, Tovia (August 29, 2001). "Massachusetts Institute of Technology Looks for Ways to Deal with the Incidence of Student Suicides in Recent Years". National Public Radio. 
  294. ^ a b "MIT's Inaction Blamed for Contributing to Death of a Freshman". The Chronicle of Higher Education. October 6, 1998. Retrieved October 7, 2006. 
  295. ^ Levine, Dana (September 15, 2000). "Institute Will Pay Kruegers $6M for Role in Death". The Tech. Retrieved October 4, 2006. 
  296. ^ a b Sontag, Deborah (April 28, 2002). "Who Was Responsible for Elizabeth Shin?". The New York Times. Retrieved October 7, 2006. 
  297. ^ Elizabeth Fried Ellen, LICSW (2002). "Suicide Prevention on Campus". Psychiatric Times. Retrieved June 26, 2006. 
  298. ^ "MIT Mental Health Task Force Fact Sheet". MIT New Office. November 14, 2001. Retrieved June 25, 2006. 
  299. ^ Arenson, Karen (December 3, 2004). "Worried Colleges Step Up Efforts Over Suicide". The New York Times. Retrieved January 6, 2009. 
  300. ^ "Clay endorses Mental Health Task Force Recommendations". MIT News Office. November 28, 2001. Retrieved June 25, 2006. 
  301. ^ Nobel Foundation (2009). Nobel laureates and universities. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/lists/universities.html.
  302. ^ "A Study on the Status of Women Faculty in Science at MIT". MIT Faculty News Letter. 1999. http://web.mit.edu/fnl/women/women.html.
  303. ^ Kleinfeld, Judith. "MIT Tarnishes Its Reputation with Gender Junk Science". Archived from the original on February 8, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070208134206/http://www.uaf.edu/northern/mitstudy/. Retrieved April 10, 2007.
  304. ^ Lopez, Kathryn Jean (April 10, 2001). "Feminist Mythology". National Review. http://old.nationalreview.com/nr_comment/nr_comment041001b.shtml. Retrieved April 10, 2007.
  305. ^ a b Wertheimer, Linda (December 6, 2007). "Tenure at MIT Still Largely a Male Domain". The Boston Globe. Retrieved July 25, 2008. 
  306. ^ "Professor Sues M.I.T. Over Refusal of Tenure". The New York Times. September 10, 1986. Retrieved October 3, 2006. 
  307. ^ Vaznis, James (January 15, 1994). "Ex-MIT professor who was denied tenure files sex bias suit". The Boston Globe. 
  308. ^ Dowdy, Zachary (October 22, 1997). "MCAD supports scholar's claim of bias by MIT; University Offered job, but no tenure". The Boston Globe. 
  309. ^ Simpson, April (February 6, 2007). "Professor accuses MIT of racism". The Boston Globe. Retrieved December 18, 2007. 
  310. ^ Schworm, Peter (June 4, 2007). "MIT center director resigns in protest of tenure decision". The Boston Globe. Retrieved December 19, 2007. 
  311. ^ The Associated Press (October 23, 2009). "Monterey Aquarium's McNutt new USGS director". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on June 2, 2010. Retrieved October 25, 2009. 
  312. ^ "DUSP's Briggs joins Obama administration". MIT News Office. January 20, 2009. 
  313. ^ "Lander named to Obama's science team". MIT News Office. December 22, 2008. 
  314. ^ Calmes, Jackie; Broder, John (March 4, 2013). "Obama Announces 3 Cabinet Nominations". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 March 2013. 
  315. ^ Roberta Rampton (February 6, 2013). "Exclusive: Obama considering MIT physicist Moniz for energy secretary - sources". chicagotribune.com. http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2013-02-06/news/sns-rt-us-usa-cabinet-energybre91602h-20130206_1_energy-secretary-energy-department-ernest-moniz. Retrieved February 24, 2013.
  316. ^ MIT Office of Institutional Research. "Awards and Honors". http://web.mit.edu/ir/pop/awards/index.html. Retrieved November 5, 2006.
  317. ^ "MIT Rhodes Scholars". Institutional Research, Office of the Provost. http://web.mit.edu/ir/pop/awards/student_rhodes.html. Retrieved February 29, 2012.
  318. ^ Ericka Chickowski (September 20, 2010). "Gurus and Grads". Entrepreneur. http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/217327.
  319. ^ "Kauffman Foundation study finds MIT alumni companies generate billions for regional economies". MIT News Office. February 17, 2009. Retrieved February 25, 2009. 
  320. ^ Ed Pilkington (May 18, 2011). "The MIT factor: celebrating 150 years of maverick genius". The Guardian. Retrieved May 25, 2011. 
  321. ^ "Notable Alumni". http://www.mitadmissions.org/topics/pulse/notable_alumni/. Retrieved November 4, 2006.
  322. ^ (Chinese) 钱学森:历尽险阻报效祖国 火箭之王淡泊名誉,人民网,2009年10月31日.Accessed Oct. 31, 2009; (Chinese) 美国航空周刊2008年度人物:钱学森.网易探索(广州)(2009年10月31日). Accessed Nov. 11, 2009.
  323. ^ Silvey, Anita (1995). Children's Books and Their Creators. Houghton Mifflin. p. 415. ISBN 0-395-65380-0. http://books.google.com/?id=DzV5M07MZigC&pg=RA4-PA415.

Bibliography

Also see the bibliography maintained by MIT's Institute Archives & Special Collections, and Written Works in MIT in popular culture.</dd>

  • Abelmann, Walter H. (2004). The Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology: The First 25 Years, 1970–1995. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology. ISBN 9780674014589.
  • Angulo, A. J. (2007). "The Initial Reception of MIT, 1860s–1880s". History of Higher Education Annual 26: 1–28.
  • Etzkowitz, Henry (2006). MIT and the Rise of Entrepreneurial Science. London: Routledge. ISBN 9780415435055.
  • Hapgood, Fred (1992). Up the Infinite Corridor: MIT and the Technical Imagination. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 9780201082937.
  • Jarzombek, Mark (2004). Designing MIT: Bosworth's New Tech. Boston, Mass.: Northeastern University Press. ISBN 9781555536190.
  • Keyser, Samuel Jay (2011). Mens et Mania: The MIT Nobody Knows. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262015943.
  • Lecuyer, Christophe (1992). "The Making of a Science Based Technological University: Karl Compton, James Killian, and the Reform of MIT, 1930–1957". Historical Studies in the Physical & Biological Sciences 23 (1): 153–180.
  • Leslie, Stuart W. (1993). The Cold War and American Science: The Military-Industrial-Academic Complex at MIT and Stanford. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231079587.
  • Lewis, Warren K., Ronald H. Robnett, C. Richard Soderberg, Julius A. Stratton et al. (1949) (PDF). Report of the Committee on Educational Survey (Lewis Report). Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. http://libraries.mit.edu/archives/mithistory/pdf/lewis.pdf. Retrieved May 28, 2012.
  • Mitchell, William J. (2007). Imagining MIT: Designing a Campus for the Twenty-first Century. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262134798.
  • Peterson, T. F. (2003). Nightwork: A History of Hacks and Pranks at MIT. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262661379.
  • Prescott, Samuel C. (1954). When MIT was "Boston Tech", 1861–1916 (Reprint. ed.). MIT Press. ISBN 9780262661393.
  • Servos, John W. (December 1980). "The Industrial Relations of Science: Chemical Engineering at MIT, 1900–1939". Isis (The University of Chicago Press on behalf of The History of Science Society) 71 (4): 531–549. JSTOR 230499.
  • Shrock, Robert Rakes (1982). Geology at MIT 1865–1965: A History of the First Hundred Years of Geology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262192118.
  • Simha, O. Robert (2003). MIT Campus Planning, 1960–2000: An Annotated Chronology. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262692946.
  • Snyder, Benson R. (1971). The Hidden Curriculum. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262690430.
  • Stratton, Julius A. (2005). Mind and Hand: The Birth of MIT. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262195249.
  • Vest, Charles M. (2004). Pursuing the Endless Frontier: Essays on MIT and the Role of Research Universities. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262220729.
  • Wildes, Karl L.; Lindgren, Nilo A. (1985). A Century of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT, 1882–1982. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262231190.

External links

  • Official website
  • Texts on Wikisource:
    • "Massachusetts Institute of Technology". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921. 
    • "Massachusetts Institute of Technology, The". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920. 
    • "wstitle=Massachusetts Institute of Technology". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914. 
    • "Massachusetts Institute of Technology". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. 
    • George Fillmore Swain (July 1900). "Technical Education at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology". Popular Science Monthly 57.



</raw> </toggledisplay>

Wikipedia preview

出典(authority):フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』「2016/02/22 03:16:23」(JST)

wiki ja

<toggledisplay showtext="[Wiki ja表示]" hidetext="[隠す]">

<raw>
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
校訓 Mens et Manus (ラテン語)
創立 1861年 (1865年設置)
学校種別 私立大学
ランドグラント大学
大学暦 4–1–4
運営資金 124億ドル(2014年)[1]
総長 Cynthia Barnhart
学長 L. Rafael Reif
学長 Martin A. Schmidt
教職員 1,030[2]
学生 11,301[3]
学部生 4,528[3]
大学院生 6,510
所在地 米国マサチューセッツ州ケンブリッジ
キャンパス 都市型, 168エーカー (68.0 ha)[4]
Newspaper The Tech
スポーツ 31 varsity teams
スクールカラー Red, Gray and Light Gray[5]
           
愛称 Engineers[6]
マスコット Tim the Beaver[7]
運動競技 NCAA Division III – NEWMAC, NEFC, Pilgrim League
Division I – EARC & EAWRC (rowing)
所属提携 AAU

AICUM
AITU
APLU
COFHE
NAICU[8]
URA

568 Group
ウェブサイト MIT<wbr />.edu
テンプレートを表示

マサチューセッツ工科大学(英語: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)は、アメリカ合衆国マサチューセッツ州ケンブリッジに本部を置く私立工科大学である。1865年に設置された。通称、MIT(エム・アイ・ティー, 注:「ミット」は誤用で主に日本の極めて一部で用いられる)。

全米指折りのエリート名門校の1つとされ、ノーベル賞受賞者を多数輩出している(なお、2014年まで1年以上在籍しMITが公式発表したノーベル賞受賞者は81名。この数はハーバード大学の公式発表受賞者48名を上回る[9])。最も古く権威ある世界大学評価機関の英国Quacquarelli Symonds(QS)による世界大学ランキングでは、2012年以来2015年まで、ハーバード大学及びケンブリッジ大学を抜き、4年連続で世界第一位である。 同じくケンブリッジ市にあるハーバード大学とはライバル校でありながらも、学生達はそれぞれの学校の授業を卒業単位に組み込める単位互換制度(Cross-registration system)が確立され、ケンブリッジ市は、「世界最高の学びのテーマパーク」とさえも称されている。物理学や生物学などの共同研究組織を立ち上げたりなど、ハーバード大学との共同研究も盛んである。

MITはランドグラント大学でもある。1865年から1900年の間に約19万4千ドル(これは2008年時点の生活水準でいうところの380万ドルに相当)のグラントを得、また同時期にマサチューセッツ州から更なる約36万ドル(2008年時点の生活水準で換算して700万ドルに相当)の資金を獲得している[10]。どの私的寄付もこの額のレベルには及ばず、MIT設立当初の州からの援助は寛大なものだった[10]

アメリカにおいて、シリコンバレーなどと並ぶ先端技術産業の集積地であるボストンのルート128地域においても、中核的な役割を果たす機関である。同大学のメディアラボは情報技術関連の先端を走る研究所としてマスメディアなどでも頻繁に取り上げられる。特筆すべきは、同研究所で開発された情報処理システム(アテネプロジェクト)がキャンパスネットワークの根幹を占めること、なおかつそのプロジェクトの研究成果が、アメリカ以外の大学院大学などでも活用され、成果を挙げていることである。

同大学は、ボストン近郊所在の他大学(ハーバード大学、ウェルズリー大学、マサチューセッツ大学)との間で、学生や研究者同士の交流も推進している。近年、大学の全授業をweb上で公開する試み(オープンコースウェア)がなされており、遠隔教育関係者や教育関係者一般から広く注目を集めている。現在、建築家の槇文彦によってキャンパスの増築がなされている。

目次

  • 1 歴史
  • 2 軍事・経済的な貢献
  • 3 組織
    • 3.1 スクールおよびカレッジ
    • 3.2 研究機関
    • 3.3 その他
  • 4 教育
  • 5 学生
    • 5.1 受験
  • 6 「ハック」
  • 7 著名な教員
  • 8 出身者
    • 8.1 日本人出身者
  • 9 連携大学
  • 10 脚注
  • 11 関連項目
  • 12 外部リンク

歴史

MITは自然哲学者ウィリアム・バートン・ロジャース(ウィリアム・アンド・メアリー大学卒業)によってボストンの地にボストン技術学校の名で設立され、1865年にマサチューセッツ工科大学に改称し開学した。

創立当初は一部の学生を除き、多くのMITの学生は一人前の大人(社会人)で、建設業者や熟練工、工事監督、熟練機械工、見習い工、熟練エンジニアなど既に一定の技能を身につけた人々だった。このため、明確な目的意識があり、必要と思われる講座のみを選択し受講しに来る者が多く、キャンパス・ライフは存在しなかった。MITには学生寮もなく、礼拝堂もなく、1867年まで食堂すら存在せず 、学生はただ講義を聞くためだけに学校に来た[11]。最初のうちは学生は男子のみだったが、1870年代になって初めて女子の入学を受け入れはじめた。

ヨーロッパでは歴史的に技術系の職業が低く見られ、近代半ばまで大学での工系学部の位置づけも明確でなく、工学部設置も日本に先を越された。この状況はアメリカでも強く、理工系専門の教育機関として創設されたMITも人々から偏見の目で見られた。

20世紀初頭にボストンでは開発ブームが起こり、不動産の高騰などによってMITは、これまでいたコプリー・スクェアの地を立ち退かなければならない事態となった。皮肉なことに、この開発ブームに拍車をかけたのは1865年以来、MITが送り出してきた数千人に及ぶ卒業生たちであった。MITは研究室ごとに高騰したボストン各地の不動産市場に散りぢりとなり、大学移転のために候補地を探したが、調達資金などの面から難航した。1909年、資金調達能力を有するリチャード・マクローリンが新学長に就任したことによって事態は収拾に向かい、新キャンパスの候補地としてケンブリッジとボストンの境界を流れるチャールズ川の埋立地(ケンブリッジ側)が検討されるようになった。だが、移転に際していくつか問題があった。第一に土壌が埋め立てたばかりで軟弱であったこと、第二にケンブリッジを縄張りとしていたハーバードとの政治的・歴史的問題である。特にハーバードとの問題は深刻で、MITのほとんどの卒業生が、このとき文科系人種をはじめとするボストンの人々からいわれのない偏見を受け、罵声を絶え間なく浴びせられたという[12]。この状況について関係者は「肘で誰かを押しのけて食事をするようなものだ」と語っている。

さらにMITがケンブリッジにキャンパスを移転してからは、ハーバードとの対抗は激しくなり、人々の中にはMITを「職業訓練学校」と侮辱する者もいた。例えばボストンのある名士が、ハーバードで教えるかわりにMITへの奉職を考慮していた甥に対し、次のような手紙を書いている。「この国では、常に金と鉄道と発明の嵐が吹き荒れてる。公立学校だの、高校だの、職業専門学校(MITのこと)だのと言ったものは、どんな学校にも作れるが、ケンブリッジ(ハーバードのこと)のようなところだけが、学問にふさわしい雰囲気と歴史と思っている。大学とは、そうでなければならないのだ。大いなるハーモニーを学べるところでなくては」[13]

軍事・経済的な貢献

1940年、MITは軍事技術の研究開発にかかわるようになった。当時、アメリカ軍はイギリス海軍が開発したレーダーに関心を持っており、研究プロジェクトを行う上で、設備[14]や運営経験があったMITに注目した[15]。その一年後、太平洋戦争がはじまるとキャンパス北端に放射線研究所(Radiation Lab・ラドラブ)と称する軍事研究所が設置され、カリフォルニア工科大学などとともに戦争の一翼を担った。さらにMITは新兵器開発のために必要な資金や物資を得ることに成功するとともに、学生の徴兵猶予の権利を勝ちとった。この経験はマサチューセッツ工科大学の名を世界で高めるきっかけとなった。 「彼らは2万5800もの会社を設立し、300万人の雇用を生み出していた」ことが分かったという。これには、シリコンバレーの雇用の約4分の1を含む。「もしMITが国家だとすると、世界で11番目のGDPを有することになる」

なお、2014年まで1年以上在籍しMITが公式発表したノーベル賞受賞者は81名。この数はハーバード大学の公式発表受賞者48名を上回る。 ハーバードは、英国のオックスフォードやケンブリッジをモデルに上流階級用の古典教育にこだわり、ラテン語やギリシャ語に力を入れていた。これに対してMITは、研究と実践的な実験による学習というドイツ的なシステムを採用した。「知識は重要だが、有用でなければならない」という考え方がMITの伝統で、米国の主要大学としては非常に小さい規模の大学であり学生数は約1万人、教員数は約1000人に過ぎない。日本の東大や早慶に比べても小さく、東京工業大学と同じ規模である。

スタッフの約40%が米国以外の生まれで、すぐに役には立ちそうにないことでも取り組むことが許される、財政的・精神的余裕を持っている。 

組織

5つのスクール(School)と1つのカレッジ(College)がある(これらが日本の大学における「学部」・「研究科」に相当する)。スクールとカレッジには、34の学部(Department)、学科(Division)、大学院・研究科・専攻(Degree-granting program)などがおかれている。さらには、教育研究プログラムとしてWHOIとのジョイントプログラムも実施している。

  • 学部: 経営学部、工学部、人文・社会科学部、理学部、建築・計画学部
  • 研究科: 医科大学院、経営大学院、工科大学院、人文社会科学大学院、自然科学大学院、建築・計画大学院

スクールおよびカレッジ

  • School of Architecture and Planning(建築および都市計画・地域計画)
  • School of Engineering(工学)
  • School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences(人文科学・社会科学)
  • Sloan School of Management(経営)
  • School of Science(理学)
  • Whitaker College of Health Sciences and Technology(健康科学・健康技術)

研究機関

51の研究機関がある。ここでは、メディアなどで著名な研究機関を掲げる。

  • リンカーン研究所
  • ホワイトヘッド研究所
  • MITメディアラボ
  • MITコンピュータ科学・人工知能研究所

その他

各企業からの派遣研究員受け入れや受託研究を行う、寄附講座や記念講座が設置されている。

教育

大学側はMITの学生に多くの課題を要求する[16]。例えば数学科の学生なら学期の初めから4つの課題演習セットと20分間のプレゼンをこなし、次週までにカール・バーンスタインのAll the President's Menを読んでくるなどである[16]

2008年にノーベル経済学賞を受賞したポール・クルーグマンはニューヨークタイムズのコラムニストでもあり、経済学を平易な言葉で説明するというアプローチを用いている[17]。「事の本質に注目し、要素還元し、難解さを避け明解な解説をこころがける」それがMITで学んだスタイルだとクルーグマンは述べる[17]

学生

中国系・韓国系を中心とするアジア系学生の割合は増加の一途であり、現在では在校生の27%を占めている。(College Board, fall 2005)

受験

  • リベラル・アーツとしてのマサチューセッツ工科大学に入学する際には、通常の試験及び外国人の場合には、TOEFL受験が義務付けられている。その他は、米国のビザ法に関する法による。
  • 大学院受験の場合には、「GREスコアカード」及び「卒業証明書(大学)」が必要。外国人の場合には、TOEFLの受験が義務付けられている。その他は、米国のビザ法に関する法による。特定研究室に該当する研究室を指定する場合には、紹介状2通が必要(直近の銀行残高証明書も必要)。

「ハック」

同校には伝統的に「ハック」(詳細はハッカーを参照)と呼ばれるゲリラ活動的なイタズラ[18] (en:Hacks at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology) が存在する。単なるイタズラというよりも、日頃研究したさまざまな技術を駆使することから、時に超常現象かと見紛うばかりのものまであるとされる。

近くのハーバード橋の長さを測るために仲間の身長からスムートという新単位を作り、橋に印を書いたり(1958年)、学び舎のシンボルであるグレートドーム(冒頭写真)頂上にパトロールカーが設置された(1994年)り、巨大なR2-D2に改装(1999年)されたり、『ゼルダの伝説シリーズ』のトライフォースが設置(2006年)されたりといったスケールの大きいものから、校内の碑文をこっそり自分たちのメッセージにすり替えたり(1994年)、学長室の入り口を何ヶ月も前から掲示板があったかのようにしてしまった(1990年)りといったものまで報告されている。

これらのイタズラはあくまでも洒落の範疇に収めることが重要とされており、物や施設を汚損したり、誰かを傷つけたりするようなことは行われないとされる。1999年のR2-D2“ハック”では同校の安全対策室に、取り付けられたパネルなどの片付け方を記したメモが届けられている。

著名な教員

以下、人名はすべて苗字の五十音順に並ぶ。

  • イアン・コンドリー - 文化人類学者。日本のヒップホップやアニメの研究。
  • ポール・サミュエルソン - 経済学者
  • ロバート・ソロー - 経済学者、ノーベル経済学賞受賞
  • リチャード・シュロック - 化学科教授、2005年ノーベル賞受賞
  • イサドール・シンガー - アーベル賞
  • ノーム・チョムスキー - 言語学、アメリカのメディアと外交政策の批評家としても知られる
  • アマー・G・ボーズ - 名誉教授。BOSE社の創設者。
  • ジョージ・ホワイトサイズ - 材料科学者、ナノ・マイクロマシン&加工、自己組織化の世界的権威
  • マービン・ミンスキー - コンピュータ科学者、認知科学者
  • アイセ・ヨハン・デ・ヨング - コール賞
  • ジョージ・ルスティック - コール賞
  • ロバート・ランガー - 生体工学者
  • ジェローム・レトビン - 神経生理学者

日本人</dt>

  • 石井裕 - タンジブル・ビット考案者、メディアアーツ&サイエンス
  • 神田駿 - 建築家・都市計画家
  • 利根川進 - 免疫研究、脳科学研究、ノーベル生理学・医学賞
  • 増渕興一 - 機械工学科名誉教授
  • 宮川繁 - 言語学者
  • 伊藤穰一 - MITメディアラボ所長 ベンチャーキャピタリスト、実業家

出身者

あ行

  • コフィー・アナン - 前国際連合事務総長、ノーベル平和賞
  • ジェームズ・ウッズ - 俳優(中退)
  • ピエルマリア・オッドーネ - 物理学者
  • ロバート・オーマン - 経済学者
  • バズ・オルドリン - アポロ11号に搭乗した宇宙飛行士

か行

  • レイ・カーツワイル - 光学文字認識の第一人者
  • ケビン・カラン - ゲームクリエイター。「ミサイルコマンド」「パックマン」の改良版を製作。
  • ジョン・W・キャンベル - SF編集者、SF作家
  • デービッド・ダナ・クラーク - コンピューター学者
  • フェルナンド・J・コルバト - 情報工学者
  • ゲイリー・クライン - 自転車車体設計・製造
  • ブリュースター・ケール - インターネット起業家
  • マレー・ゲルマン - 物理学者、ノーベル物理学賞受賞

さ行

  • アイバン・サザランド - コンピュータ科学者
  • ローレンス・サマーズ - 政治家・経済学者
  • ルイス・サリヴァン - 建築家
  • トム・ショルツ - ロック・バンドボストンのリーダー
  • ジョージ・シュルツ - 政治家
  • ウィリアム・ショックレー - 物理学者
  • リチャード・ストールマン - ハッカー。フリーソフトウェア財団設立者
  • ジョージ・スムート - 物理学者

た行

  • アンドリュー・タネンバウム - コンピュータ科学者
  • アフマド・チャラビ - イラクの政治家
  • ホイットフィールド・ディフィー - 暗号学者
  • ゲイリー・タナカ - 馬主
  • ダニエル・M・タニ - 宇宙飛行士
  • ジミー・ドーリットル - 軍人
  • キム・エリック・ドレクスラー - ナノテクノロジーエンジニア

な行

  • ニコラス・ネグロポンテ - MITメディアラボの創設者
  • ベンヤミン・ネタニヤフ - イスラエルの政治家

は行

  • ベン・バーナンキ - 経済学者(第14代FRB議長)
  • アラン・パリス - 計算機科学者
  • アンドリュー・ビタビ - クアルコムの創設者、計算機科学者
  • ウィリアム・ヒューレット - ヒューレット・パッカードの創設者
  • アンドリュー・ファイアー - 生物学者
  • リチャード・P・ファインマン - 物理学者、ノーベル物理学賞(1965年)
  • ホセ・フィゲレス・フェレール - コスタリカの政治家
  • ディラン・ブルーノ - 俳優
  • ウィリアム・クレイ・フォード・ジュニア - 実業家
  • マヌエル・ブラム - 計算機科学者
  • ジョージ・ヘール - 天文学者
  • イオ・ミン・ペイ - 建築家

ま行

  • ダグ・マクレー - 前述したケビン・カランの相棒
  • グレゴリー・マンキュー - 経済学者
  • マーヴィン・ミンスキー - 人工知能の権威
  • ロバート・メトカーフ - コンピュータ技術者

ら行

  • スティーブ・ラッセル - 世界で初めて不特定多数の人に楽しまれたTVゲーム『スペースウォー!』を製作。
  • ドルフ・ラングレン - 『ロッキー4/炎の友情』、『ユニバーサルソルジャー』シリーズなどで知られる俳優。
  • ラリー・ローゼンタール - コンピュータ技術者。アーケードゲーム用のベクタースキャン技術を開発。
  • ヒュー・ロフティング - 『ドリトル先生』シリーズで知られる児童文学作家(中退)

日本人出身者

  • 青島矢一 - 一橋大学イノベーション研究センター准教授
  • 浅子和美 - 経済学者、マクロ分析経済学理論、日本経済の実証分析、一橋大学経済研究所教授
  • 安達保 - カーライルグループ 日本代表
  • 荒川實 - Nintendo of America(任天堂の米国法人)・元社長
  • 鮎川弥一 - スウェーデン王立科学アカデミー外国人メンバー
  • 鮎川純太 - テクノベンチャー社長
  • 池原止戈夫 - 元東京工業大学教授、数学者
  • 板倉宏昭 - 香川大学教授、経営学
  • 猪口孝 - 中央大学教授、東京大学名誉教授
  • 岩井克人 - 東京大学教授、経済学者
  • 江端貴子 - 東京大学特任准教授、アステラス製薬社外取締役
  • 遠藤謙 - ソニーコンピュータサイエンス研究所研究員、株式会社 Xiborg 代表取締役
  • 遠藤真由 - ミス・ユニバース・ジャパン(2000年)
  • 大前研一 - 経営コンサルタント・経営者
  • 小川進 - 神戸大学大学院経営学研究科教授
  • 尾崎敏 - 物理学者
  • 加藤壹康 - キリンホールディングス・社長
  • 加藤勇次郎 - 熊本バンド、同志社英学校の教員
  • 金井壽宏 - 神戸大学大学院経営学研究科教授
  • 北澤宏一 - 科学技術振興機構・理事長
  • 畔柳信雄 - 三菱UFJフィナンシャル・グループ・社長
  • 齊藤誠 - 一橋大学大学院経済学研究科教授
  • 塩谷さやか - 桜美林大学准教授
  • 杉山知之 - デジタルハリウッド学長
  • 高橋義仁 - 専修大学商学部教授
  • 武石彰 - 京都大学大学院経済学研究科教授
  • 武田真彦 - 一橋大学大学院経済学研究科教授
  • 立川敬二 - NTT DoCoMo元社長、JAXA理事長
  • 田中明彦 - 東京大学東洋文化研究所教授
  • 團琢磨 - 三井合名会社・元理事長
  • 延岡健太郎 - 一橋大学イノベーション研究センター教授
  • 畑山浩昭 - 桜美林大学教授
  • 平山嵩 - 元東京大学教授、建築家
  • 堀新太郎 - ベインキャピタル・ジャパン最高顧問
  • 堀内敬三 - 音楽評論家・作詞家・作曲家
  • 舛重正一 - 東京農業大学生物応用化学科・バイオサイエンス学科名誉教授、東京聖栄大学教授
  • 松尾博文 - 神戸大学大学院経営学研究科教授
  • 御手洗肇 - キヤノン・元社長
  • 三井高修 - 三井化学・元会長
  • 薬師寺泰蔵 - 慶應義塾大学客員教授、内閣府総合科学技術会議議員
  • 山影進 - 東京大学大学院総合文化研究科長・教養学部長
  • 山形浩生 - 野村総合研究所研究員
  • 山田哲 - フェニックスリゾート・元社長兼最高経営責任者
  • 横山禎徳 - 社会システムデザイナー、元マッキンゼー東京支社長
  • 和才博美 - NTTコミュニケーションズ元社長、スローンスクールMBA

日本国内においては大学出身者で作る「日本マサチューセッツ工科大学会」が存在する。同様の組織として日本ハーバード会、日本ケンブリッジ会、日本オックスフォード会などがあるが、これらは日本フルブライト会(会合は、在日米国大使館や六本木の東京アメリカンクラブなどで開かれる)から分かれて、大学別の同窓会(親睦会)として開かれているものである。各会員は1期から始まり、現在は各大学卒業ごとに開かれている。

連携大学

  • 東京工科大学(提携)
  • 金沢工業大学(連携)
  • 名古屋商科大学大学院(Sloan School of Managementへの留学制度)

脚注

[ヘルプ]
  1. ^ “MIT releases endowment figures for 2014”. MIT News. 2014年9月13日閲覧。
  2. ^ “Faculty and Staff”. MIT Facts. MIT. 2014年3月11日閲覧。
  3. ^ a b “Enrollment Statistics”. MIT Registrar. 2014年9月13日閲覧。
  4. ^ “The Campus”. MIT Facts 2012. 2012年5月31日閲覧。
  5. ^ “Colors - MIT Graphic Identity”. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 2014年9月26日閲覧。
  6. ^ The Official Site of MIT Intercollegiate Athletics - MIT
  7. ^ “Symbols: Mascot”. MIT Graphic Identity. MIT. 2010年9月8日閲覧。
  8. ^ NAICU – Member Directory
  9. ^ List of Nobel laureates by university affiliation
  10. ^ a b D. Kaiser, Becoming MIT, MIT Press (2010)
  11. ^ この状況についてMITのある校長は「ここは(MIT)は子供が遊ぶ場ではなく、大人が学ぶための場所である」とその特徴について語っている
  12. ^ なかには思い上がった者がボールボーイなどと中傷する者もいた。
  13. ^ フレッド・ハプグッド著・鶴岡雄二訳「マサチューセッツ工科大学」1995年9月25日
  14. ^ MITには鉄道の引き込み線なども存在した
  15. ^ 正確にはボストン地区にあった他の候補に比べてという意味で、ほかの大学は実践経験が乏しい理論派学校か美術学校ばかりだったために軍の基準に合致しなかったためである。実際にプロジェクトを行う上で、政府はロチェスター大学のリー・ドゥブリッジを指導者として招いた
  16. ^ a b What's it like to study at MIT? Lu-Hai Liang, Education, theguardian, 13 Sep 2012
  17. ^ a b Paul Krugman, PhD ’77 MIT News Magazine, MIT Technology Review, 19 Aug 2014
  18. ^ IHTFP Hack Gallery

関連項目

  • スムート
  • 工業大学

外部リンク

  • マサチューセッツ工科大学公式サイト(英語版)
  • マサチューセッツ工科大学大学同窓会(Alumni Association)(英語版)
  • OpenCourseWare(英語版)
  • MIT Tech(英語版) - 学生新聞
  • MIT Press(英語版)
  • IHTFP Hack Gallery(英語版)
  • MIT Sloan School of Management(英語版)
  • MIT Sloan Japan Club(英語版)
  • 日本MIT会
  • Japanese Association of MIT (JAM) - MIT日本人会

座標: 北緯42度21分35秒 西経71度5分32秒 / 北緯42.35972度 西経71.09222度 / 42.35972; -71.09222



</raw> </toggledisplay>

wiki en

<toggledisplay showtext="[Wiki en表示]" hidetext="[隠す]">

<raw>
"MIT" redirects here. For other uses, see MIT (disambiguation).
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Motto Mens et Manus (Latin)
Motto in English
Mind and Hand[1]
Type Private
Land grant
Established 1860 (opened 1865)
Endowment $13.475 billion (2015)[2]
Chancellor Cynthia Barnhart
President L. Rafael Reif
Provost Martin A. Schmidt
Academic staff
1,021[3]
Students 11,319[4]
Undergraduates 4,512[4]
Postgraduates 6,807
Location Cambridge, Massachusetts,
United States
Campus Urban, 168 acres (68.0 ha)[5]
Newspaper The Tech
Colors Red, Gray and Light Gray[6]
              
Athletics NCAA Division III – NEWMAC, NEFC, Pilgrim League
Division I – EARC & EAWRC (rowing)
Sports 31 varsity teams
Nickname Engineers[7]
Mascot Tim the Beaver[8]
Affiliations AAU

AICUM
AITU
APLU
COFHE
NAICU[9]
URA

568 Group
Website MIT<wbr />.edu

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering. Researchers worked on computers, radar, and inertial guidance during World War II and the Cold War. Post-war defense research contributed to the rapid expansion of the faculty and campus under James Killian. The current 168-acre (68.0 ha) campus opened in 1916 and extends over 1 mile (1.6 km) along the northern bank of the Charles River basin.

MIT, with five schools and one college which contain a total of 32 departments, is often cited as among the world's top universities.[10][11][12][13] The Institute is traditionally known for its research and education in the physical sciences and engineering, and more recently in biology, economics, linguistics, and management as well. The "Engineers" sponsor 31 sports, most teams of which compete in the NCAA Division III's New England Women's and Men's Athletic Conference; the Division I rowing programs compete as part of the EARC and EAWRC.

As of 2015, 85 Nobel laureates, 52 National Medal of Science recipients, 65 Marshall Scholars, 45 Rhodes Scholars, 38 MacArthur Fellows, 34 astronauts, and 2 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT. The school has a strong entrepreneurial culture, and the aggregated revenues of companies founded by MIT alumni would rank as the eleventh-largest economy in the world.[14][15]

Contents

  • 1 History
    • 1.1 Foundation and vision
    • 1.2 Early developments
    • 1.3 Curricular reforms
    • 1.4 Defense research
    • 1.5 Recent history
  • 2 Campus
    • 2.1 Architecture
    • 2.2 Housing
  • 3 Organization and administration
  • 4 Academics
    • 4.1 Undergraduate program
    • 4.2 Graduate program
    • 4.3 University rankings
    • 4.4 Collaborations
    • 4.5 Libraries, collections and museums
    • 4.6 Research
  • 5 Traditions and student activities
    • 5.1 Activities
    • 5.2 Athletics
  • 6 People
    • 6.1 Students
    • 6.2 Faculty and staff
    • 6.3 Alumni
  • 7 See also
  • 8 References
    • 8.1 Explanatory notes
    • 8.2 Citations
    • 8.3 Bibliography
  • 9 External links

History

Main article: History of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Foundation and vision

.... a school of industrial science aiding the advancement, development and practical application of science in connection with arts, agriculture, manufactures, and commerce.
— Act to Incorporate the Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
Acts of 1861, Chapter 183[16]
Stereographic card showing an MIT mechanical drafting studio, 19th century (photo by E.L. Allen, left/right inverted)
Original Rogers Building, Back Bay, Boston, 19th century

In 1859, a proposal was submitted to the Massachusetts General Court to use newly filled lands in Back Bay, Boston for a "Conservatory of Art and Science", but the proposal failed.[17][18] A proposal by William Barton Rogers a charter for the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, signed by the governor of Massachusetts on April 10, 1861.[19]

Rogers, a professor from the University of Virginia, wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances.[20][21] He did not wish to found a professional school, but a combination with elements of both professional and liberal education,[22] proposing that:

The true and only practicable object of a polytechnic school is, as I conceive, the teaching, not of the minute details and manipulations of the arts, which can be done only in the workshop, but the inculcation of those scientific principles which form the basis and explanation of them, and along with this, a full and methodical review of all their leading processes and operations in connection with physical laws.[23]

The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars and laboratories.[24][25]

Early developments

A 1905 map of MIT's Boston campus

Two days after the charter was issued, the first battle of the Civil War broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MIT's first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865.[26] The new institute was founded as part of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to fund institutions "to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes", and was a land-grant school.[27][28] In 1863 under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the Massachusetts Agricultural College, which developed as the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In 1866, the proceeds from land sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay.[29]

MIT was informally called "Boston Tech".[29] The institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date.[30] Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker.[31] Programs in electrical, chemical, marine, and sanitary engineering were introduced,[32][33] new buildings were built, and the size of the student body increased to more than one thousand.[31]

The curriculum drifted to a vocational emphasis, with less focus on theoretical science.[34] The fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership. During these "Boston Tech" years, MIT faculty and alumni rebuffed Harvard University president (and former MIT faculty) Charles W. Eliot's repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard College's Lawrence Scientific School.[35] There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard.[36] In its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding. Eventually the MIT Corporation approved a formal agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty, students, and alumni.[36] However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court effectively put an end to the merger scheme.[36]

Plaque in Building 6 honoring George Eastman, founder of Eastman Kodak, who was revealed as the anonymous "Mr. Smith" who helped maintain MIT's independence

In 1916, the MIT administration and the MIT charter crossed the Charles River on the ceremonial barge Bucentaur built for the occasion,[37][38] to signify MIT's move to a spacious new campus largely consisting of filled land on a mile-long tract along the Cambridge side of the Charles River.[39][40] The neoclassical "New Technology" campus was designed by William W. Bosworth[41] and had been funded largely by anonymous donations from a mysterious "Mr. Smith," starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist George Eastman of Rochester, New York, who had invented methods of film production and processing, and founded Eastman Kodak. Between 1912 and 1920, Eastman donated $20 million ($236.2 million in 2015 dollars) in cash and Kodak stock to MIT.[42]

Curricular reforms

In the 1930s, President Karl Taylor Compton and Vice-President (effectively Provost) Vannevar Bush emphasized the importance of pure sciences like physics and chemistry and reduced the vocational practice required in shops and drafting studios.[43] The Compton reforms "renewed confidence in the ability of the Institute to develop leadership in science as well as in engineering."[44] Unlike Ivy League schools, MIT catered more to middle-class families, and depended more on tuition than on endowments or grants for its funding.[45] The school was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1934.[46]

Still, as late as 1949, the Lewis Committee lamented in its report on the state of education at MIT that "the Institute is widely conceived as basically a vocational school", a "partly unjustified" perception the committee sought to change. The report comprehensively reviewed the undergraduate curriculum, recommended offering a broader education, and warned against letting engineering and government-sponsored research detract from the sciences and humanities.[47][48] The School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences and the MIT Sloan School of Management were formed in 1950 to compete with the powerful Schools of Science and Engineering. Previously marginalized faculties in the areas of economics, management, political science, and linguistics emerged into cohesive and assertive departments by attracting respected professors and launching competitive graduate programs.[49][50] The School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences continued to develop under the successive terms of the more humanistically oriented presidents Howard W. Johnson and Jerome Wiesner between 1966 and 1980.[51]

Defense research

MIT's involvement in military research surged during World War II. In 1941, Vannevar Bush was appointed head of the federal Office of Scientific Research and Development and directed funding to only a select group of universities, including MIT.[52] Engineers and scientists from across the country gathered at MIT's Radiation Laboratory, established in 1940 to assist the British military in developing microwave radar. The work done there significantly affected both the war and subsequent research in the area.[53] Other defense projects included gyroscope-based and other complex control systems for gunsight, bombsight, and inertial navigation under Charles Stark Draper's Instrumentation Laboratory;[54][55] the development of a digital computer for flight simulations under Project Whirlwind;[56] and high-speed and high-altitude photography under Harold Edgerton.[57][58] By the end of the war, MIT became the nation's largest wartime R&D contractor (attracting some criticism of Bush),[52] employing nearly 4000 in the Radiation Laboratory alone[53] and receiving in excess of $100 million ($1.2 billion in 2015 dollars) before 1946.[44] Work on defense projects continued even after then. Post-war government-sponsored research at MIT included SAGE and guidance systems for ballistic missiles and Project Apollo.[59]

...a special type of educational institution which can be defined as a university polarized around science, engineering, and the arts. We might call it a university limited in its objectives but unlimited in the breadth and the thoroughness with which it pursues these objectives.
— MIT president James Rhyne Killian, 1949[60]

These activities affected MIT profoundly. A 1949 report noted the lack of "any great slackening in the pace of life at the Institute" to match the return to peacetime, remembering the "academic tranquility of the prewar years", though acknowledging the significant contributions of military research to the increased emphasis on graduate education and rapid growth of personnel and facilities.[61] The faculty doubled and the graduate student body quintupled during the terms of Karl Taylor Compton, president of MIT between 1930 and 1948; James Rhyne Killian, president from 1948 to 1957; and Julius Adams Stratton, chancellor from 1952 to 1957, whose institution-building strategies shaped the expanding university. By the 1950s, MIT no longer simply benefited the industries with which it had worked for three decades, and it had developed closer working relationships with new patrons, philanthropic foundations and the federal government.[62]

In late 1960s and early 1970s, student and faculty activists protested against the Vietnam War and MIT's defense research.[63][64] The Union of Concerned Scientists was founded on March 4, 1969 during a meeting of faculty members and students seeking to shift the emphasis on military research toward environmental and social problems.[65] MIT ultimately divested itself from the Instrumentation Laboratory and moved all classified research off-campus to the Lincoln Laboratory facility in 1973 in response to the protests.[66][67] The student body, faculty, and administration remained comparatively unpolarized during what was a tumultuous time for many other universities.[63] Johnson was seen to be highly successful in leading his institution to "greater strength and unity" after these times of turmoil.[68]

Recent history

The MIT Media Lab houses researchers developing novel uses of computer technology. Shown here is the 1982 building, designed by I.M. Pei, with an extension (right of photo) designed by Fumihiko Maki opened in March 2010.

MIT has kept pace with and helped to advance the digital age. In addition to developing the predecessors to modern computing and networking technologies,[69][70] students, staff, and faculty members at Project MAC, the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, and the Tech Model Railroad Club wrote some of the earliest interactive computer video games like Spacewar! and created much of modern hacker slang and culture.[71] Several major computer-related organizations have originated at MIT since the 1980s: Richard Stallman's GNU Project and the subsequent Free Software Foundation were founded in the mid-1980s at the AI Lab; the MIT Media Lab was founded in 1985 by Nicholas Negroponte and Jerome Wiesner to promote research into novel uses of computer technology;[72] the World Wide Web Consortium standards organization was founded at the Laboratory for Computer Science in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee;[73] the OpenCourseWare project has made course materials for over 2,000 MIT classes available online free of charge since 2002;[74] and the One Laptop per Child initiative to expand computer education and connectivity to children worldwide was launched in 2005.[75]

MIT was named a sea-grant college in 1976 to support its programs in oceanography and marine sciences and was named a space-grant college in 1989 to support its aeronautics and astronautics programs.[76][77] Despite diminishing government financial support over the past quarter century, MIT launched several successful development campaigns to significantly expand the campus: new dormitories and athletics buildings on west campus; the Tang Center for Management Education; several buildings in the northeast corner of campus supporting research into biology, brain and cognitive sciences, genomics, biotechnology, and cancer research; and a number of new "backlot" buildings on Vassar Street including the Stata Center.[78] Construction on campus in the 2000s included expansions of the Media Lab, the Sloan School's eastern campus, and graduate residences in the northwest.[79][80] In 2006, President Hockfield launched the MIT Energy Research Council to investigate the interdisciplinary challenges posed by increasing global energy consumption.[81]

In 2001, inspired by the open source and open access movements,[82] MIT launched OpenCourseWare to make the lecture notes, problem sets, syllabuses, exams, and lectures from the great majority of its courses available online for no charge, though without any formal accreditation for coursework completed.[83] While the cost of supporting and hosting the project is high,[84] OCW expanded in 2005 to include other universities as a part of the OpenCourseWare Consortium, which currently includes more than 250 academic institutions with content available in at least six languages.[85] In 2011, MIT announced it would offer formal certification (but not credits or degrees) to online participants completing coursework in its "MITx" program, for a modest fee.[86] The "edX" online platform supporting MITx was initially developed in partnership with Harvard and its analogous "Harvardx" initiative. The courseware platform is open source, and other universities have already joined and added their own course content.[87]

Three days after the Boston Marathon bombings of April 2013, MIT Police patrol officer Sean Collier was fatally shot by the suspects, setting off a violent manhunt that shut down the campus and much of the Boston metropolitan area for a day.[88] One week later, Collier's memorial service was attended by more than 10,000 people, in a ceremony hosted by the MIT community with thousands of police officers from the New England region and Canada.[89][90][91] On November 25, 2013, MIT announced the creation of the Collier Medal, to be awarded annually to "an individual or group that embodies the character and qualities that Officer Collier exhibited as a member of the MIT community and in all aspects of his life". The announcement further stated that "Future recipients of the award will include those whose contributions exceed the boundaries of their profession, those who have contributed to building bridges across the community, and those who consistently and selflessly perform acts of kindness".[92][93][94]

Campus

Main article: Campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The central and eastern sections of MIT's campus as seen from above Massachusetts Avenue and the Charles River. In the center is the Great Dome overlooking Killian Court with Kendall Square in the background.
MIT's Building 10 and Great Dome overlooking Killian Court

MIT's 168-acre (68.0 ha) campus spans approximately a mile of the north side of the Charles River basin in the city of Cambridge.[5] The campus is divided roughly in half by Massachusetts Avenue, with most dormitories and student life facilities to the west and most academic buildings to the east. The bridge closest to MIT is the Harvard Bridge, which is known for being marked off in a non-standard unit of length – the smoot.[95][96] The Kendall MBTA Red Line station is located on the far northeastern edge of the campus in Kendall Square. The Cambridge neighborhoods surrounding MIT are a mixture of high tech companies occupying both modern office and rehabilitated industrial buildings as well as socio-economically diverse residential neighborhoods.[97][98] MIT presents updated Kendall Square Initiative plan to City of Cambridge.[99]

Each building at MIT has a number (possibly preceded by a W, N, E, or NW) designation and most have a name as well. Typically, academic and office buildings are referred to primarily by number while residence halls are referred to by name. The organization of building numbers roughly corresponds to the order in which the buildings were built and their location relative (north, west, and east) to the original center cluster of Maclaurin buildings.[100] Many of the buildings are connected above ground as well as through an extensive network of underground tunnels, providing protection from the Cambridge weather as well as a venue for roof and tunnel hacking.[101][102]

MIT's on-campus nuclear reactor[103] is one of the most powerful university-based nuclear reactors in the United States. The prominence of the reactor's containment building in a densely populated area has been controversial,[104] but MIT maintains that it is well-secured.[105] In 1999 Bill Gates donated US$20 million to MIT for the construction of a computer laboratory named the "William H. Gates Building" that was designed by architect Frank O. Gehry. While Microsoft had previously given financial support to the institution, this was the first personal donation received from Gates.[106]

Other notable campus facilities include a pressurized wind tunnel and a towing tank for testing ship and ocean structure designs.[107][108] MIT's campus-wide wireless network was completed in the fall of 2005 and consists of nearly 3,000 access points covering 9,400,000 square feet (870,000 m2) of campus.[109]

In 2001, the Environmental Protection Agency sued MIT for violating Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act with regard to its hazardous waste storage and disposal procedures.[110] MIT settled the suit by paying a $155,000 fine and launching three environmental projects.[111] In connection with capital campaigns to expand the campus, the Institute has also extensively renovated existing buildings to improve their energy efficiency. MIT has also taken steps to reduce its environmental impact by running alternative fuel campus shuttles, subsidizing public transportation passes, and building a low-emission cogeneration plant that serves most of the campus electricity, heating, and cooling requirements.[112]

The MIT Police with state and local authorities, in the 2009-2011 period, have investigated reports of 12 forcible sex offenses, 6 robberies, 3 aggravated assaults, 164 burglaries, 1 case of arson, and 4 cases of motor vehicle theft on campus; affecting a community of around 22,000 students and employees.[113]

Architecture

The Stata Center houses CSAIL, LIDS, and the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy

MIT's School of Architecture, now the School of Architecture and Planning, was the first in the United States,[114] and it has a history of commissioning progressive buildings.[115][116] The first buildings constructed on the Cambridge campus, completed in 1916, are sometimes called the "Maclaurin buildings" after Institute president Richard Maclaurin who oversaw their construction. Designed by William Welles Bosworth, these imposing buildings were built of reinforced concrete, a first for a non-industrial – much less university – building in the US.[117] Bosworth's design was influenced by the City Beautiful Movement of the early 1900s,[117] and features the Pantheon-esque Great Dome housing the Barker Engineering Library. The Great Dome overlooks Killian Court, where commencement is held each year. The friezes of the limestone-clad buildings around Killian Court are engraved with the names of important scientists and philosophers.[a] The imposing Building 7 atrium along Massachusetts Avenue is regarded as the entrance to the Infinite Corridor and the rest of the campus.[98]

Alvar Aalto's Baker House (1947), Eero Saarinen's MIT Chapel and Kresge Auditorium (1955), and I.M. Pei's Green, Dreyfus, Landau, and Wiesner buildings represent high forms of post-war modernist architecture.[120][121][122] More recent buildings like Frank Gehry's Stata Center (2004), Steven Holl's Simmons Hall (2002), Charles Correa's Building 46 (2005) and Fumihiko Maki's Media Lab Extension (2009) stand out among the Boston area's classical architecture and serve as examples of contemporary campus "starchitecture".[115][123] These buildings have not always been well received;[124][125] in 2010, The Princeton Review included MIT in a list of twenty schools whose campuses are "tiny, unsightly, or both".[126]

Housing

Main article: Housing at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Simmons Hall dormitory was completed in 2002

Undergraduates are guaranteed four-year housing in one of MIT's 12 undergraduate dormitories.[127] Those living on campus can receive support and mentoring from live-in graduate student tutors, resident advisors, and faculty housemasters.[128] Because housing assignments are made based on the preferences of the students themselves, diverse social atmospheres can be sustained in different living groups; for example, according to the Yale Daily News Staff's The Insider's Guide to the Colleges, 2010, "The split between East Campus and West Campus is a significant characteristic of MIT. East Campus has gained a reputation as a thriving counterculture."[129] MIT also has 5 dormitories for single graduate students and 2 apartment buildings on campus for married student families.[130]

MIT has an active Greek and co-op housing system, including thirty-six fraternities, sororities, and independent living groups (FSILGs).[131] In 2015, 98% of all undergraduates lived on MIT-affiliated housing, 54% of the men participated in fraternities and 20% of the women were involved in sororities.[132] Most FSILGs are located across the river in the Back Bay owing to MIT's history there, and there is a cluster of fraternities on MIT's West Campus that face the river on the Western face of the east side of the campus.[133] After the 1997 death of Scott Krueger, a new member at the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity, MIT required all freshmen to live in the dormitory system starting in 2002.[134] Because FSILGs had previously housed as many as 300 freshmen off-campus, the new policy did not take effect until 2002 after Simmons Hall opened.[135]

Organization and administration

Lobby 7 (at 77 Massachusetts Avenue) is regarded as the main entrance to campus

MIT is chartered as a non-profit organization and is owned and governed by a privately appointed board of trustees known as the MIT Corporation.[136] The current board consists of 43 members elected to five-year terms,[137] 25 life members who vote until their 75th birthday,[138] 3 elected officers (President, Treasurer, and Secretary),[139] and 4 ex officio members (the president of the alumni association, the Governor of Massachusetts, the Massachusetts Secretary of Education, and the Chief Justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court).[140][141] The board is chaired by Robert Millard, a co-founder of L-3 Communications Holdings.[142][143] The Corporation approves the budget, new programs, degrees and faculty appointments, and elects the President to serve as the chief executive officer of the university and preside over the Institute's faculty.[98][144] MIT's endowment and other financial assets are managed through a subsidiary called MIT Investment Management Company (MITIMCo).[145] Valued at $9.7 billion in 2011, MIT's endowment is the sixth-largest among American colleges and universities.[146][147]

MIT has five schools (Science, Engineering, Architecture and Planning, Management, and Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences) and one college (Whitaker College of Health Sciences and Technology), but no schools of law or medicine.[148][b] While faculty committees assert substantial control over many areas of MIT's curriculum, research, student life, and administrative affairs,[150] the chair of each of MIT's 32 academic departments reports to the dean of that department's school, who in turn reports to the Provost under the President.[151] The current president is L. Rafael Reif, who formerly served as provost under President Susan Hockfield, the first woman to hold the post.[152][153]

Academics

MIT is a large, highly residential, research university with a majority of enrollments in graduate and professional programs.[154] The university has been accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges since 1929.[155][156] MIT operates on a 4–1–4 academic calendar with the fall semester beginning after Labor Day and ending in mid-December, a 4-week "Independent Activities Period" in the month of January, and the spring semester beginning in early February and ending in late May.[157]

MIT students refer to both their majors and classes using numbers or acronyms alone.[158] Departments and their corresponding majors are numbered in the approximate order of their foundation; for example, Civil and Environmental Engineering is Course 1, while Linguistics and Philosophy is Course 24.[159] Students majoring in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), the most popular department, collectively identify themselves as "Course 6". MIT students use a combination of the department's course number and the number assigned to the class to identify their subjects; the introductory calculus-based classical mechanics course is simply "8.01" at MIT.[160][c]

Undergraduate program

The four-year, full-time undergraduate program maintains a balance between professional majors and those in the arts and sciences, and has been dubbed "most selective" by U.S. News,[163] admitting few transfer students[154] and 8.0% of its applicants in the 2015 admissions cycle.[164] MIT offers 44 undergraduate degrees across its five schools.[165] In the 2010–2011 academic year, 1,161 bachelor of science (abbreviated SB) degrees were granted, the only type of undergraduate degree MIT now awards.[166][167] In the 2011 fall term, among students who had designated a major, the School of Engineering was the most popular division, enrolling 63% of students in its 19 degree programs, followed by the School of Science (29%), School of Humanities, Arts, & Social Sciences (3.7%), Sloan School of Management (3.3%), and School of Architecture and Planning (2%). The largest undergraduate degree programs were in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (Course 6–2), Computer Science and Engineering (Course 6–3), Mechanical Engineering (Course 2), Physics (Course 8), and Mathematics (Course 18).[161]

The Infinite Corridor is the primary passageway through campus

All undergraduates are required to complete a core curriculum called the General Institute Requirements (GIRs).[168] The Science Requirement, generally completed during freshman year as prerequisites for classes in science and engineering majors, comprises two semesters of physics, two semesters of calculus, one semester of chemistry, and one semester of biology. There is a Laboratory Requirement, usually satisfied by an appropriate class in a course major. The Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences (HASS) Requirement consists of eight semesters of classes in the humanities, arts, and social sciences, including at least one semester from each division as well as the courses required for a designated concentration in a HASS division. Under the Communication Requirement, two of the HASS classes, plus two of the classes taken in the designated major must be "communication-intensive",[169] including "substantial instruction and practice in oral presentation".[170] Finally, all students are required to complete a swimming test;[171] non-varsity athletes must also take four quarters of physical education classes.[168]

Most classes rely on a combination of lectures, recitations led by associate professors or graduate students, weekly problem sets ("p-sets"), and tests. Although keeping up with the pace and difficulty of MIT coursework has been compared to "drinking from a fire hose",[172][173] the freshmen retention rate at MIT is similar to that at other national research universities.[163] The "pass/no-record" grading system relieves some of the pressure for first-year undergraduates. For each class taken in the fall term, freshmen transcripts will either report only that the class was passed, or otherwise not have any record of it. In the spring term, passing grades (A, B, C) appear on the transcript while non-passing grades are again not recorded.[174] (Grading had previously been "pass/no record" all freshman year, but was amended for the Class of 2006 to prevent students from gaming the system by completing required major classes in their freshman year.[175]) Also, freshmen may choose to join alternative learning communities, such as Experimental Study Group, Concourse, or Terrascope.[174]

In 1969, Margaret MacVicar founded the Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP) to enable undergraduates to collaborate directly with faculty members and researchers. Students join or initiate research projects ("UROPs") for academic credit, pay, or on a volunteer basis through postings on the UROP website or by contacting faculty members directly.[176] A substantial majority of undergraduates participate.[177][178] Students often become published, file patent applications, and/or launch start-up companies based upon their experience in UROPs.[179][180]

In 1970, the then-Dean of Institute Relations, Benson R. Snyder, published The Hidden Curriculum, arguing that education at MIT was often slighted in favor of following a set of unwritten expectations, and that graduating with good grades was more often the product of figuring out the system rather than a solid education. The successful student, according to Snyder, was the one who was able to discern which of the formal requirements were to be ignored in favor of which unstated norms. For example, organized student groups had compiled "course bibles"—collections of problem-set and examination questions and answers for later students to use as references. This sort of gamesmanship, Snyder argued, hindered development of a creative intellect and contributed to student discontent and unrest.[181][182]

Robert Engman's Möbius Strip hanging from the crown of the Barker Engineering Library's reading room located inside the Great Dome. As of 2013, it has been removed.

Graduate program

MIT's graduate program has high coexistence with the undergraduate program, and many courses are taken by qualified students at both levels. MIT offers a comprehensive doctoral program with degrees in the humanities, social sciences, and STEM fields as well as professional degrees.[154] The Institute offers graduate programs leading to academic degrees such as the Master of Science (MS), various Engineer's Degrees, Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), and Doctor of Science (ScD); professional degrees such as Master of Architecture (MArch),[183] Master of Business Administration (MBA),[184] Master of City Planning (MCP),[185] Master of Engineering (MEng),[186] Master of Finance (MFin) and Master of Science in Real Estate Development (MSRED),[187] and interdisciplinary graduate programs such as the MD-PhD (with Harvard Medical School).[188][189]

Admission to graduate programs is decentralized; applicants apply directly to the department or degree program. More than 90% of doctoral students are supported by fellowships, research assistantships (RAs), or teaching assistantships (TAs).[190]

MIT awarded 1,547 master's degrees and 609 doctoral degrees in the academic year 2010–11.[166] In the 2011 fall term, the School of Engineering was the most popular academic division, enrolling 45.0% of graduate students, followed by the Sloan School of Management (19%), School of Science (16.9%), School of Architecture and Planning (9.2%), Whitaker College of Health Sciences (5.1%),[d] and School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences (4.7%). The largest graduate degree programs were the Sloan MBA, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, and Mechanical Engineering.[161]

University rankings

University rankings
National
ARWU[191] 3
Forbes[192] 10
U.S. News & World Report[193] 7
Washington Monthly[194] 15
Global
ARWU[195] 3
QS[196] 1
Times[197] 5

MIT places among the top ten in many overall rankings of universities (see right) and rankings based on students' revealed preferences.[198][199][200] For several years, U.S. News & World Report, the QS World University Rankings, and the Academic Ranking of World Universities have ranked MIT's School of Engineering first, as did the 1995 National Research Council report.[201] In the same lists, MIT's strongest showings apart from in engineering are in computer science, the natural sciences, business, economics, linguistics, mathematics, and, to a lesser extent, political science and philosophy.[10][11][12][13][202]

In 2014, Money magazine ranked MIT as third in the US "Best Colleges for Your Money", based on its assessment of "the most bang for your tuition buck", factoring in quality of education, affordability, and career outcomes.[203] As of 2014, Forbes magazine rated MIT as the second "Most Entrepreneurial University", based on the percentage of alumni and students self-identifying as founders or business owners on LinkedIn.[204] In 2015, Brookings Fellow Jonathan Rothwell issued a report "Beyond College Rankings", placing MIT as third in the US, with an estimated 45% value-added to mid-career salary.[205]

Collaborations

Eero Saarinen's Kresge Auditorium (1955) is a classic example of post-war architecture

The university historically pioneered research and training collaborations between academia, industry and government.[206][207]  In 1946, President Compton, Harvard Business School professor Georges Doriot, and Massachusetts Investor Trust chairman Merrill Grisswold founded American Research and Development Corporation, the first American venture-capital firm.[208][209]  In 1948, Compton established the MIT Industrial Liaison Program.[210]  Throughout the late 1980s and early 1990s, American politicians and business leaders accused MIT and other universities of contributing to a declining economy by transferring taxpayer-funded research and technology to international – especially Japanese — firms that were competing with struggling American businesses.[211][212] On the other hand, MIT's extensive collaboration with the federal government on research projects has led to several MIT leaders serving as presidential scientific advisers since 1940.[e] MIT established a Washington Office in 1991 to continue effective lobbying for research funding and national science policy.[214][215]

The Justice Department began an investigation in 1989, and in 1991 filed an antitrust suit against MIT, the eight Ivy League colleges, and eleven other institutions for allegedly engaging in price-fixing during their annual "Overlap Meetings", which were held to prevent bidding wars over promising prospective students from consuming funds for need-based scholarships.[216][217] While the Ivy League institutions settled,[218] MIT contested the charges, arguing that the practice was not anti-competitive because it ensured the availability of aid for the greatest number of students.[219][220] MIT ultimately prevailed when the Justice Department dropped the case in 1994.[221][222]

Walker Memorial is a monument to MIT's fourth president, Francis Amasa Walker
MIT main campus, seen from Vassar Street. The Great Dome is visible in the distance, and the Stata Center is at right.

MIT's proximity[f] to Harvard University ("the other school up the river") has led to a substantial number of research collaborations such as the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology and the Broad Institute.[223] In addition, students at the two schools can cross-register for credits toward their own school's degrees without any additional fees.[223] A cross-registration program between MIT and Wellesley College has also existed since 1969, and in 2002 the Cambridge–MIT Institute launched an undergraduate exchange program between MIT and the University of Cambridge.[223] MIT has more modest cross-registration programs with Boston University, Brandeis University, Tufts University, Massachusetts College of Art, and the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.[223]

MIT maintains substantial research and faculty ties with independent research organizations in the Boston area, such as the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Ongoing international research and educational collaborations include the Singapore-MIT Alliance, MIT-Politecnico di Milano,[223][224] MIT-Zaragoza International Logistics Program, and projects in other countries through the MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) program.[223][225]

The mass-market magazine Technology Review is published by MIT through a subsidiary company, as is a special edition that also serves as an alumni magazine.[226][227] The MIT Press is a major university press, publishing over 200 books and 30 journals annually, emphasizing science and technology as well as arts, architecture, new media, current events, and social issues.[228]

Libraries, collections and museums

See also: Campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology § Artwork

The MIT library system consists of five subject libraries: Barker (Engineering), Dewey (Economics), Hayden (Humanities and Science), Lewis (Music), and Rotch (Arts and Architecture). There are also various specialized libraries and archives. The libraries contain more than 2.9 million printed volumes, 2.4 million microforms, 49,000 print or electronic journal subscriptions, and 670 reference databases. The past decade has seen a trend of increased focus on digital over print resources in the libraries.[229] Notable collections include the Lewis Music Library with an emphasis on 20th and 21st-century music and electronic music,[230] the List Visual Arts Center's rotating exhibitions of contemporary art,[231] and the Compton Gallery's cross-disciplinary exhibitions.[232] MIT allocates a percentage of the budget for all new construction and renovation to commission and support its extensive public art and outdoor sculpture collection.[233][234]

The MIT Museum was founded in 1971 and collects, preserves, and exhibits artifacts significant to the culture and history of MIT. The Museum now engages in significant educational outreach programs for the general public, including the annual Cambridge Science Festival, the first celebration of this kind in the United States. Since 2005, its official mission has been, "to engage the wider community with MIT's science, technology and other areas of scholarship in ways that will best serve the nation and the world in the 21st century".[235]

Research

MIT was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1934 and remains a research university with a very high level of research activity;[46][154] research expenditures totaled $718.2 million in 2009.[236] The federal government was the largest source of sponsored research, with the Department of Health and Human Services granting $255.9 million, Department of Defense $97.5 million, Department of Energy $65.8 million, National Science Foundation $61.4 million, and NASA $27.4 million.[236] MIT employs approximately 1300 researchers in addition to faculty.[237] In 2011, MIT faculty and researchers disclosed 632 inventions, were issued 153 patents, earned $85.4 million in cash income, and received $69.6 million in royalties.[238] Through programs like the Deshpande Center, MIT faculty leverage their research and discoveries into multi-million-dollar commercial ventures.[239]

The GNU project and free software movement originated at MIT

In electronics, magnetic core memory, radar, single electron transistors, and inertial guidance controls were invented or substantially developed by MIT researchers.[240][241] Harold Eugene Edgerton was a pioneer in high speed photography and sonar.[242][243] Claude E. Shannon developed much of modern information theory and discovered the application of Boolean logic to digital circuit design theory.[244] In the domain of computer science, MIT faculty and researchers made fundamental contributions to cybernetics, artificial intelligence, computer languages, machine learning, robotics, and cryptography.[241][245] At least nine Turing Award laureates and seven recipients of the Draper Prize in engineering have been or are currently associated with MIT.[246][247]

Current and previous physics faculty have won eight Nobel Prizes,[248] four Dirac Medals,[249] and three Wolf Prizes predominantly for their contributions to subatomic and quantum theory.[250] Members of the chemistry department have been awarded three Nobel Prizes and one Wolf Prize for the discovery of novel syntheses and methods.[248] MIT biologists have been awarded six Nobel Prizes for their contributions to genetics, immunology, oncology, and molecular biology.[248] Professor Eric Lander was one of the principal leaders of the Human Genome Project.[251][252] Positronium atoms,[253] synthetic penicillin,[254] synthetic self-replicating molecules,[255] and the genetic bases for Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (also known as ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease) and Huntington's disease were first discovered at MIT.[256] Jerome Lettvin transformed the study of cognitive science with his paper "What the frog's eye tells the frog's brain".[257]

In the domain of humanities, arts, and social sciences, MIT economists have been awarded five Nobel Prizes and nine John Bates Clark Medals.[248][258] Linguists Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle authored seminal texts on generative grammar and phonology.[259][260] The MIT Media Lab, founded in 1985 within the School of Architecture and Planning and known for its unconventional research,[261][262] has been home to influential researchers such as constructivist educator and Logo creator Seymour Papert.[263]

Spanning many of the above fields, MacArthur Fellowships (the so-called "Genius Grants") have been awarded to 38 people associated with MIT.[264] Four Pulitzer Prize–winning writers currently work at or have retired from MIT.[265] Four current or former faculty are members of the American Academy of Arts and Letters.[266]

Allegations of research misconduct or improprieties have received substantial press coverage. Professor David Baltimore, a Nobel Laureate, became embroiled in a misconduct investigation starting in 1986 that led to Congressional hearings in 1991.[267][268] Professor Ted Postol has accused the MIT administration since 2000 of attempting to whitewash potential research misconduct at the Lincoln Lab facility involving a ballistic missile defense test, though a final investigation into the matter has not been completed.[269][270] Associate Professor Luk Van Parijs was dismissed in 2005 following allegations of scientific misconduct and found guilty of the same by the United States Office of Research Integrity in 2009.[271][272] Researchers developed a system to convert MRI scans into 3D printed physical models.[273]

Traditions and student activities

Main articles: Traditions and student activities at MIT and MIT class ring
See also: MIT in popular culture

The faculty and student body place a high value on meritocracy and on technical proficiency.[274][275] MIT has never awarded an honorary degree, nor does it award athletic scholarships, ad eundem degrees, or Latin honors upon graduation.[276] However, MIT has twice awarded honorary professorships: to Winston Churchill in 1949 and Salman Rushdie in 1993.[277]

Many upperclass students and alumni wear a large, heavy, distinctive class ring known as the "Brass Rat".[278][279] Originally created in 1929, the ring's official name is the "Standard Technology Ring."[280] The undergraduate ring design (a separate graduate student version exists as well) varies slightly from year to year to reflect the unique character of the MIT experience for that class, but always features a three-piece design, with the MIT seal and the class year each appearing on a separate face, flanking a large rectangular bezel bearing an image of a beaver.[278] The initialism IHTFP, representing the informal school motto "I Hate This Fucking Place" and jocularly euphemized as "I Have Truly Found Paradise," "Institute Has The Finest Professors," "It's Hard to Fondle Penguins," and other variations, has occasionally been featured on the ring given its historical prominence in student culture.[281]

Activities

Main article: Traditions and student activities at MIT
See also: Hacks at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The start of the MIT Mystery Hunt in 2007

MIT has over 500 recognized student activity groups,[282] including a campus radio station, The Tech student newspaper, an annual entrepreneurship competition, and weekly screenings of popular films by the Lecture Series Committee. Less traditional activities include the "world's largest open-shelf collection of science fiction" in English, a model railroad club, and a vibrant folk dance scene. Students, faculty, and staff are involved in over 50 educational outreach and public service programs through the MIT Museum, Edgerton Center, and MIT Public Service Center.[283]

The Independent Activities Period is a four-week-long "term" offering hundreds of optional classes, lectures, demonstrations, and other activities throughout the month of January between the Fall and Spring semesters. Some of the most popular recurring IAP activities are the 6.270, 6.370, and MasLab competitions,[284] the annual "mystery hunt",[285] and Charm School.[286][287] More than 250 students pursue externships annually at companies in the US and abroad.[288][289]

Many MIT students also engage in "hacking", which encompasses both the physical exploration of areas that are generally off-limits (such as rooftops and steam tunnels), as well as elaborate practical jokes.[290][291] Recent high-profile hacks have included the abduction of Caltech's cannon,[292] reconstructing a Wright Flyer atop the Great Dome,[293] and adorning the John Harvard statue with the Master Chief's Mjölnir Helmet.[294]

Athletics

Main article: MIT Engineers
The Zesiger sports and fitness center houses a two-story fitness center as well as swimming and diving pools

MIT sponsors 31 varsity sports and has one of the three broadest NCAA Division III athletic programs.[295][296]  MIT participates in the NCAA's Division III, the New England Women's and Men's Athletic Conference, the New England Football Conference, the Pilgrim League for men's lacrosse, NCAA's Division I Eastern Association of Women's Rowing Colleges (EAWRC) for women's crew, and the Collegiate Water Polo Association (CWPA) for Men's Water Polo. Men's crew competes outside the NCAA in the Eastern Association of Rowing Colleges (EARC). In April 2009, budget cuts lead to MIT eliminating eight of its 41 sports, including the mixed men's and women's teams in alpine skiing and pistol; separate teams for men and women in ice hockey and gymnastics; and men's programs in golf and wrestling.[297][298]

People

Students

Demographics of MIT student body[161][299][300]
Undergraduate Graduate
White American 34% 40.8%
Asian American 30% 9.4%
Hispanic American 15% 3.3%
African American 10% 2.1%
Native American 1.0% 0.4%
Other/International 8% 44.0%

MIT enrolled 4,384 undergraduates and 6,510 graduate students in 2011–2012.[161] Women constituted 45 percent of undergraduate students.[161][301] Undergraduate and graduate students were drawn from all 50 states as well as 115 foreign countries.[302]

MIT received 17,909 applications for admission to the undergraduate Class of 2015; 1,742 were admitted (9.7 percent) and 1128 enrolled (64.8 percent).[132] 19,446 applications were received for graduate and advanced degree program across all departments; 2,991 were admitted (15.4 percent) and 1,880 enrolled (62.8 percent).[303]

The interquartile range on the SAT was 2090–2340 and 97 percent of students ranked in the top tenth of their high school graduating class.[132] 97 percent of the Class of 2012 returned as sophomores; 82 percent of the Class of 2007 graduated within 4 years, and 93 percent (91 percent of the men and 95 percent of the women) graduated within 6 years.[132][304]

Undergraduate tuition and fees total $40,732 and annual expenses are estimated at $52,507 as of 2012. 62 percent of students received need-based financial aid in the form of scholarships and grants from federal, state, institutional, and external sources averaging $38,964 per student.[305] Students were awarded a total of $102 million in scholarships and grants, primarily from institutional support ($84 million).[132] The annual increase in expenses has led to a student tradition (dating back to the 1960s) of tongue-in-cheek "tuition riots".[306]

MIT has been nominally co-educational since admitting Ellen Swallow Richards in 1870. Richards also became the first female member of MIT's faculty, specializing in sanitary chemistry.[307] Female students remained a minority prior to the completion of the first wing of a women's dormitory, McCormick Hall, in 1963.[308][309][310] Between 1993 and 2009, the proportion of women rose from 34 percent to 45 percent of undergraduates and from 20 percent to 31 percent of graduate students.[161][311] Women currently outnumber men in Biology, Brain & Cognitive Sciences, Architecture, Urban Planning, and Biological Engineering.[161][301]

A number of student deaths in the late 1990s and early 2000s resulted in considerable media attention to MIT's culture and student life.[312][313] After the alcohol-related death of Scott Krueger in September 1997 as a new member at the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity,[314] MIT began requiring all freshmen to live in the dormitory system.[314][315] The 2000 suicide of MIT undergraduate Elizabeth Shin drew attention to suicides at MIT and created a controversy over whether MIT had an unusually high suicide rate.[316][317] In late 2001 a task force's recommended improvements in student mental health services were implemented,[318][319] including expanding staff and operating hours at the mental health center.[320] These and later cases were significant as well because they sought to prove the negligence and liability of university administrators in loco parentis.[316]

Faculty and staff

Main article: List of Massachusetts Institute of Technology faculty
Institute Professors Emeriti and Nobel Laureates (from left to right) Franco Modigliani (now deceased), Paul Samuelson (also deceased), and Robert Solow (picture taken in 2000)

As of 2013, MIT had 1,030 faculty members, of whom 225 were women.[3] Faculty are responsible for lecturing classes, advising both graduate and undergraduate students, and sitting on academic committees, as well as conducting original research. Between 1964 and 2009, a total of seventeen faculty and staff members affiliated with MIT were awarded Nobel Prizes (thirteen in the last 25 years).[321] MIT faculty members past or present have won a total of twenty-seven Nobel Prizes, the majority in Economics or Physics.[322] As of October 2013, among current faculty and teaching staff there are 67 Guggenheim Fellows, 6 Fulbright Scholars, and 22 MacArthur Fellows.[3] Faculty members who have made extraordinary contributions to their research field as well as the MIT community are granted appointments as Institute Professors for the remainder of their tenures.

A 1998 MIT study concluded that a systemic bias against female faculty existed in its School of Science,[323] although the study's methods were controversial.[324][325] Since the study, though, women have headed departments within the Schools of Science and of Engineering, and MIT has appointed several female vice presidents, although allegations of sexism continue to be made.[326] Susan Hockfield, a molecular neurobiologist, was MIT's president from 2004 to 2012 and was the first woman to hold the post.[153]

Tenure outcomes have vaulted MIT into the national spotlight on several occasions. The 1984 dismissal of David F. Noble, a historian of technology, became a cause célèbre about the extent to which academics are granted freedom of speech after he published several books and papers critical of MIT's and other research universities' reliance upon financial support from corporations and the military.[327] Former materials science professor Gretchen Kalonji sued MIT in 1994 alleging that she was denied tenure because of sexual discrimination. Several years later, the lawsuit was settled with undisclosed payments, and establishment of a project to encourage women and minorities to seek faculty positions.[326][328][329] In 1997, the Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination issued a probable cause finding supporting UMass Boston Professor James Jennings' allegations of racial discrimination after a senior faculty search committee in the Department of Urban Studies and Planning did not offer him reciprocal tenure.[330] In 2006–2007, MIT's denial of tenure to African-American stem cell scientist professor James Sherley reignited accusations of racism in the tenure process, eventually leading to a protracted public dispute with the administration, a brief hunger strike, and the resignation of Professor Frank L. Douglas in protest.[331][332] April Simpson of The Boston Globe reported on February 6, 2007: "Less than half of MIT's junior faculty members are granted tenure. After Sherley was initially denied tenure, his case was examined three times before the university established that neither racial discrimination nor conflict of interest affected the decision. Twenty-one of Sherley's colleagues issued a statement yesterday saying that the professor was treated fairly in tenure review."[333]

MIT faculty members have often been recruited to lead other colleges and universities. Founding faculty member Charles W. Eliot was recruited in 1869 to become president of Harvard University, a post he would hold for 40 years, during which he wielded considerable influence on both American higher education and secondary education. MIT alumnus and faculty member George Ellery Hale played a central role in the development of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and other faculty members have been key founders of Franklin W. Olin College of Engineering in nearby Needham, Massachusetts.

As of 2014, former provost Robert A. Brown is president of Boston University; former provost Mark Wrighton is chancellor of Washington University in St. Louis; former associate provost Alice Gast is president of Lehigh University; and former professor Suh Nam-pyo is president of KAIST. Former dean of the School of Science Robert J. Birgeneau was the chancellor of the University of California, Berkeley (2004–2013); former professor John Maeda was president of Rhode Island School of Design (RISD, 2008–2013); former professor David Baltimore was president of Caltech (1997–2006); and MIT alumnus and former assistant professor Hans Mark served as chancellor of the University of Texas system (1984–1992).

In addition, faculty members have been recruited to lead governmental agencies; for example, former professor Marcia McNutt was the director of the United States Geological Survey,[334] urban studies professor Xavier de Souza Briggs is currently the associate director of the White House Office of Management and Budget,[335] and biology professor Eric Lander is a co-chair of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology.[336] In 2013, faculty member Ernest Moniz was nominated by President Obama and later confirmed as United States Secretary of Energy.[337][338] Former professor Hans Mark served as Secretary of the Air Force from 1979 to 1981. Alumna and Institute Professor Sheila Widnall served as Secretary of the Air Force between 1993 and 1997, making her the first female Secretary of the Air Force and first woman to lead an entire branch of the US military in the Department of Defense.

Based on feedback from employees, MIT was ranked #7 as a place to work, among US colleges and universities as of 2013.[339] Surveys cited a "smart", "creative", "friendly" environment, noting that the work-life balance tilts towards a "strong work ethic", but complaining about "low pay".[340]

Alumni

Main article: List of Massachusetts Institute of Technology alumni

Many of MIT's over 120,000 alumni have had considerable success in scientific research, public service, education, and business. As of 2014, 27 MIT alumni have won the Nobel Prize, 47 have been selected as Rhodes Scholars, and 61 have been selected as Marshall Scholars.[341]

Alumni in American politics and public service include former Chairman of the Federal Reserve Ben Bernanke, former MA-1 Representative John Olver, former CA-13 Representative Pete Stark, former National Economic Council chairman Lawrence H. Summers, and former Council of Economic Advisors chairwoman Christina Romer. MIT alumni in international politics include Foreign Affairs Minister of Iran Ali Akbar Salehi, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, President of Colombia Virgilio Barco Vargas, President of the European Central Bank Mario Draghi, Governor of the Reserve Bank of India Raghuram Rajan, former British Foreign Minister David Miliband, former Greek Prime Minister Lucas Papademos, former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, and former Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister Ahmed Chalabi.

MIT alumni founded or co-founded many notable companies, such as Intel, McDonnell Douglas, Texas Instruments, 3Com, Qualcomm, Bose, Raytheon, Koch Industries, Rockwell International, Genentech, Dropbox, and Campbell Soup. According to the British newspaper, The Guardian, "a survey of living MIT alumni found that they have formed 25,800 companies, employing more than three million people including about a quarter of the workforce of Silicon Valley. Those firms collectively generate global revenues of about $1.9 trillion (£1.2 trillion) a year. If MIT were a country, it would have the 11th highest GDP of any nation in the world."[342][343][344]

Prominent institutions of higher education have been led by MIT alumni, including the University of California system, Harvard University, New York Institute of Technology, Johns Hopkins University, Carnegie Mellon University, Tufts University, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rhode Island School of Design (RISD), Northeastern University, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Purdue University, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, KAIST, and Quaid-e-Azam University. Berklee College of Music, the largest independent college of contemporary music in the world, was founded and led by MIT alumnus Lawrence Berk for more than three decades.

More than one third of the United States' manned spaceflights have included MIT-educated astronauts (among them Apollo 11 Lunar Module Pilot Buzz Aldrin), more than any university excluding the United States service academies.[345] Alumnus and former faculty member Qian Xuesen was instrumental in the PRC rocket program.[346]

Noted alumni in non-scientific fields include author Hugh Lofting,[347] sculptor Daniel Chester French, guitarist Tom Scholz of the band Boston, the British BBC and ITN correspondent and political advisor David Walter, The New York Times columnist and Nobel Prize Winning economist Paul Krugman, The Bell Curve author Charles Murray, United States Supreme Court building architect Cass Gilbert,[348] Pritzker Prize-winning architects I.M. Pei and Gordon Bunshaft.


See also

  • The Coop, campus bookstore
  • MIT in popular culture

References

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ The friezes of the marble-clad buildings surrounding Killian Court are carved in large Roman letters with the names of Aristotle, Newton, Pasteur, Lavoisier, Faraday, Archimedes, da Vinci, Darwin, and Copernicus; each of these names is surmounted by a cluster of appropriately related names in smaller letters. Lavoisier, for example, is placed in the company of Boyle, Cavendish, Priestley, Dalton, Gay Lussac, Berzelius, Woehler, Liebig, Bunsen, Mendelejeff [sic], Perkin, and van't Hoff.[118][119]
  2. ^ The Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology (HST) offers joint MD, MD-PhD, or Medical Engineering degrees in collaboration with Harvard Medical School.[149]
  3. ^ Course numbers are sometimes presented in Roman numerals, e.g. "Course XVIII" for mathematics.[161] At least one MIT style guide now discourages this usage.[162] Also, some Course numbers have been re-assigned over time, so that the subject area of a degree may depend on the year it was awarded.[159]
  4. ^ Figure includes 196 students working on Harvard degrees only.
  5. ^ Vannevar Bush was the director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development and general advisor to Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry Truman, James Rhyne Killian was Special Assistant for Science and Technology for Dwight D. Eisenhower, and Jerome Wiesner advised John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson.[213]
  6. ^ MIT's Building 7 and Harvard's Johnston Gate, the traditional entrances to each school, are 1.72 miles (2.77 km) apart along Massachusetts Avenue.

Citations

  1. ^ "Symbols: Seal". MIT Graphic Identity. MIT. Retrieved September 8, 2010. 
  2. ^ As of June 30, 2015. "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 Endowment Market Value and Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2014 to FY 2015" (PDF). National Association of College and University Business Officers and Commonfund Institute. 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c "Faculty and Staff". MIT Facts. MIT. Retrieved 2014-03-11. 
  4. ^ a b "Enrollment Statistics". MIT Registrar. Retrieved September 13, 2014. 
  5. ^ a b "The Campus". MIT Facts 2012. Retrieved May 31, 2012. 
  6. ^ "Colors - MIT Graphic Identity". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 26 September 2014. 
  7. ^ "The Official Site of MIT Intercollegiate Athletics - MIT". mitathletics.com. 
  8. ^ "Symbols: Mascot". MIT Graphic Identity. MIT. Retrieved September 8, 2010. 
  9. ^ NAICU – Member Directory
  10. ^ a b David Altaner (March 9, 2011). "Harvard, MIT Ranked Most Prestigious Universities, Study Reports". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2015-04-01. 
  11. ^ a b Morgan, John. "Top Six Universities Dominate THE World Reputation Rankings". <q>"The rankings suggest that the top six - Harvard University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the University of Cambridge, University of California, Berkeley, Stanford University and the University of Oxford - form a group of globally recognised "super brands".</q> 
  12. ^ a b "Massachusetts Institute of Technology". Encyclopedia.com. <q>It has long been recognized as an outstanding technological institute and its Sloan School of Management has notable programs in business, economics, and finance.</q> 
  13. ^ a b "Massachusetts Institute of Technology". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved November 18, 2014. <q>Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), privately controlled coeducational institution of higher learning famous for its scientific and technological training and research.</q> 
  14. ^ "Entrepreneurial Impact The Role of MIT". http://www.kauffman.org/. Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. 2009-02-17. Retrieved 2015-06-02.  External link in |work= (help)
  15. ^ [Nobel total: 85 (List generated 10-07-2015) http://web.mit.edu/ir/pop/awards/nobel.html]
  16. ^ "Charter of the MIT Corporation". Retrieved March 22, 2007. 
  17. ^ Kneeland, Samuel (March 1859). "Committee Report: Conservatory of Art and Science" (PDF). Massachusetts House of Representatives, House No. 260. 
  18. ^ "MIT Timeline". MIT History. MIT Institute Archives. Retrieved 2015-04-01. 
  19. ^ "Acts and Resolves of the General Court Relating to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology" (PDF). MIT History. MIT Institute Archives. Retrieved May 29, 2012. 
  20. ^ "MIT Facts 2012: Origins and Leadership". MIT Facts. MIT. Retrieved May 29, 2012. 
  21. ^ Rogers, William (1861). "Objects and Plan of an Institute of Technology: including a Society of Arts, a Museum of Arts, and a School of Industrial Science; proposed to be established in Boston" (PDF). The Committee of Associated Institutions of Science and Arts. 
  22. ^ Lewis 1949, p. 8.
  23. ^ "Letter from William Barton Rogers to His Brother Henry". Institute Archives, MIT. March 13, 1846. Retrieved October 2, 2010. 
  24. ^ Angulo, A.J. William Barton Rogers and the Idea of MIT. The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 155–156. ISBN 0-8018-9033-0. 
  25. ^ Angulo, A.J. "The Initial Reception of MIT, 1860s–1880s". In Geiger, Roger L. Perspectives on the History of Higher Education. pp. 1–28. 
  26. ^ Andrews, Elizabeth; Murphy, Nora; Rosko, Tom (2000). "William Barton Rogers: MIT's Visionary Founder". MIT Archives. 
  27. ^ Stratton, Julius Adams; Mannix, Loretta H. (2005). "The Land-Grant Act of 1862". Mind and Hand: The Birth of MIT. MIT Press. pp. 251–276. ISBN 0-262-19524-0. 
  28. ^ "Morrill Act:Primary Documents of American History". Library of Congress. 2016. Retrieved 10 February 2016. 
  29. ^ a b Prescott, Samuel C (1954). When M.I.T. Was "Boston Tech", 1861–1916. MIT Press. 
  30. ^ Angulo, A.J. William Barton Rogers and the Idea of MIT. The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 155–156. ISBN 0-8018-9033-0. 
  31. ^ a b Dunbar, Charles F. (July 1897). "The Career of Francis Amasa Walker". Quarterly Journal of Economics 11 (4): 446–447. doi:10.2307/1880719. JSTOR 1880719. 
  32. ^ "Explore campus, visit Boston, and find out if MIT fits you to a tea". 2006-12-16. Retrieved 2006-12-16. 
  33. ^ Munroe, James P. (1923). A Life of Francis Amasa Walker. New York: Henry Holt & Company. pp. 233, 382. 
  34. ^ Lewis 1949, p. 12.
  35. ^ "Alumni Petition Opposing MIT-Harvard Merger, 1904–05". Institute Archives, MIT. Retrieved October 1, 2010. 
  36. ^ a b c Alexander, Philip N. "MIT-Harvard Rivalry Timeline". MIT Music and Theater Arts News. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 2014-07-07. 
  37. ^ MIT Museum, "Bucentaur"
  38. ^ MIT Museum charter carried to the Bucentaur
  39. ^ "Souvenir Program, Dedication of Cambridge Campus, 1916". Object of the Month. MIT Institute Archives & Special Collections. Retrieved May 29, 2012. 
  40. ^ Middlesex Canal (Massachusetts) map, 1852 (Map). J. B. Shields. 1852. Retrieved September 17, 2010. 
  41. ^ "Freeman's 1912 Design for the "New Technology"". Object of the Month. MIT Institute Archives & Special Collections. Retrieved May 29, 2012. 
  42. ^ Lindsay, David (2000). "Eastman Becomes a Mystery Donor to MIT". PBS-WGBH. 
  43. ^ Lecuyer, Christophe (1992). "The making of a science based technological university: Karl Compton, James Killian, and the reform of MIT, 1930–1957". Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences 23 (1): 153–180. doi:10.2307/27757693. 
  44. ^ a b Lewis 1949, p. 13.
  45. ^ Geiger, Roger L. (2004). To advance knowledge: the growth of American research universities, 1900–1940. pp. 13–15, 179–9. ISBN 0-19-503803-7. 
  46. ^ a b "Member Institutions and Years of Admission". Association of American Universities. Retrieved June 26, 2012. 
  47. ^ Lewis 1949, p. 113.
  48. ^ Bourzac, Katherine, "Rethinking an MIT Education: The faculty reconsiders the General Institute Requirements", Technology Review, Monday, March 12, 2007
  49. ^ "History: School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences". MIT Archives. Archived from the original on March 11, 2010. Retrieved July 25, 2008. 
  50. ^ "History: Sloan School of Management". MIT Archives. Archived from the original on June 21, 2010. Retrieved July 25, 2008. 
  51. ^ Johnson, Howard Wesley (2001). Holding the Center: Memoirs of a Life in Higher Education. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-60044-7. 
  52. ^ a b Zachary, Gregg (1997). Endless Frontier: Vannevar Bush, Engineer of the American Century. Free Press. pp. 248–249. ISBN 0-684-82821-9. 
  53. ^ a b "MIT's Rad Lab". IEEE Global History Network. Retrieved July 25, 2008. 
  54. ^ "Doc Draper & His Lab". History. The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  55. ^ "Charles Draper: Gyroscopic Apparatus". Inventor of the Week. MIT School of Engineering. Archived from the original on April 18, 2012. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  56. ^ "Project Whirlwind". Object of the Month. MIT Institute Archives & Special Collections. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  57. ^ "Wartime Strobe: 1939–1945 – Harold "Doc" Edgerton (Doc's Life)". Retrieved November 28, 2009. 
  58. ^ Bedi, Joyce (May 2010). "MIT and World War II: Ingredients for a Hot Spot of Invention" (PDF). Prototype. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 24, 2012. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  59. ^ Leslie, Stuart (1993). The Cold War and American Science: The Military-Industrial-Academic Complex at MIT and Stanford. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-07959-1. 
  60. ^ Killian, James Rhyne (April 2, 1949). "The Obligations and Ideals of an Institute of Technology". The Inaugural Address. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 2013-08-10. 
  61. ^ Lewis 1949, p. 49.
  62. ^ Lecuyer, 1992
  63. ^ a b Todd, Richard (May 18, 1969). "The 'Ins' and 'Outs' at M.I.T". The New York Times. 
  64. ^ <Please add first missing authors to populate metadata.> (February 28, 1969). "A Policy of Protest". Time. Retrieved August 13, 2008. 
  65. ^ "Founding Document: 1968 MIT Faculty Statement". Union of Concerned Scientists, USA. Archived from the original on January 15, 2008. Retrieved August 12, 2008. 
  66. ^ Hechinger, Fred (November 9, 1969). "Tension Over Issue of Defense Research". The New York Times. 
  67. ^ Stevens, William (May 5, 1969). "MIT Curb on Secret Projects Reflects Growing Antimilitary Feeling Among Universities' Researchers". The New York Times. 
  68. ^ Warsh, David (June 1, 1999). "A tribute to MIT's Howard Johnson". The Boston Globe. Retrieved April 4, 2007. <q>At a critical time in the late 1960s, Johnson stood up to the forces of campus rebellion at MIT. Many university presidents were destroyed by the troubles. Only Edward Levi, University of Chicago president, had comparable success guiding his institution to a position of greater strength and unity after the turmoil.</q> 
  69. ^ Lee, J.A.N.; McCarthy, J.; Licklider, J.C.R. (1992). "The beginnings at MIT". IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 14 (1): 18–54. doi:10.1109/85.145317. Archived from the original on February 20, 2013. Retrieved May 31, 2012. 
  70. ^ "Internet History". Computer History Museum. Retrieved August 13, 2008. 
  71. ^ Raymond, Eric S. "A Brief History of Hackerdom". Retrieved August 11, 2008. 
  72. ^ "The Media Lab – Retrospective". MIT Media Lab. Archived from the original on April 17, 2009. Retrieved August 12, 2008. 
  73. ^ "About W3C: History". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved August 11, 2008. 
  74. ^ "MIT OpenCourseWare". MIT. Retrieved June 12, 2008. 
  75. ^ "Mission – One Laptop Per Child". One Laptop Per Child. Retrieved August 11, 2008. 
  76. ^ "Massachusetts Space Grant Consortium". Massachusetts Space Grant Consortium. Retrieved August 26, 2008. 
  77. ^ "MIT Sea Grant College Program". MIT Sea Grant College Program. Archived from the original on April 9, 2009. Retrieved August 26, 2008. 
  78. ^ Simha., O. R. (2003). MIT campus planning 1960–2000: An annotated chronology. MIT Press. pp. 120–149. ISBN 978-0-262-69294-6. 
  79. ^ "MIT Facilities: In Development & Construction". MIT. Archived from the original on March 12, 2009. Retrieved July 22, 2008. 
  80. ^ Bombardieri, Marcella (September 14, 2006). "MIT will accelerate its building boom: $750m expansion to add 4 facilities". The Boston Globe. Retrieved August 13, 2008. 
  81. ^ "About MITEI". MIT Energy Initiative. Retrieved May 31, 2012. 
  82. ^ Attwood, Rebecca (September 24, 2009). "Get it out in the open". Times Higher Education. 
  83. ^ Goldberg, Carey (April 4, 2001). "Auditing Classes at M.I.T., on the Web and Free". The New York Times. 
  84. ^ Hafner, Katie (April 16, 2010). "An Open Mind". The New York Times. 
  85. ^ Guttenplan, D.D. (November 1, 2010). "For Exposure, Universities Put Courses on the Web". The New York Times. 
  86. ^ Lewin, Tamar (December 19, 2011). "M.I.T. Expands Its Free Online Courses". The New York Times. 
  87. ^ "What is edX?". MIT News Office. May 2, 2012. 
  88. ^ Ruderman, Wendy; Kovaleski, Serge; Cooper, Michael (April 24, 2013). "Officer's Killing Spurred Pursuit in Boston Attack". The New York Times. 
  89. ^ Bidgood, Jess (April 24, 2013). "On a Field at M.I.T., 10,000 Remember an Officer Who Was Killed". New York Times. Retrieved 2014-01-30. 
  90. ^ Faviero, Bruno B. F. (April 26, 2013). "Thousands attend Sean Collier memorial service". The Tech 133 (21). Retrieved 2014-01-30. 
  91. ^ "Thousands attend slain MIT officer's memorial service". CBS News. April 24, 2013. 
  92. ^ "Letter regarding the establishment of the Collier Medal". MIT News. November 25, 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-26. 
  93. ^ "Collier Medal". MIT Police. MIT. Retrieved 2013-11-26. 
  94. ^ Rocheleau, Matt (November 26, 2013). "MIT to establish a Sean Collier award". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2013-11-26. 
  95. ^ Durant, Elizabeth. "Smoot's Legacy: 50th anniversary of famous feat nears". Technology Review. Retrieved August 13, 2008. 
  96. ^ Fahrenthold, David (December 8, 2005). "The Measure of This Man Is in the Smoot; MIT's Human Yardstick Honored for Work". The Washington Post. 
  97. ^ "Cambridge: Just the Facts (City Facts Brochure)". City of Cambridge. Retrieved May 31, 2012. 
  98. ^ a b c "MIT Course Catalogue: Overview". MIT. Retrieved July 16, 2008. 
  99. ^ "MIT presents updated Kendall Square Initiative plan to City of Cambridge". MIT News. Retrieved 2016-01-23. 
  100. ^ "Building History and Numbering System". Mind and Hand Book, MIT. Retrieved August 13, 2008. 
  101. ^ "MIT Campus Subterranean Map" (PDF). MIT Department of Facilities. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 31, 2010. Retrieved August 13, 2008. 
  102. ^ Abel, David (March 30, 2000). "'Hackers' Skirt Security in Late-Night MIT Treks". The Boston Globe. 
  103. ^ "MIT Course Catalogue". MIT. Archived from the original on January 4, 2009. Retrieved July 14, 2008. 
  104. ^ "Loose Nukes: A Special Report". ABC News. Retrieved April 14, 2007. 
  105. ^ "MIT Assures Community of Research Reactor Safety". MIT News Office. October 13, 2005. Retrieved October 5, 2006. 
  106. ^ Matthew G.H. Chun (14 April 1999). "Bill Gates Donates $20 million to MIT". The Harvard Crimson. The Harvard Crimson, Inc. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  107. ^ "Supersonic Tunnel Open; Naval Laboratory for Aircraft Dedicated at M.I.T". The New York Times. December 2, 1949. 
  108. ^ "Ship Test Tank for M.I.T.; Dr. Killian Announces Plant to Cost $500,000". The New York Times. February 6, 1949. 
  109. ^ "MIT maps wireless users across campus". MIT. November 4, 2005. Archived from the original on September 5, 2006. Retrieved March 3, 2007. 
  110. ^ "Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Clean Air Act, and the Clean Water Act". Environmental Protection Agency. May 3, 2001. Archived from the original on December 25, 2008. Retrieved July 16, 2008. 
  111. ^ Sales, Robert (April 21, 2001). "MIT to create three new environmental projects as part of agreement with EPA". MIT News Office. Retrieved July 16, 2008. 
  112. ^ "The Environment at MIT: Conservation". MIT. Archived from the original on January 4, 2009. Retrieved August 11, 2008. 
  113. ^ "Safety & Crime Report – Massachusetts Institute of Technology". American School Search. Retrieved September 28, 2013. 
  114. ^ "MIT Architecture: Welcome". MIT Department of Architecture. Archived from the original on March 23, 2007. Retrieved April 4, 2007. 
  115. ^ a b Dillon, David (February 22, 2004). "Starchitecture on Campus". The Boston Globe. Retrieved October 24, 2006. 
  116. ^ Flint, Anthony (October 13, 2002). "At MIT, Going Boldly Where No Architect Has Gone Before". The Boston Globe. 
  117. ^ a b Jarzombek, Mark (2004). Designing MIT: Bosworth's New Tech. Boston: Northeastern University Press. pp. 50–51. ISBN 978-1-55553-619-0. 
  118. ^ "Names of MIT Buildings". MIT Archives. Retrieved April 10, 2007. 
  119. ^ "Names on Institute Buildings Lend Inspiration to Future Scientists". The Tech XLII (70). December 22, 1922. Retrieved 2012-05-30. 
  120. ^ Campbell, Robert (March 2, 1986). "Colleges: More Than Ivy-Covered Halls". The Boston Globe. 
  121. ^ "Challenge to the Rectangle". TIME Magazine. June 29, 1953. Retrieved August 13, 2008. 
  122. ^ "Flagpole in the Square". TIME Magazine. August 22, 1960. Retrieved August 13, 2008. 
  123. ^ Campbell, Robert (May 20, 2001). "Architecture's Brand Names Come to Town". The Boston Globe. 
  124. ^ Paul, James (April 9, 1989). "The Campuses of Cambridge, A City Unto Themselves". The Washington Post. 
  125. ^ Lewis, Roger K. (November 24, 2007). "The Hubris of a Great Artist Can Be a Gift or a Curse". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 13, 2008. 
  126. ^ "2010 361 Best College Rankings: Quality of Life: Campus Is Tiny, Unsightly, or Both". Princeton Review. 2010. Retrieved July 6, 2010. 
  127. ^ MIT Housing Office. "Undergraduate Residence Halls". Retrieved October 1, 2010. 
  128. ^ "Residential Life Live-in Staff". MIT. Archived from the original on March 20, 2012. Retrieved June 1, 2012. 
  129. ^ Yale Daily News Staff (2009). The Insider's Guide to the Colleges, 2010. St. Martin's Griffin. pp. 377–380. ISBN 0-312-57029-5. 
  130. ^ MIT Housing Office. "Graduate residences for singles & families". MIT. Archived from the original on June 20, 2010. Retrieved October 1, 2010. 
  131. ^ "MIT Facts: Housing". 2010. Retrieved October 1, 2010. 
  132. ^ a b c d e "Common Data Set". Institutional Research, Office of the Provost, MIT. 2012. 
  133. ^ "Undergraduate and Graduate Residence Halls, Fraternities, Sororities, and Independent Living Groups @ MIT" (PDF). MIT Residential Life. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 8, 2012. Retrieved June 1, 2012. 
  134. ^ Zernike, Kate (August 27, 1998). "MIT rules freshmen to reside on campus". The Boston Globe. p. B1. 
  135. ^ Russell, Jenna (August 25, 2002). "For First Time, MIT Assigns Freshmen to Campus Dorms". The Boston Globe. 
  136. ^ "MIT Corporation". MIT Corporation. Retrieved March 18, 2007. 
  137. ^ "Members of the MIT Corporation: Term Members". The MIT Corporation. Retrieved September 7, 2010. 
  138. ^ "Members of the MIT Corporation: Life Members". The MIT Corporation. Retrieved September 7, 2010. 
  139. ^ "Members of the MIT Corporation: Officers". The MIT Corporation. Retrieved September 7, 2010. 
  140. ^ "Members of the MIT Corporation: Ex Officio Members". The MIT Corporation. Retrieved September 7, 2010. 
  141. ^ "Bylaws of the MIT Corporation – Section 2: Members". The MIT Corporation. Retrieved September 7, 2010. 
  142. ^ "Robert Millard '73 elected chair of the MIT Corporation: Corporation member and alumnus succeeds John Reed; other elections announced.". MIT News Office. June 5, 2014. Retrieved June 2, 2015. 
  143. ^ "Corporation elects new members, chair". MIT News Office. June 4, 2010. Retrieved September 7, 2010. 
  144. ^ "A Brief History and Workings of the Corporation". MIT Faculty Newsletter. Retrieved November 2, 2006. 
  145. ^ "MIT Investment Management Company". MIT Investment Management Company. Retrieved January 8, 2007. 
  146. ^ "2011 NACUBO Endowment Student" (PDF). National Association of College and University Business Officers. 2011. Retrieved May 29, 2012. 
  147. ^ "MIT releases 2010 endowment figures". MIT News Office. September 27, 2010. 
  148. ^ "MIT Facts: Academic Schools and Departments, Divisions & Sections". 2010. Retrieved October 1, 2010. 
  149. ^ "Harvard-MIT HST Academics Overview". Retrieved August 5, 2007. [dead link]
  150. ^ Rafael L. Bras (2004–2005). "Reports to the President, Report of the Chair of the Faculty" (PDF). MIT. Retrieved December 1, 2006. 
  151. ^ "Reporting List". MIT. Retrieved September 7, 2010. 
  152. ^ Bradt, Steve (May 16, 2012). "L. Rafael Reif selected as MIT's 17th president". MIT News. 
  153. ^ a b "Susan Hockfield, President, Massachusetts Institute of Technology – Biography". MIT. Retrieved September 19, 2008. 
  154. ^ a b c d "Massachusetts Institute of Technology". Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Retrieved June 22, 2012. 
  155. ^ "MIT Facts: Accreditation". MIT. 2010. Retrieved September 6, 2010. 
  156. ^ "Roster of Institutions". Commission on Institutions of Higher Education, New England Association of Schools and Colleges. Archived from the original on November 6, 2013. Retrieved September 6, 2010. 
  157. ^ "Academic Calendar". Officer of the Registrar, MIT. Retrieved September 6, 2010. 
  158. ^ "Majors & Minors". MIT Admissions Office. Retrieved August 13, 2008. <q>MIT is organized into academic departments, or Courses, which you will often hear referred to by their Course number or acronym.</q> 
  159. ^ a b Butcher, Ev. "Course Code Designation Key". MIT Club of San Diego. Archived from the original on July 25, 2011. 
  160. ^ "MIT Course Catalogue: Degree Programs". MIT. Retrieved July 16, 2008. 
  161. ^ a b c d e f g h "Enrollment Statistics". MIT Office of the Registrar. Retrieved June 26, 2012. 
  162. ^ "Style Sheet | Report Preparation Guidelines". MIT. Retrieved June 6, 2012. 
  163. ^ a b "Average Freshmen Retention Rates: National Universities". U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved September 6, 2010. 
  164. ^ Switzer, Jennifer. "1,467 students admitted to Class of 2019 - The Tech". tech.mit.edu. Retrieved 2015-07-10. 
  165. ^ "MIT Course Catalog: Degree Charts". Officer of the Registrar, MIT. Retrieved September 6, 2010. 
  166. ^ a b "MIT Degrees Awarded". Institutional Research, Office of the Provost. Retrieved June 26, 2012. 
  167. ^ "MIT Course Catalog: Academic Programs". Officer of the Registrar, MIT. Retrieved September 6, 2010. 
  168. ^ a b "MIT Course Catalog: Undergraduate General Institute Requirements". Officer of the Registrar, MIT. Retrieved September 6, 2010. 
  169. ^ "About the Requirement". Undergraduate Communication Requirement. MIT. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  170. ^ "Faculty and Instructors". Undergraduate Communication Requirement. MIT. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  171. ^ "MIT's Wettest Test", Nicole Morell, December 18, 2014, technologyreview.com
  172. ^ Schön, Donald A. (1986). "Leadership as Reflection-in-Action". In Thomas J. Sergiovanni, John Edward Corbally. Leadership and Organizational Culture: New Perspectives on Administrative Theory and Practice. University of Illinois Press. p. 59. ISBN 0-252-01347-6. Retrieved August 13, 2008. <q>[In the sixties] Students spoke of their undergraduate experience as "drinking from a fire hose."</q> 
  173. ^ Mattuck, Arthur (2009). The Torch or the Firehose. MIT OpenCourseWare. p. 1. 
  174. ^ a b "MIT Course Catalog: Freshman Year". Officer of the Registrar, MIT. Retrieved September 6, 2010. 
  175. ^ Keuss, Nancy (October 17, 2000). "The Evolution of MIT's Pass/No Record System". The Tech 120 (50). Retrieved September 6, 2010. 
  176. ^ "MIT UROP: Basic Information". MIT. Retrieved June 21, 2012. 
  177. ^ "MIT Research and Teaching Firsts". MIT News Office. Archived from the original on September 15, 2006. Retrieved October 6, 2006. 
  178. ^ "Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program". MIT Admissions. Retrieved June 21, 2012. 
  179. ^ Maeroff, Gene I. (January 11, 1976). "Use of Undergraduates in Research Is Hailed by M.I.T.; Inventions by Students". The New York Times. 
  180. ^ Palmer, Matthew (October 5, 1999). "An MIT Original, the Oft Replicated UROP Program Reaches 30 Years". The Tech 119 (47). 
  181. ^ Benson, Snyder (1970). The Hidden Curriculum. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-69043-8. Archived from the original on November 14, 2012. 
  182. ^ Mahoney, Matt (May 2012). "Unwritten Rules". Technology Review. Retrieved June 21, 2012. 
  183. ^ "NAAB: Schools Database (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)". NAAB. Retrieved April 16, 2011. 
  184. ^ "AACSB – General". AASCB. Retrieved April 16, 2011. 
  185. ^ "Planning Accreditation Board: Accredited Planning Programs". Planning Accreditation Board. Retrieved April 16, 2011. 
  186. ^ "Accredited Programs Search". ABET. Retrieved April 16, 2011. 
  187. ^ "MIT master of science in real estate development". MIT Center For Real Estate. Retrieved April 26, 2014. 
  188. ^ "MIT Course Catalog: Graduate Education: General Degree Requirements". Officer of the Registrar, MIT. Retrieved September 6, 2010. 
  189. ^ "Interdisciplinary Graduate Programs". Officer of the Registrar, MIT. Retrieved September 6, 2010. 
  190. ^ "Graduate Education". MIT Facts 2012. MIT. Retrieved June 25, 2012. 
  191. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2015: USA". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved August 15, 2015. 
  192. ^ "America's Top Colleges". Forbes. Retrieved August 15, 2015. 
  193. ^ "Best Colleges". U.S. News & World Report LP. Retrieved September 10, 2015. 
  194. ^ "2015 National Universities Rankings". Washington Monthly. n.d. Retrieved September 17, 2015. 
  195. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2015". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2015. Retrieved August 15, 2015. 
  196. ^ "QS World University Rankings® 2015/16". Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. 2015. Retrieved September 15, 2015. 
  197. ^ "World University Rankings 2015-16". THE Education Ltd. Retrieved October 1, 2015. 
  198. ^ Avery, Christopher; Glickman, Mark E.; Hoxby, Caroline M; Metrick, Andrew (December 2005). "A Revealed Preference Ranking of U.S. Colleges and Universities, NBER Working Paper No. W10803". National Bureau of Economic Research. 
  199. ^ "2012 Parchment Top Choice College Rankings: All Colleges". Parchment Inc. Retrieved June 5, 2012. 
  200. ^ Coughlan, Sean (15 September 2014). "What makes a global top 10 university?". BBC News. <q>It's the third year in a row that [MIT] … has been top of the QS World University Rankings. The biggest single factor in the QS rankings is academic reputation … calculated by surveying more than 60,000 academics… Universities with an established name and a strong brand are likely to do better.</q> 
  201. ^ "NRC Rankings". Retrieved October 9, 2008. 
  202. ^ "MIT undergraduate engineering again ranked No. 1". MIT News Office. August 17, 2010. 
  203. ^ "The Best Colleges for Your Money". Money (Time Inc). Retrieved 2014-07-31. 
  204. ^ Chen, Liyan (August 18, 2014). "Startup Schools: America's Most Entrepreneurial Universities". Forbes. Forbes LLC. Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
  205. ^ Young, Thomas (April 29, 2015). "A new kind of college ranking: The 10 universities that will increase your career earnings the most". Brookings Now. The Brookings Institution. Retrieved 2015-05-10. 
  206. ^ "A Survey of New England: A Concentration of Talent". The Economist. August 8, 1987. <q>MIT for a long time... stood virtually alone as a university that embraced rather than shunned industry.</q> 
  207. ^ Roberts, Edward B. (1991). "An Environment for Entrepreneurs". MIT: Shaping the Future. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN 0262631415. <q>The war made necessary the formation of new working coalitions... between these technologists and government officials. These changes were especially noteworthy at MIT.</q> 
  208. ^ Shlaes, Amity (May 14, 2008). "From the Ponderosa to the Googleplex: How Americans match money to ideas". State Department Press Release (U.S. Department of State). <q>Griswold, [MIT president] Compton, and various politicians handpicked Doriot to head American Research & Development, a new firm that would invest in [the] small, innovative companies that had been underserved by traditional capital markets.</q> 
  209. ^ Simon, Jane (July 1, 1985). "Route 128: How it developed, and why it's not likely to be duplicated". New England Business (Boston). p. 15. <q>Compton co-founded in 1946 what is believed to be the nation's first venture capital company.…  [He] and a group led by a Harvard professor [Doriot] founded one of the first venture capital companies, American Research & Development Corp.</q> 
  210. ^ "Industrial Liaison Program: About Us". MIT. 2011. <q>Established in 1948, the ILP continues … making industrial connections for MIT.</q> 
  211. ^ Kolata, Gina (December 19, 1990). "MIT Deal with Japan Stirs Fear on Competition". The New York Times. Retrieved June 9, 2008. 
  212. ^ Booth, William (June 14, 1989). "MIT Criticized for Selling Research to Japanese Firms". The Washington Post. 
  213. ^ "Nearly half of all US Presidential science advisers have had ties to the Institute". MIT News Office. May 2, 2001. Retrieved March 18, 2007. 
  214. ^ "MIT Washington Office". MIT Washington Office. Archived from the original on February 7, 2007. Retrieved March 18, 2007. 
  215. ^ "Hunt Intense for Federal Research Funds: Universities Station Lobbyists in Washington". February 11, 2001. 
  216. ^ Johnston, David (August 10, 1989). "Price-Fixing Inquiry at 20 Elite Colleges". The New York Times. Retrieved December 16, 2008. 
  217. ^ Chira, Susan (March 13, 1991). "23 College Won't Pool Discal Data". The New York Times. Retrieved December 16, 2008. 
  218. ^ DePalma, Anthony (May 23, 1991). "Ivy Universities Deny Price-Fixing But Agree to Avoid It in the Future". The New York Times. Retrieved December 16, 2008. 
  219. ^ DePalma, Anthony (September 2, 1992). "MIT Ruled Guilty in Anti-Trust Case". The New York Times. Retrieved July 16, 2008. 
  220. ^ DePalma, Anthony (June 26, 1992). "Price-Fixing or Charity? Trial of M.I.T. Begins". The New York Times. Retrieved August 13, 2008. 
  221. ^ "Settlement allows cooperation on awarding financial-aid". MIT Tech Talk. 1994. Retrieved March 3, 2007. 
  222. ^ Honan, William (December 21, 1993). "MIT Suit Over Aid May Be Settled". The New York Times. Retrieved July 16, 2008. 
  223. ^ a b c d e f "MIT Facts: Educational Partnerships". 2010. Archived from the original on January 4, 2009. Retrieved September 7, 2010. 
  224. ^ "Roberto Rocca Project". MIT. Retrieved November 19, 2009. 
  225. ^ "MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives". MIT. Archived from the original on February 10, 2007. Retrieved March 17, 2007. 
  226. ^ "About Us". Technology Review. MIT. Retrieved June 5, 2012. 
  227. ^ "Alumni Benefits". MIT Alumni Association. Retrieved June 5, 2012. 
  228. ^ "History – The MIT Press". MIT. Retrieved March 18, 2007. 
  229. ^ Geraci, Diane. "Information Resources" (PDF). MIT Reports to the President 2009–2010. MIT Reference Publications Office. Retrieved June 26, 2012. 
  230. ^ "Lewis Music Library". MIT. Archived from the original on July 7, 2010. Retrieved October 10, 2010. 
  231. ^ "MIT List Visual Arts Center". MIT. Retrieved October 1, 2010. 
  232. ^ "Compton Gallery". MIT Museum. Archived from the original on August 6, 2010. Retrieved October 1, 2010. 
  233. ^ "MIT Percent-for-Art Program". MIT. Retrieved October 1, 2010. 
  234. ^ "MIT Public Art Collection". MIT. Archived from the original on July 18, 2009. Retrieved October 1, 2010. 
  235. ^ "MIT Museum: Mission and History". MIT. Retrieved 2013-05-15. 
  236. ^ a b "Research at MIT". MIT Facts. MIT. Archived from the original on 2010-08-02. Retrieved July 1, 2012. 
  237. ^ Office of the Provost. "MIT Faculty and Staff". MIT. Retrieved April 17, 2011. 
  238. ^ "TLO Statistics for Fiscal Year 2011". MIT. Archived from the original on May 21, 2012. Retrieved July 1, 2012. 
  239. ^ Bishop, Matthew; Michael Green (Spring 2012). "Innovation for the Real World". Philanthropy. Retrieved June 5, 2012. 
  240. ^ "IEEE History Center: MIT Radiation Laboratory". IEEE. Retrieved June 9, 2008. 
  241. ^ a b "Research Laboratory of Electronics at MIT: History". MIT. Archived from the original on May 15, 2008. Retrieved June 9, 2008. 
  242. ^ Harold "Doc" Edgerton (November 28, 2009). "High Speed Camera". Retrieved November 28, 2009. 
  243. ^ The Edgerton Digital Collections Project "When a strobe would not do the trick in murky waters, Edgerton began working on sonar techniques to "see" with sound."
  244. ^ "MIT Professor Claude Shannon dies; was founder of digital communications". MIT News Office. February 27, 2001. Retrieved October 4, 2010. 
  245. ^ Guttag, John (2003). The Electron and the Bit, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT, 1902–2002. 
  246. ^ Office of the Provost. "A. M. Turing Award". MIT. Retrieved April 17, 2011. 
  247. ^ Robert N. Noyce, Robert Langer, Bradford W. Parkinson, Ivan A. Getting, Butler W. Lampson, Timothy J. Berners-Lee, Rudolph Kalman,
  248. ^ a b c d "Nobel Prize". Office of Institutional Research, MIT. Retrieved December 31, 2008. 
  249. ^ "Dirac Medal". Office of Institutional Research, MIT. Retrieved December 31, 2008. 
  250. ^ "Prize in Physics". Wolf Foundation. Retrieved October 4, 2010. 
  251. ^ Lander, Eric; Linton, LM; Birren, B; Nusbaum, C; Zody, MC; Baldwin, J; Devon, K; Dewar, K; et al. (2001). "Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome". Nature (Nature) 409 (6822): 860–921. doi:10.1038/35057062. PMID 11237011. 
  252. ^ "Eric S. Lander". Broad Institute. Retrieved June 9, 2008. 
  253. ^ "Martin Deutsch, MIT physicist who discovered positronium, dies at 85". August 20, 2002. Retrieved June 12, 2008. 
  254. ^ "Professor John C. Sheehan Dies at 76". MIT News Office. April 1, 1992. Retrieved June 12, 2008. 
  255. ^ "Self-Reproducing Molecules Reported by MIT Researchers". MIT News Office. May 9, 1990. Archived from the original on May 16, 2008. Retrieved June 12, 2008. 
  256. ^ "MIT Research and Teaching Firsts". MIT. Archived from the original on May 31, 2008. Retrieved June 12, 2008. 
  257. ^ Hilts, Philip J. (March 31, 1998). "Last Rites for a 'Plywood Palace' That Was a Rock of Science". The New York Times. Retrieved October 4, 2010. 
  258. ^ "John Bates Clark Medal". Office of Institutional Research, MIT. Retrieved December 31, 2008. 
  259. ^ Fox, Margalit (December 5, 1998). "A Changed Noam Chomsky Simplifies". The New York Times. 
  260. ^ Jaggi, Maya (January 20, 2001). "Conscience of a nation". The Guardian (London). Retrieved August 12, 2008. 
  261. ^ Herper, Matthew (January 8, 2002). "MIT Media Lab Tightens Its Belt". Forbes. Retrieved August 12, 2008. 
  262. ^ Guernsey, Lisa (April 7, 2009). "M.I.T. Media Lab at 15: Big Ideas, Big Money". The New York Times. 
  263. ^ Matchan, Linda (July 12, 2008). "In Search of A Beautiful Mind". The Boston Globe. Retrieved August 12, 2008. 
  264. ^ Office of the Provost. "MacArthur Fellows". MIT. Retrieved April 17, 2011. 
  265. ^ Office of the Provost. "Pulitzer Prize". MIT. Retrieved April 17, 2011. 
  266. ^ Office of the Provost. "American Academy of Arts and Letters". MIT. Retrieved April 17, 2011. 
  267. ^ Saltus, Richard (September 28, 1990). "Journal Cites New Evidence ex-MIT Scientist Faked Data". The Boston Globe. 
  268. ^ Boffey, Philip (April 12, 1988). "Nobel Winner Is Caught Up in a Dispute Over Study". The New York Times. 
  269. ^ Abel, David (November 29, 2002). "MIT Faces Charges of Fraud, Cover-up on Missile Test Study". The Boston Globe. 
  270. ^ Pierce, Charles P. (October 23, 2005). "Going Postol". The Boston Globe. Retrieved January 27, 2008. 
  271. ^ "Case Summary – Luk Van Parijs". Office of Research Integrity, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. January 23, 2009. Archived from the original on June 11, 2009. Retrieved December 2, 2009. 
  272. ^ Reich, Eugenie (February 3, 2009). "Former MIT biologist penalized for falsifying data". Nature News. 
  273. ^ Larry Hardesty (September 17, 2015). "Personalized Heart model". Retrieved 2015-09-21. 
  274. ^ Jones, Marilee. "MIT freshman application & financial aid information" (PDF). MIT Admissions Office. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 7, 2006. Retrieved January 2, 2007. <q>We are a meritocracy. We judge each other by our ideas, our creativity and our accomplishments, not by who our families are.</q> 
  275. ^ Bernanke, Ben S. (June 9, 2006). "2006 Commencement Speech at MIT". Archived from the original on October 7, 2006. Retrieved January 2, 2007. <q>Mathematical approaches to economics have at times been criticized as lacking in practical value. Yet the MIT Economics Department has trained many economists who have played leading roles in government and in the private sector, including the current heads of four central banks: those of Chile, 8=Israel, 9=Italy, and, I might add, the 10=United States.</q> 
  276. ^ "No honorary degrees is an MIT tradition going back to... Thomas Jefferson". MIT News Office. June 8, 2001. Retrieved May 7, 2006. <q>MIT's founder, William Barton Rogers, regarded the practice of giving honorary degrees as 'literary almsgiving ...of spurious merit and noisy popularity...'</q> 
  277. ^ Stevenson, Daniel C. "Rushdie Stuns Audience 26–100". The Tech 113 (61). 
  278. ^ a b Gellerman, Bruce; Erik Sherman (2004). Massachusetts Curiosities: Quirky Characters, Roadside Oddities, & Other Offbeat Stuff. Globe Pequot. pp. 65–66. ISBN 0-7627-3070-6. 
  279. ^ Pourian, Jessica J. (February 15, 2011). "2013's Brass Rat unveiled". The Tech 131 (5). Retrieved June 12, 2011. 
  280. ^ "Ring History ('93 class webpage)". Archived from the original on December 14, 2006. Retrieved December 26, 2006. 
  281. ^ Bauer, M.J. "IHTFP". Retrieved November 23, 2005. 
  282. ^ "Student Group List". MIT. Retrieved 2015-11-25. 
  283. ^ "MIT Outreach Database". MIT. Retrieved September 7, 2010. 
  284. ^ Dowling, Claudia Glenn (June 5, 2005). "MIT Nerds". Discover Magazine. Retrieved August 17, 2007. 
  285. ^ Bridges, Mary (January 23, 2005). "Her Mystery achievement: to boldly scavenge at MIT". The Boston Globe. Retrieved January 16, 2007. 
  286. ^ "Charm School". MIT Student Activities Office. MIT Division of Student Life. Retrieved July 3, 2011. 
  287. ^ Chang, Kenneth (February 6, 2001). "What, Geeks at M.I.T.? Not With This Class". The New York Times. Retrieved August 12, 2008. 
  288. ^ Kirkpatrick, J. (2011). "Students head off to varied externships". The Tech 131 (59). 
  289. ^ Kirkpatrick, J. (2011). "Record 294 participate in MIT Externship Program". The Tech 131 (57). 
  290. ^ Peterson, T.F. (2003). Nightwork: A History of Hacks and Pranks at MIT. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-66137-9. 
  291. ^ Biskup, Agnieska (April 1, 2003). "These Are Not Your Ordinary College Pranks". The Boston Globe. 
  292. ^ "Howe & Ser Moving Co". Retrieved April 4, 2007. 
  293. ^ Bombadieri, Marcella (December 18, 2003). "MIT Pranksters Wing It For Wright Celebration". The Boston Globe. 
  294. ^ "MIT Hackers & Halo 3". The Tech. Retrieved September 25, 2007. 
  295. ^ Kathryn Krtnick, Asst. Dir. of Communications (November 28, 2012). "Re: NCAA Media Inquiry" (PDF). Natl. Collegiate Athletic Assn. <q>List of institutions that sponsor the most sports: Bowdoin College and Williams College – 32; MIT – 31.</q> 
  296. ^ Dept. of Athletics (Aug 2012). "2012–13 Quick Facts" (PDF). MIT. <q>Intercollegiate Athletics: 33 varsity sports.</q> 
  297. ^ Cohen, Rachel (May 18, 2010). "MIT the No. 1 jock school? You're kidding, right?". Associated Press. Archived from the original on September 12, 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-25. 
  298. ^ Powers, John (April 24, 2009). "MIT forced to cut 8 varsity sports". The Boston Globe. 
  299. ^ <Please add first missing authors to populate metadata.> (January 2009). "MIT facts 2009: International students and scholars". MIT Bulletin 144 (4). 
  300. ^ "Class of 2015 admission rate sinks to 9.6 percent". The Tech 131 (14). 2011. Retrieved July 4, 2012. 
  301. ^ a b MIT, Office of the Registrar. (October 9, 2009). Enrollment statistics: Women students, Fall term 2009–2010. 
  302. ^ "Geographic Distribution of Students". Office of the Registrar, MIT. 2009–2010. Retrieved October 1, 2010. 
  303. ^ <Please add first missing authors to populate metadata.> (January 2009). "MIT facts: Admission to MIT". MIT Bulletin 144 (4). 
  304. ^ U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (September 2009). College Navigator: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Retention and graduation rates. 
  305. ^ "MIT Facts: Tuition and Financial Aid". 2010. 
  306. ^ Bolotin, Mark (January 14, 1966). "Tuition hike provokes student riot" (PDF). The Tech 85 (32). 
  307. ^ Chemical Heritage Foundation (2005). "Ellen Swallow Richards". Chemical Achievers, The Human Face of Chemical Sciences. Retrieved November 4, 2006. 
  308. ^ McCormickFact Sheet
  309. ^ Simha, O. R. (2003). MIT campus planning 1960–2000: An annotated chronology. MIT Press. pp. 32–33. ISBN 978-0-262-69294-6. <q>In 1959, 158 women were enrolled at MIT.</q> 
  310. ^ Stratton, J. A. (1960). The president's report 1960 (PDF). p. 49. <q>Registration: In 1959–60 ... [o]ne hundred and fifty-five women were enrolled, [2.5 percent of student body]....</q> 
  311. ^ EECS Women Undergraduate Enrollment Committee (January 3, 1995). "Chapter 1: Male/Female enrollment patterns in EECS at MIT and other schools". Women Undergraduate Enrollment in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT. Retrieved December 8, 2006. 
  312. ^ Healy, Patrick (February 5, 2001). "11 years, 11 suicides – Critics Say Spate of MIT Jumping Deaths Show a 'Contagion'". The Boston Globe. pp. A1. 
  313. ^ Smith, Tovia (August 29, 2001). "Massachusetts Institute of Technology Looks for Ways to Deal with the Incidence of Student Suicides in Recent Years". National Public Radio. 
  314. ^ a b "MIT's Inaction Blamed for Contributing to Death of a Freshman". The Chronicle of Higher Education. October 6, 1998. Retrieved October 7, 2006. 
  315. ^ Levine, Dana (September 15, 2000). "Institute Will Pay Kruegers $6M for Role in Death". The Tech 120 (42). Retrieved October 4, 2006. 
  316. ^ a b Sontag, Deborah (April 28, 2002). "Who Was Responsible for Elizabeth Shin?". The New York Times. Retrieved October 7, 2006. 
  317. ^ Elizabeth Fried Ellen, LICSW (2002). "Suicide Prevention on Campus". Psychiatric Times. Retrieved June 26, 2006. 
  318. ^ "MIT Mental Health Task Force Fact Sheet". MIT New Office. November 14, 2001. Retrieved June 25, 2006. 
  319. ^ Arenson, Karen (December 3, 2004). "Worried Colleges Step Up Efforts Over Suicide". The New York Times. Retrieved January 6, 2009. 
  320. ^ "Clay endorses Mental Health Task Force Recommendations". MIT News Office. November 28, 2001. Retrieved June 25, 2006. 
  321. ^ Nobel Foundation (2009). Nobel laureates and universities. Retrieved 2015-04-01. 
  322. ^ "Awards and Honors". Institutional Research, Office of the Provost. Retrieved October 18, 2011. 
  323. ^ "A Study on the Status of Women Faculty in Science at MIT". MIT Faculty News Letter. 1999. 
  324. ^ Kleinfeld, Judith. "MIT Tarnishes Its Reputation with Gender Junk Science". Archived from the original on February 8, 2007. Retrieved April 10, 2007. 
  325. ^ Lopez, Kathryn Jean (April 10, 2001). "Feminist Mythology". National Review. Archived from the original on May 21, 2010. Retrieved April 10, 2007. 
  326. ^ a b Wertheimer, Linda (December 6, 2007). "Tenure at MIT Still Largely a Male Domain". The Boston Globe. Retrieved July 25, 2008. 
  327. ^ "Professor Sues M.I.T. Over Refusal of Tenure". The New York Times. September 10, 1986. Retrieved October 3, 2006. 
  328. ^ MIT as 'Intractable Enemy' Andrew Lawler; Science Careers; November 12, 1999
  329. ^ Vaznis, James (January 15, 1994). "Ex-MIT professor who was denied tenure files sex bias suit". The Boston Globe. 
  330. ^ Dowdy, Zachary (October 22, 1997). "MCAD supports scholar's claim of bias by MIT; University Offered job, but no tenure". The Boston Globe. 
  331. ^ Simpson, April (February 6, 2007). "Professor accuses MIT of racism". The Boston Globe. Retrieved December 18, 2007. 
  332. ^ Schworm, Peter (June 4, 2007). "MIT center director resigns in protest of tenure decision". The Boston Globe. Retrieved December 19, 2007. 
  333. ^ Professor accuses MIT of racism April Simpson, Globe Staff; February 6, 2007
  334. ^ "Marcia McNutt, Director, U.S. Geological Survey". U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved May 25, 2015. 
  335. ^ "DUSP's Briggs joins Obama administration". MIT News Office. January 20, 2009. Archived from the original on March 30, 2014. 
  336. ^ "Lander named to Obama's science team". MIT News Office. December 22, 2008. Archived from the original on March 30, 2014. 
  337. ^ Calmes, Jackie; Broder, John (March 4, 2013). "Obama Announces 3 Cabinet Nominations". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 March 2013. 
  338. ^ Roberta Rampton (February 6, 2013). "Exclusive: Obama considering MIT physicist Moniz for energy secretary - sources". chicagotribune.com. Retrieved February 24, 2013. 
  339. ^ "Glassdoor's Top 25 Universities To Work For". Glassdoor. Glassdoor, Inc. Retrieved 2014-03-11. 
  340. ^ "MIT Reviews". Glassdoor. Glassdoor, Inc. Retrieved 2014-03-11. 
  341. ^ MIT Office of Institutional Research. "Awards and Honors". Retrieved 2014-03-11. 
  342. ^ Ericka Chickowski (September 20, 2010). "Gurus and Grads". Entrepreneur. 
  343. ^ "Kauffman Foundation study finds MIT alumni companies generate billions for regional economies". MIT News Office. February 17, 2009. Retrieved February 25, 2009. 
  344. ^ Ed Pilkington (May 18, 2011). "The MIT factor: celebrating 150 years of maverick genius". The Guardian. Retrieved May 25, 2011. 
  345. ^ "Notable Alumni". Archived from the original on November 27, 2006. Retrieved November 4, 2006. 
  346. ^ (Chinese) 钱学森:历尽险阻报效祖国 火箭之王淡泊名誉,人民网,2009年10月31日.Accessed Oct. 31, 2009; (Chinese) 美国航空周刊2008年度人物:钱学森.网易探索(广州)(2009年10月31日). Accessed Nov. 11, 2009.
  347. ^ Silvey, Anita (1995). Children's Books and Their Creators. Houghton Mifflin. p. 415. ISBN 0-395-65380-0. 
  348. ^ "Study for Woolworth Building, New York". World Digital Library. 1910-12-10. Retrieved 2013-07-25. 

Bibliography

Also see the bibliography maintained by MIT's Institute Archives & Special Collections, and Written Works in MIT in popular culture.</dd>

  • Abelmann, Walter H. (2004). The Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology: The First 25 Years, 1970–1995. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology. ISBN 9780674014589. 
  • Angulo, A. J. (2007). "The Initial Reception of MIT, 1860s–1880s". History of Higher Education Annual 26: 1–28. 
  • Etzkowitz, Henry (2006). MIT and the Rise of Entrepreneurial Science. London: Routledge. ISBN 9780415435055. 
  • Hapgood, Fred (1992). Up the Infinite Corridor: MIT and the Technical Imagination. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 9780201082937. 
  • Jarzombek, Mark (2004). Designing MIT: Bosworth's New Tech. Boston, Mass.: Northeastern University Press. ISBN 9781555536190. 
  • Keyser, Samuel Jay (2011). Mens et Mania: The MIT Nobody Knows. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262015943. 
  • Lecuyer, Christophe (1992). "The Making of a Science Based Technological University: Karl Compton, James Killian, and the Reform of MIT, 1930–1957". Historical Studies in the Physical & Biological Sciences 23 (1): 153–180. doi:10.2307/27757693. JSTOR 27757693. 
  • Leslie, Stuart W. (1993). The Cold War and American Science: The Military-Industrial-Academic Complex at MIT and Stanford. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231079587. 
  • Lewis, Warren K.; Robnett, Ronald H.; Soderberg, C. Richard; Stratton, Julius A.; Loofbourow, John R. (1949). Report of the Committee on Educational Survey (Lewis Report) (PDF). Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. Retrieved May 28, 2012. 
  • Mitchell, William J. (2007). Imagining MIT: Designing a Campus for the Twenty-first Century. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262134798. 
  • Peterson, T. F. (2003). Nightwork: A History of Hacks and Pranks at MIT. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262661379. 
  • Prescott, Samuel C. (1954). When MIT was "Boston Tech", 1861–1916 (Reprint. ed.). MIT Press. ISBN 9780262661393. 
  • Servos, John W. (December 1980). "The Industrial Relations of Science: Chemical Engineering at MIT, 1900–1939". Isis (The University of Chicago Press on behalf of The History of Science Society) 71 (4): 531–549. doi:10.1086/352591. JSTOR 230499. 
  • Shrock, Robert Rakes (1982). Geology at MIT 1865–1965: A History of the First Hundred Years of Geology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262192118. 
  • Simha, O. Robert (2003). MIT Campus Planning, 1960–2000: An Annotated Chronology. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262692946. 
  • Snyder, Benson R. (1971). The Hidden Curriculum. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262690430. 
  • Stratton, Julius A. (2005). Mind and Hand: The Birth of MIT. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262195249. 
  • Vest, Charles M. (2004). Pursuing the Endless Frontier: Essays on MIT and the Role of Research Universities. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262220729. 
  • Wildes, Karl L.; Lindgren, Nilo A. (1985). A Century of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT, 1882–1982. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262231190. 

External links

  • Official website
  • Texts on Wikisource:
    • "Massachusetts Institute of Technology". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921. 
    • "Massachusetts Institute of Technology, The". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920. 
    • "Massachusetts Institute of Technology". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914. 
    • "Massachusetts Institute of Technology". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. 
    • George Fillmore Swain (July 1900). "Technical Education at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology". Popular Science Monthly 57. 

Coordinates: 42°21′35″N 71°05′32″W / 42.35982°N 71.09211°W / 42.35982; -71.09211



</raw> </toggledisplay>

Wikipedia preview

出典(authority):フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』「2016/08/04 21:07:42」(JST)

wiki ja

<toggledisplay showtext="[Wiki ja表示]" hidetext="[隠す]">

<raw>
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
校訓 Mens et Manus (ラテン語)
創立 1861年 (1865年設置)
学校種別 私立大学
ランドグラント大学
大学暦 4–1–4
運営資金 124億ドル(2014年)[1]
理事長 Cynthia Barnhart
学長 L. Rafael Reif
副学長 Martin A. Schmidt
教職員 1,030[2]
学生 11,301[3]
学部生 4,528[3]
大学院生 6,510
所在地 米国マサチューセッツ州ケンブリッジ
キャンパス 都市型, 168エーカー (68.0 ha)[4]
Newspaper The Tech
スポーツ 31 varsity teams
スクールカラー Red, Gray and Light Gray[5]
           
愛称 Engineers[6]
マスコット Tim the Beaver[7]
運動競技 NCAA Division III – NEWMAC, NEFC, Pilgrim League
Division I – EARC & EAWRC (rowing)
所属提携 AAU

AICUM
AITU
APLU
COFHE
NAICU[8]
URA

568 Group
ウェブサイト MIT<wbr />.edu
テンプレートを表示

マサチューセッツ工科大学(英語: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)は、アメリカ合衆国マサチューセッツ州ケンブリッジに本部を置く私立工科大学である。1865年に設置された。通称、MIT(エム・アイ・ティー, 注:「ミット」は誤用で主に日本の極めて一部で用いられる)。

全米指折りのエリート名門校の1つとされ、ノーベル賞受賞者を多数輩出している(なお、2014年まで1年以上在籍しMITが公式発表したノーベル賞受賞者は81名。この数はハーバード大学の公式発表受賞者48名を上回る[9])。最も古く権威ある世界大学評価機関の英国Quacquarelli Symonds(QS)による世界大学ランキングでは、2012年以来2015年まで、ハーバード大学及びケンブリッジ大学を抜き、4年連続で世界第一位である。 同じくケンブリッジ市にあるハーバード大学とはライバル校でありながらも、学生達はそれぞれの学校の授業を卒業単位に組み込める単位互換制度(Cross-registration system)が確立され、ケンブリッジ市は、「世界最高の学びのテーマパーク」とさえも称されている。物理学や生物学などの共同研究組織を立ち上げたりなど、ハーバード大学との共同研究も盛んである。

MITはランドグラント大学でもある。1865年から1900年の間に約19万4千ドル(これは2008年時点の生活水準でいうところの380万ドルに相当)のグラントを得、また同時期にマサチューセッツ州から更なる約36万ドル(2008年時点の生活水準で換算して700万ドルに相当)の資金を獲得している[10]。どの私的寄付もこの額のレベルには及ばず、MIT設立当初の州からの援助は寛大なものだった[10]

アメリカにおいて、シリコンバレーなどと並ぶ先端技術産業の集積地であるボストンのルート128地域においても、中核的な役割を果たす機関である。同大学のメディアラボは情報技術関連の先端を走る研究所としてマスメディアなどでも頻繁に取り上げられる。特筆すべきは、同研究所で開発された情報処理システム(アテネプロジェクト)がキャンパスネットワークの根幹を占めること、なおかつそのプロジェクトの研究成果が、アメリカ以外の大学院大学などでも活用され、成果を挙げていることである。

同大学は、ボストン近郊所在の他大学(ハーバード大学、ウェルズリー大学、マサチューセッツ大学)との間で、学生や研究者同士の交流も推進している。近年、大学の全授業をweb上で公開する試み(オープンコースウェア)がなされており、遠隔教育関係者や教育関係者一般から広く注目を集めている。現在、建築家の槇文彦によってキャンパスの増築がなされている。

目次

  • 1 歴史
  • 2 軍事・経済的な貢献
  • 3 組織
    • 3.1 スクールおよびカレッジ
    • 3.2 研究機関
    • 3.3 その他
  • 4 教育
  • 5 学生
    • 5.1 受験
  • 6 「ハック」
  • 7 著名な教員
  • 8 出身者
    • 8.1 日本人出身者
  • 9 連携大学
  • 10 脚注
  • 11 関連項目
  • 12 外部リンク

歴史

MITは自然哲学者ウィリアム・バートン・ロジャース(ウィリアム・アンド・メアリー大学卒業)によってボストンの地にボストン技術学校の名で設立され、1865年にマサチューセッツ工科大学に改称し開学した。

創立当初は一部の学生を除き、多くのMITの学生は一人前の大人(社会人)で、建設業者や熟練工、工事監督、熟練機械工、見習い工、熟練エンジニアなど既に一定の技能を身につけた人々だった。このため、明確な目的意識があり、必要と思われる講座のみを選択し受講しに来る者が多く、キャンパス・ライフは存在しなかった。MITには学生寮もなく、礼拝堂もなく、1867年まで食堂すら存在せず 、学生はただ講義を聞くためだけに学校に来た[11]。最初のうちは学生は男子のみだったが、1870年代になって初めて女子の入学を受け入れはじめた。

ヨーロッパでは歴史的に技術系の職業が低く見られ、近代半ばまで大学での工系学部の位置づけも明確でなく、工学部設置も日本に先を越された。この状況はアメリカでも強く、理工系専門の教育機関として創設されたMITも人々から偏見の目で見られた。

20世紀初頭にボストンでは開発ブームが起こり、不動産の高騰などによってMITは、これまでいたコプリー・スクェアの地を立ち退かなければならない事態となった。皮肉なことに、この開発ブームに拍車をかけたのは1865年以来、MITが送り出してきた数千人に及ぶ卒業生たちであった。MITは研究室ごとに高騰したボストン各地の不動産市場に散りぢりとなり、大学移転のために候補地を探したが、調達資金などの面から難航した。1909年、資金調達能力を有するリチャード・マクローリンが新学長に就任したことによって事態は収拾に向かい、新キャンパスの候補地としてケンブリッジとボストンの境界を流れるチャールズ川の埋立地(ケンブリッジ側)が検討されるようになった。だが、移転に際していくつか問題があった。第一に土壌が埋め立てたばかりで軟弱であったこと、第二にケンブリッジを縄張りとしていたハーバードとの政治的・歴史的問題である。特にハーバードとの問題は深刻で、MITのほとんどの卒業生が、このとき文科系人種をはじめとするボストンの人々からいわれのない偏見を受け、罵声を絶え間なく浴びせられたという[12]。この状況について関係者は「肘で誰かを押しのけて食事をするようなものだ」と語っている。

さらにMITがケンブリッジにキャンパスを移転してからは、ハーバードとの対抗は激しくなり、人々の中にはMITを「職業訓練学校」と侮辱する者もいた。例えばボストンのある名士が、ハーバードで教えるかわりにMITへの奉職を考慮していた甥に対し、次のような手紙を書いている。「この国では、常に金と鉄道と発明の嵐が吹き荒れてる。公立学校だの、高校だの、職業専門学校(MITのこと)だのと言ったものは、どんな学校にも作れるが、ケンブリッジ(ハーバードのこと)のようなところだけが、学問にふさわしい雰囲気と歴史と思っている。大学とは、そうでなければならないのだ。大いなるハーモニーを学べるところでなくては」[13]

軍事・経済的な貢献

1940年、MITは軍事技術の研究開発にかかわるようになった。当時、アメリカ軍はイギリス海軍が開発したレーダーに関心を持っており、研究プロジェクトを行う上で、設備[14]や運営経験があったMITに注目した[15]。その一年後、太平洋戦争がはじまるとキャンパス北端に放射線研究所(Radiation Lab・ラドラブ)と称する軍事研究所が設置され、カリフォルニア工科大学などとともに戦争の一翼を担った。さらにMITは新兵器開発のために必要な資金や物資を得ることに成功するとともに、学生の徴兵猶予の権利を勝ちとった。この経験はマサチューセッツ工科大学の名を世界で高めるきっかけとなった。 「彼らは2万5800もの会社を設立し、300万人の雇用を生み出していた」ことが分かったという。これには、シリコンバレーの雇用の約4分の1を含む。「もしMITが国家だとすると、世界で11番目のGDPを有することになる」

なお、2014年まで1年以上在籍しMITが公式発表したノーベル賞受賞者は81名。この数はハーバード大学の公式発表受賞者48名を上回る。 ハーバードは、英国のオックスフォードやケンブリッジをモデルに上流階級用の古典教育にこだわり、ラテン語やギリシャ語に力を入れていた。これに対してMITは、研究と実践的な実験による学習というドイツ的なシステムを採用した。「知識は重要だが、有用でなければならない」という考え方がMITの伝統で、米国の主要大学としては非常に小さい規模の大学であり学生数は約1万人、教員数は約1000人に過ぎない。日本の東大や早慶に比べても小さく、東京工業大学と同じ規模である。

スタッフの約40%が米国以外の生まれで、すぐに役には立ちそうにないことでも取り組むことが許される、財政的・精神的余裕を持っている。 

組織

5つのスクール(School)と1つのカレッジ(College)がある(これらが日本の大学における「学部」・「研究科」に相当する)。スクールとカレッジには、34の学部(Department)、学科(Division)、大学院・研究科・専攻(Degree-granting program)などがおかれている。さらには、教育研究プログラムとしてWHOIとのジョイントプログラムも実施している。

  • 学部: 経営学部、工学部、人文・社会科学部、理学部、建築・計画学部
  • 研究科: 医科大学院、経営大学院、工科大学院、人文社会科学大学院、自然科学大学院、建築・計画大学院

スクールおよびカレッジ

  • School of Architecture and Planning(建築および都市計画・地域計画)
  • School of Engineering(工学)
  • School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences(人文科学・社会科学)
  • Sloan School of Management(経営)
  • School of Science(理学)
  • Whitaker College of Health Sciences and Technology(健康科学・健康技術)

研究機関

51の研究機関がある。ここでは、メディアなどで著名な研究機関を掲げる。

  • リンカーン研究所
  • ホワイトヘッド研究所
  • MITメディアラボ
  • MITコンピュータ科学・人工知能研究所

その他

各企業からの派遣研究員受け入れや受託研究を行う、寄附講座や記念講座が設置されている。

教育

大学側はMITの学生に多くの課題を要求する[16]。例えば数学科の学生なら学期の初めから4つの課題演習セットと20分間のプレゼンをこなし、次週までにカール・バーンスタインのAll the President's Menを読んでくるなどである[16]

2008年にノーベル経済学賞を受賞したポール・クルーグマンはニューヨークタイムズのコラムニストでもあり、経済学を平易な言葉で説明するというアプローチを用いている[17]。「事の本質に注目し、要素還元し、難解さを避け明解な解説をこころがける」それがMITで学んだスタイルだとクルーグマンは述べる[17]

学生

中国系・韓国系を中心とするアジア系学生の割合は増加の一途であり、現在では在校生の27%を占めている。(College Board, fall 2005)

受験

  • リベラル・アーツとしてのマサチューセッツ工科大学に入学する際には、通常の試験及び外国人の場合には、TOEFL受験が義務付けられている。その他は、米国のビザ法に関する法による。
  • 大学院受験の場合には、「GREスコアカード」及び「卒業証明書(大学)」が必要。外国人の場合には、TOEFLの受験が義務付けられている。その他は、米国のビザ法に関する法による。特定研究室に該当する研究室を指定する場合には、紹介状2通が必要(直近の銀行残高証明書も必要)。

「ハック」

同校には伝統的に「ハック」(詳細はハッカーを参照)と呼ばれるゲリラ活動的なイタズラ[18] (en:Hacks at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology) が存在する。単なるイタズラというよりも、日頃研究したさまざまな技術を駆使することから、時に超常現象かと見紛うばかりのものまであるとされる。

近くのハーバード橋の長さを測るために仲間の身長からスムートという新単位を作り、橋に印を書いたり(1958年)、学び舎のシンボルであるグレートドーム(冒頭写真)頂上にパトロールカーが設置された(1994年)り、巨大なR2-D2に改装(1999年)されたり、『ゼルダの伝説シリーズ』のトライフォースが設置(2006年)されたりといったスケールの大きいものから、校内の碑文をこっそり自分たちのメッセージにすり替えたり(1994年)、学長室の入り口を何ヶ月も前から掲示板があったかのようにしてしまった(1990年)りといったものまで報告されている。

これらのイタズラはあくまでも洒落の範疇に収めることが重要とされており、物や施設を汚損したり、誰かを傷つけたりするようなことは行われないとされる。1999年のR2-D2“ハック”では同校の安全対策室に、取り付けられたパネルなどの片付け方を記したメモが届けられている。

著名な教員

以下、人名はすべて苗字の五十音順に並ぶ。

  • イアン・コンドリー - 文化人類学者。日本のヒップホップやアニメの研究。
  • ポール・サミュエルソン - 経済学者
  • ロバート・ソロー - 経済学者、ノーベル経済学賞受賞
  • リチャード・シュロック - 化学科教授、2005年ノーベル賞受賞
  • イサドール・シンガー - アーベル賞
  • ノーム・チョムスキー - 言語学、アメリカのメディアと外交政策の批評家としても知られる
  • アマー・G・ボーズ - 名誉教授。BOSE社の創設者。
  • ジョージ・ホワイトサイズ - 材料科学者、ナノ・マイクロマシン&加工、自己組織化の世界的権威
  • マービン・ミンスキー - コンピュータ科学者、認知科学者
  • ジョン・マッカーシー - コンピュータ科学者、 人工知能の提唱者
  • アイセ・ヨハン・デ・ヨング - コール賞
  • ジョージ・ルスティック - コール賞
  • ロバート・ランガー - 生体工学者
  • ジェローム・レトビン - 神経生理学者

日本人</dt>

  • 石井裕 - タンジブル・ビット考案者、メディアアーツ&サイエンス
  • 神田駿 - 建築家・都市計画家
  • 利根川進 - 免疫研究、脳科学研究、ノーベル生理学・医学賞
  • 増渕興一 - 機械工学科名誉教授
  • 宮川繁 - 言語学者
  • 伊藤穰一 - MITメディアラボ所長 ベンチャーキャピタリスト、実業家

出身者

あ行

  • コフィー・アナン - 前国際連合事務総長、ノーベル平和賞
  • ジェームズ・ウッズ - 俳優(中退)
  • ピエルマリア・オッドーネ - 物理学者
  • ロバート・オーマン - 経済学者
  • バズ・オルドリン - アポロ11号に搭乗した宇宙飛行士

か行

  • レイ・カーツワイル - 光学文字認識の第一人者
  • ケビン・カラン - ゲームクリエイター。「ミサイルコマンド」「パックマン」の改良版を製作。
  • ジョン・W・キャンベル - SF編集者、SF作家
  • デービッド・ダナ・クラーク - コンピューター学者
  • フェルナンド・J・コルバト - 情報工学者
  • ゲイリー・クライン - 自転車車体設計・製造
  • ブリュースター・ケール - インターネット起業家
  • マレー・ゲルマン - 物理学者、ノーベル物理学賞受賞

さ行

  • アイバン・サザランド - コンピュータ科学者
  • ローレンス・サマーズ - 政治家・経済学者
  • ルイス・サリヴァン - 建築家
  • トム・ショルツ - ロック・バンドボストンのリーダー
  • ジョージ・シュルツ - 政治家
  • ウィリアム・ショックレー - 物理学者
  • リチャード・ストールマン - ハッカー。フリーソフトウェア財団設立者
  • ジョージ・スムート - 物理学者
  • 銭学森 - 航空力学研究者

た行

  • アンドリュー・タネンバウム - コンピュータ科学者
  • アフマド・チャラビ - イラクの政治家
  • ホイットフィールド・ディフィー - 暗号学者
  • ゲイリー・タナカ - 馬主
  • ダニエル・M・タニ - 宇宙飛行士
  • ジミー・ドーリットル - 軍人
  • キム・エリック・ドレクスラー - ナノテクノロジーエンジニア

な行

  • ニコラス・ネグロポンテ - MITメディアラボの創設者
  • ベンヤミン・ネタニヤフ - イスラエルの政治家

は行

  • ベン・バーナンキ - 経済学者(第14代FRB議長)
  • アラン・パリス - 計算機科学者
  • アンドリュー・ビタビ - クアルコムの創設者、計算機科学者
  • ウィリアム・ヒューレット - ヒューレット・パッカードの創設者
  • アンドリュー・ファイアー - 生物学者
  • リチャード・P・ファインマン - 物理学者、ノーベル物理学賞(1965年)
  • ホセ・フィゲレス・フェレール - コスタリカの政治家
  • ディラン・ブルーノ - 俳優
  • ウィリアム・クレイ・フォード・ジュニア - 実業家
  • マヌエル・ブラム - 計算機科学者
  • ジョージ・ヘール - 天文学者
  • イオ・ミン・ペイ - 建築家

ま行

  • ダグ・マクレー - 前述したケビン・カランの相棒
  • グレゴリー・マンキュー - 経済学者
  • マーヴィン・ミンスキー - 人工知能の権威
  • ロバート・メトカーフ - コンピュータ技術者

ら行

  • スティーブ・ラッセル - 世界で初めて不特定多数の人に楽しまれたTVゲーム『スペースウォー!』を製作。
  • ドルフ・ラングレン - 『ロッキー4/炎の友情』、『ユニバーサルソルジャー』シリーズなどで知られる俳優。
  • ラリー・ローゼンタール - コンピュータ技術者。アーケードゲーム用のベクタースキャン技術を開発。
  • ヒュー・ロフティング - 『ドリトル先生』シリーズで知られる児童文学作家(中退)

日本人出身者

  • 青島矢一 - 一橋大学イノベーション研究センター准教授
  • 浅子和美 - 経済学者、マクロ分析経済学理論、日本経済の実証分析、一橋大学経済研究所教授
  • 安達保 - カーライルグループ 日本代表
  • 荒川實 - Nintendo of America(任天堂の米国法人)・元社長
  • 鮎川弥一 - スウェーデン王立科学アカデミー外国人メンバー
  • 鮎川純太 - テクノベンチャー社長
  • 池原止戈夫 - 元東京工業大学教授、数学者
  • 板倉宏昭 - 香川大学教授、経営学
  • 猪口孝 - 中央大学教授、東京大学名誉教授
  • 岩井克人 - 東京大学教授、経済学者
  • 江端貴子 - 東京大学特任准教授、アステラス製薬社外取締役
  • 遠藤謙 - ソニーコンピュータサイエンス研究所研究員、株式会社 Xiborg 代表取締役
  • 遠藤真由 - ミス・ユニバース・ジャパン(2000年)
  • 大前研一 - 経営コンサルタント・経営者
  • 小川進 - 神戸大学大学院経営学研究科教授
  • 尾崎敏 - 物理学者
  • 加藤壹康 - キリンホールディングス・社長
  • 織畠潤一 - シーメンス・ジャパン代表取締役社長
  • 加藤勇次郎 - 熊本バンド、同志社英学校の教員
  • 金井壽宏 - 神戸大学大学院経営学研究科教授
  • 北澤宏一 - 科学技術振興機構・理事長
  • 畔柳信雄 - 三菱UFJフィナンシャル・グループ・社長
  • 齊藤誠 - 一橋大学大学院経済学研究科教授
  • 塩谷さやか - 桜美林大学准教授
  • 杉山知之 - デジタルハリウッド学長
  • 高橋義仁 - 専修大学商学部教授
  • 武石彰 - 京都大学大学院経済学研究科教授
  • 武田真彦 - 一橋大学大学院経済学研究科教授
  • 立川敬二 - NTT DoCoMo元社長、JAXA理事長
  • 田中明彦 - 東京大学東洋文化研究所教授
  • 團琢磨 - 三井合名会社・元理事長
  • 延岡健太郎 - 一橋大学イノベーション研究センター教授
  • 畑山浩昭 - 桜美林大学教授
  • 平山嵩 - 元東京大学教授、建築家
  • 堀新太郎 - ベインキャピタル・ジャパン最高顧問
  • 堀内敬三 - 音楽評論家・作詞家・作曲家
  • 舛重正一 - 東京農業大学生物応用化学科・バイオサイエンス学科名誉教授、東京聖栄大学教授
  • 松尾博文 - 神戸大学大学院経営学研究科教授
  • 御手洗肇 - キヤノン・元社長
  • 三井高修 - 三井化学・元会長
  • 薬師寺泰蔵 - 慶應義塾大学客員教授、内閣府総合科学技術会議議員
  • 山影進 - 東京大学大学院総合文化研究科長・教養学部長
  • 山形浩生 - 野村総合研究所研究員
  • 山田哲 - フェニックスリゾート・元社長兼最高経営責任者
  • 横山禎徳 - 社会システムデザイナー、元マッキンゼー東京支社長
  • 和才博美 - NTTコミュニケーションズ元社長、スローンスクールMBA

日本国内においては大学出身者で作る「日本マサチューセッツ工科大学会」が存在する。同様の組織として日本ハーバード会、日本ケンブリッジ会、日本オックスフォード会などがあるが、これらは日本フルブライト会(会合は、在日米国大使館や六本木の東京アメリカンクラブなどで開かれる)から分かれて、大学別の同窓会(親睦会)として開かれているものである。各会員は1期から始まり、現在は各大学卒業ごとに開かれている。

連携大学

  • 東京工科大学(提携)
  • 金沢工業大学(連携)
  • 名古屋商科大学大学院(Sloan School of Managementへの留学制度)

脚注

[ヘルプ]
  1. ^ “MIT releases endowment figures for 2014”. MIT News. 2014年9月13日閲覧。
  2. ^ “Faculty and Staff”. MIT Facts. MIT. 2014年3月11日閲覧。
  3. ^ a b “Enrollment Statistics”. MIT Registrar. 2014年9月13日閲覧。
  4. ^ “The Campus”. MIT Facts 2012. 2012年5月31日閲覧。
  5. ^ “Colors - MIT Graphic Identity”. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 2014年9月26日閲覧。
  6. ^ The Official Site of MIT Intercollegiate Athletics - MIT
  7. ^ “Symbols: Mascot”. MIT Graphic Identity. MIT. 2010年9月8日閲覧。
  8. ^ NAICU – Member Directory
  9. ^ List of Nobel laureates by university affiliation
  10. ^ a b D. Kaiser, Becoming MIT, MIT Press (2010)
  11. ^ この状況についてMITのある校長は「ここは(MIT)は子供が遊ぶ場ではなく、大人が学ぶための場所である」とその特徴について語っている
  12. ^ なかには思い上がった者がボールボーイなどと中傷する者もいた。
  13. ^ フレッド・ハプグッド著・鶴岡雄二訳「マサチューセッツ工科大学」1995年9月25日
  14. ^ MITには鉄道の引き込み線なども存在した
  15. ^ 正確にはボストン地区にあった他の候補に比べてという意味で、ほかの大学は実践経験が乏しい理論派学校か美術学校ばかりだったために軍の基準に合致しなかったためである。実際にプロジェクトを行う上で、政府はロチェスター大学のリー・ドゥブリッジを指導者として招いた
  16. ^ a b What's it like to study at MIT? Lu-Hai Liang, Education, theguardian, 13 Sep 2012
  17. ^ a b Paul Krugman, PhD ’77 MIT News Magazine, MIT Technology Review, 19 Aug 2014
  18. ^ IHTFP Hack Gallery

関連項目

  • スムート
  • 工業大学

外部リンク

  • マサチューセッツ工科大学公式サイト(英語版)
  • マサチューセッツ工科大学大学同窓会(Alumni Association)(英語版)
  • OpenCourseWare(英語版)
  • MIT Tech(英語版) - 学生新聞
  • MIT Press(英語版)
  • IHTFP Hack Gallery(英語版)
  • MIT Sloan School of Management(英語版)
  • MIT Sloan Japan Club(英語版)
  • 日本MIT会
  • Japanese Association of MIT (JAM) - MIT日本人会

座標: 北緯42度21分35秒 西経71度5分32秒 / 北緯42.35972度 西経71.09222度 / 42.35972; -71.09222



</raw> </toggledisplay>

wiki en

<toggledisplay showtext="[Wiki en表示]" hidetext="[隠す]">

<raw>
"MIT" redirects here. For other uses, see MIT (disambiguation).
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Motto Mens et Manus (Latin)
Motto in English
Mind and Hand[1]
Type Private
Land grant
Established April 10, 1861 (1861-04-10)
Academic affiliation
AAU

AICUM
AITU
APLU
COFHE
NAICU[2]
URA

568 Group
Endowment $13.475 billion (2015)[3]
Chancellor Cynthia Barnhart
President L. Rafael Reif
Provost Martin A. Schmidt
Academic staff
1,021[4]
Students 11,319[5]
Undergraduates 4,512[5]
Postgraduates 6,807
Location Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
Campus Urban, 168 acres (68.0 ha)[6]
Newspaper The Tech
Colors Cardinal Red & Steel Gray[7]
         
Nickname Engineers[8]
Mascot Tim the Beaver[9]
Sporting affiliations
NCAA Division III – NEWMAC, NEFC,

Pilgrim League

Division I – EARC & EAWRC (rowing)
Website www<wbr />.mit<wbr />.edu

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering. Researchers worked on computers, radar, and inertial guidance during World War II and the Cold War. Post-war defense research contributed to the rapid expansion of the faculty and campus under James Killian. The current 168-acre (68.0 ha) campus opened in 1916 and extends over 1 mile (1.6 km) along the northern bank of the Charles River basin.

MIT, with five schools and one college which contain a total of 34 departments, is often cited as among the world's top universities.[10][11][12][13] The Institute is traditionally known for its research and education in the physical sciences and engineering, and more recently in biology, economics, linguistics, and management as well. The "Engineers" sponsor 31 sports, most teams of which compete in the NCAA Division III's New England Women's and Men's Athletic Conference; the Division I rowing programs compete as part of the EARC and EAWRC.

As of 2015, 85 Nobel laureates, 52 National Medal of Science recipients, 65 Marshall Scholars, 45 Rhodes Scholars, 38 MacArthur Fellows, 34 astronauts, 19 Turing award winners, and 6 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT. The school has a strong entrepreneurial culture, and the aggregated revenues of companies founded by MIT alumni would rank as the eleventh-largest economy in the world.[14][15]

Contents

  • 1 History
    • 1.1 Foundation and vision
    • 1.2 Early developments
    • 1.3 Curricular reforms
    • 1.4 Defense research
    • 1.5 Recent history
  • 2 Campus
    • 2.1 Architecture
    • 2.2 Housing
  • 3 Organization and administration
  • 4 Academics
    • 4.1 Undergraduate program
    • 4.2 Graduate program
    • 4.3 University rankings
    • 4.4 Collaborations
    • 4.5 Libraries, collections and museums
    • 4.6 Research
  • 5 Traditions and student activities
    • 5.1 Activities
    • 5.2 Athletics
  • 6 People
    • 6.1 Students
    • 6.2 Faculty and staff
    • 6.3 Notable alumni
  • 7 See also
  • 8 References
    • 8.1 Notes
    • 8.2 Citations
    • 8.3 Bibliography
  • 9 External links

History

Main article: History of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Foundation and vision

.... a school of industrial science aiding the advancement, development and practical application of science in connection with arts, agriculture, manufactures, and commerce.
— Act to Incorporate the Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
Acts of 1861, Chapter 183[16]
Stereographic card showing an MIT mechanical drafting studio, 19th century (photo by E.L. Allen, left/right inverted)
Original Rogers Building, Back Bay, Boston, 19th century

In 1859, a proposal was submitted to the Massachusetts General Court to use newly filled lands in Back Bay, Boston for a "Conservatory of Art and Science", but the proposal failed.[17][18] A charter for the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, proposed by William Barton Rogers, was signed by the governor of Massachusetts on April 10, 1861.[19]

Rogers, a professor from the University of Virginia, wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances.[20][21] He did not wish to found a professional school, but a combination with elements of both professional and liberal education,[22] proposing that:

The true and only practicable object of a polytechnic school is, as I conceive, the teaching, not of the minute details and manipulations of the arts, which can be done only in the workshop, but the inculcation of those scientific principles which form the basis and explanation of them, and along with this, a full and methodical review of all their leading processes and operations in connection with physical laws.[23]

The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars and laboratories.[24][25]

Early developments

A 1905 map of MIT's Boston campus

Two days after the charter was issued, the first battle of the Civil War broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MIT's first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865.[26] The new institute was founded as part of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to fund institutions "to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes", and was a land-grant school.[27][28] In 1863 under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the Massachusetts Agricultural College, which developed as the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In 1866, the proceeds from land sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay.[29]

MIT was informally called "Boston Tech".[29] The institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date.[30] Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker.[31] Programs in electrical, chemical, marine, and sanitary engineering were introduced,[32][33] new buildings were built, and the size of the student body increased to more than one thousand.[31]

The curriculum drifted to a vocational emphasis, with less focus on theoretical science.[34] The fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership. During these "Boston Tech" years, MIT faculty and alumni rebuffed Harvard University president (and former MIT faculty) Charles W. Eliot's repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard College's Lawrence Scientific School.[35] There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard.[36] In its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding. Eventually the MIT Corporation approved a formal agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty, students, and alumni.[36] However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court effectively put an end to the merger scheme.[36]

Plaque in Building 6 honoring George Eastman, founder of Eastman Kodak, who was revealed as the anonymous "Mr. Smith" who helped maintain MIT's independence

In 1916, the MIT administration and the MIT charter crossed the Charles River on the ceremonial barge Bucentaur built for the occasion,[37][38] to signify MIT's move to a spacious new campus largely consisting of filled land on a mile-long tract along the Cambridge side of the Charles River.[39][40] The neoclassical "New Technology" campus was designed by William W. Bosworth[41] and had been funded largely by anonymous donations from a mysterious "Mr. Smith", starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist George Eastman of Rochester, New York, who had invented methods of film production and processing, and founded Eastman Kodak. Between 1912 and 1920, Eastman donated $20 million ($236.2 million in 2015 dollars) in cash and Kodak stock to MIT.[42]

Curricular reforms

In the 1930s, President Karl Taylor Compton and Vice-President (effectively Provost) Vannevar Bush emphasized the importance of pure sciences like physics and chemistry and reduced the vocational practice required in shops and drafting studios.[43] The Compton reforms "renewed confidence in the ability of the Institute to develop leadership in science as well as in engineering."[44] Unlike Ivy League schools, MIT catered more to middle-class families, and depended more on tuition than on endowments or grants for its funding.[45] The school was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1934.[46]

Still, as late as 1949, the Lewis Committee lamented in its report on the state of education at MIT that "the Institute is widely conceived as basically a vocational school", a "partly unjustified" perception the committee sought to change. The report comprehensively reviewed the undergraduate curriculum, recommended offering a broader education, and warned against letting engineering and government-sponsored research detract from the sciences and humanities.[47][48] The School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences and the MIT Sloan School of Management were formed in 1950 to compete with the powerful Schools of Science and Engineering. Previously marginalized faculties in the areas of economics, management, political science, and linguistics emerged into cohesive and assertive departments by attracting respected professors and launching competitive graduate programs.[49][50] The School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences continued to develop under the successive terms of the more humanistically oriented presidents Howard W. Johnson and Jerome Wiesner between 1966 and 1980.[51]

Defense research

MIT's involvement in military research surged during World War II. In 1941, Vannevar Bush was appointed head of the federal Office of Scientific Research and Development and directed funding to only a select group of universities, including MIT.[52] Engineers and scientists from across the country gathered at MIT's Radiation Laboratory, established in 1940 to assist the British military in developing microwave radar. The work done there significantly affected both the war and subsequent research in the area.[53] Other defense projects included gyroscope-based and other complex control systems for gunsight, bombsight, and inertial navigation under Charles Stark Draper's Instrumentation Laboratory;[54][55] the development of a digital computer for flight simulations under Project Whirlwind;[56] and high-speed and high-altitude photography under Harold Edgerton.[57][58] By the end of the war, MIT became the nation's largest wartime R&D contractor (attracting some criticism of Bush),[52] employing nearly 4000 in the Radiation Laboratory alone[53] and receiving in excess of $100 million ($1.2 billion in 2015 dollars) before 1946.[44] Work on defense projects continued even after then. Post-war government-sponsored research at MIT included SAGE and guidance systems for ballistic missiles and Project Apollo.[59]

...a special type of educational institution which can be defined as a university polarized around science, engineering, and the arts. We might call it a university limited in its objectives but unlimited in the breadth and the thoroughness with which it pursues these objectives.
— MIT president James Rhyne Killian, 1949[60]

These activities affected MIT profoundly. A 1949 report noted the lack of "any great slackening in the pace of life at the Institute" to match the return to peacetime, remembering the "academic tranquility of the prewar years", though acknowledging the significant contributions of military research to the increased emphasis on graduate education and rapid growth of personnel and facilities.[61] The faculty doubled and the graduate student body quintupled during the terms of Karl Taylor Compton, president of MIT between 1930 and 1948; James Rhyne Killian, president from 1948 to 1957; and Julius Adams Stratton, chancellor from 1952 to 1957, whose institution-building strategies shaped the expanding university. By the 1950s, MIT no longer simply benefited the industries with which it had worked for three decades, and it had developed closer working relationships with new patrons, philanthropic foundations and the federal government.[62]

In late 1960s and early 1970s, student and faculty activists protested against the Vietnam War and MIT's defense research.[63][64] In this period MIT's various departments were researching helicopters, smart bombs and counterinsurgency techniques for the war in Vietnam as well as guidance systems for nuclear missiles.[65] The Union of Concerned Scientists was founded on March 4, 1969 during a meeting of faculty members and students seeking to shift the emphasis on military research toward environmental and social problems.[66] MIT ultimately divested itself from the Instrumentation Laboratory and moved all classified research off-campus to the Lincoln Laboratory facility in 1973 in response to the protests.[67][68] The student body, faculty, and administration remained comparatively unpolarized during what was a tumultuous time for many other universities.[63] Johnson was seen to be highly successful in leading his institution to "greater strength and unity" after these times of turmoil.[69] However six MIT students were sentenced to prison terms at this time and some former student leaders, such as Michael Albert and George Katsiaficas, are still indignant about MIT's role in military research and its suppression of these protests.[70] (Richard Leacock's film, November Actions, records some of these tumultuous events.[71])

Recent history

The MIT Media Lab houses researchers developing novel uses of computer technology. Shown here is the 1982 building, designed by I.M. Pei, with an extension (right of photo) designed by Fumihiko Maki opened in March 2010.

MIT has kept pace with and helped to advance the digital age. In addition to developing the predecessors to modern computing and networking technologies,[72][73] students, staff, and faculty members at Project MAC, the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, and the Tech Model Railroad Club wrote some of the earliest interactive computer video games like Spacewar! and created much of modern hacker slang and culture.[74] Several major computer-related organizations have originated at MIT since the 1980s: Richard Stallman's GNU Project and the subsequent Free Software Foundation were founded in the mid-1980s at the AI Lab; the MIT Media Lab was founded in 1985 by Nicholas Negroponte and Jerome Wiesner to promote research into novel uses of computer technology;[75] the World Wide Web Consortium standards organization was founded at the Laboratory for Computer Science in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee;[76] the OpenCourseWare project has made course materials for over 2,000 MIT classes available online free of charge since 2002;[77] and the One Laptop per Child initiative to expand computer education and connectivity to children worldwide was launched in 2005.[78]

MIT was named a sea-grant college in 1976 to support its programs in oceanography and marine sciences and was named a space-grant college in 1989 to support its aeronautics and astronautics programs.[79][80] Despite diminishing government financial support over the past quarter century, MIT launched several successful development campaigns to significantly expand the campus: new dormitories and athletics buildings on west campus; the Tang Center for Management Education; several buildings in the northeast corner of campus supporting research into biology, brain and cognitive sciences, genomics, biotechnology, and cancer research; and a number of new "backlot" buildings on Vassar Street including the Stata Center.[81] Construction on campus in the 2000s included expansions of the Media Lab, the Sloan School's eastern campus, and graduate residences in the northwest.[82][83] In 2006, President Hockfield launched the MIT Energy Research Council to investigate the interdisciplinary challenges posed by increasing global energy consumption.[84]

In 2001, inspired by the open source and open access movements,[85] MIT launched OpenCourseWare to make the lecture notes, problem sets, syllabuses, exams, and lectures from the great majority of its courses available online for no charge, though without any formal accreditation for coursework completed.[86] While the cost of supporting and hosting the project is high,[87] OCW expanded in 2005 to include other universities as a part of the OpenCourseWare Consortium, which currently includes more than 250 academic institutions with content available in at least six languages.[88] In 2011, MIT announced it would offer formal certification (but not credits or degrees) to online participants completing coursework in its "MITx" program, for a modest fee.[89] The "edX" online platform supporting MITx was initially developed in partnership with Harvard and its analogous "Harvardx" initiative. The courseware platform is open source, and other universities have already joined and added their own course content.[90]

Three days after the Boston Marathon bombing of April 2013, MIT Police patrol officer Sean Collier was fatally shot by the suspects Dzhokhar and Tamerlan Tsarnaev, setting off a violent manhunt that shut down the campus and much of the Boston metropolitan area for a day.[91] One week later, Collier's memorial service was attended by more than 10,000 people, in a ceremony hosted by the MIT community with thousands of police officers from the New England region and Canada.[92][93][94] On November 25, 2013, MIT announced the creation of the Collier Medal, to be awarded annually to "an individual or group that embodies the character and qualities that Officer Collier exhibited as a member of the MIT community and in all aspects of his life". The announcement further stated that "Future recipients of the award will include those whose contributions exceed the boundaries of their profession, those who have contributed to building bridges across the community, and those who consistently and selflessly perform acts of kindness".[95][96][97]

Campus

Main article: Campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The central and eastern sections of MIT's campus as seen from above Massachusetts Avenue and the Charles River. Left of center is the Great Dome overlooking Killian Court, with Kendall Square to the upper right.
MIT's Building 10 and Great Dome overlooking Killian Court

MIT's 168-acre (68.0 ha) campus in the city of Cambridge spans approximately a mile along the north side of the Charles River basin.[6] The campus is divided roughly in half by Massachusetts Avenue, with most dormitories and student life facilities to the west and most academic buildings to the east. The bridge closest to MIT is the Harvard Bridge, which is known for being marked off in a non-standard unit of length – the smoot.[98][99]

The Kendall MBTA Red Line station is located on the northeastern edge of the campus, in Kendall Square. The Cambridge neighborhoods surrounding MIT are a mixture of high tech companies occupying both modern office and rehabilitated industrial buildings, as well as socio-economically diverse residential neighborhoods.[100][101] In early 2016, MIT presented its updated Kendall Square Initiative to the City of Cambridge, with plans for mixed-use educational, retail, residential, startup incubator, and office space in a dense high-rise transit-oriented development plan.[102][103] The MIT Museum will eventually be moved immediately adjacent to a Kendall Square subway entrance, joining the List Visual Arts Center on the eastern end of the campus.[103][104]

Each building at MIT has a number (possibly preceded by a W, N, E, or NW) designation and most have a name as well. Typically, academic and office buildings are referred to primarily by number while residence halls are referred to by name. The organization of building numbers roughly corresponds to the order in which the buildings were built and their location relative (north, west, and east) to the original center cluster of Maclaurin buildings.[105] Many of the buildings are connected above ground as well as through an extensive network of underground tunnels, providing protection from the Cambridge weather as well as a venue for roof and tunnel hacking.[106][107]

MIT's on-campus nuclear reactor[108] is one of the most powerful university-based nuclear reactors in the United States. The prominence of the reactor's containment building in a densely populated area has been controversial,[109] but MIT maintains that it is well-secured.[110] In 1999 Bill Gates donated US$20 million to MIT for the construction of a computer laboratory named the "William H. Gates Building", and designed by architect Frank O. Gehry. While Microsoft had previously given financial support to the institution, this was the first personal donation received from Gates.[111]

Other notable campus facilities include a pressurized wind tunnel and a towing tank for testing ship and ocean structure designs.[112][113] MIT's campus-wide wireless network was completed in the fall of 2005 and consists of nearly 3,000 access points covering 9,400,000 square feet (870,000 m2) of campus.[114]

In 2001, the Environmental Protection Agency sued MIT for violating the Clean Water Act and the Clean Air Act with regard to its hazardous waste storage and disposal procedures.[115] MIT settled the suit by paying a $155,000 fine and launching three environmental projects.[116] In connection with capital campaigns to expand the campus, the Institute has also extensively renovated existing buildings to improve their energy efficiency. MIT has also taken steps to reduce its environmental impact by running alternative fuel campus shuttles, subsidizing public transportation passes, and building a low-emission cogeneration plant that serves most of the campus electricity, heating, and cooling requirements.[117]

The MIT Police with state and local authorities, in the 2009-2011 period, have investigated reports of 12 forcible sex offenses, 6 robberies, 3 aggravated assaults, 164 burglaries, 1 case of arson, and 4 cases of motor vehicle theft on campus; affecting a community of around 22,000 students and employees.[118]

Architecture

The Stata Center houses CSAIL, LIDS, and the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy

MIT's School of Architecture, now the School of Architecture and Planning, was the first in the United States,[119] and it has a history of commissioning progressive buildings.[120][121] The first buildings constructed on the Cambridge campus, completed in 1916, are sometimes called the "Maclaurin buildings" after Institute president Richard Maclaurin who oversaw their construction. Designed by William Welles Bosworth, these imposing buildings were built of reinforced concrete, a first for a non-industrial – much less university – building in the US.[122] Bosworth's design was influenced by the City Beautiful Movement of the early 1900s,[122] and features the Pantheon-esque Great Dome housing the Barker Engineering Library. The Great Dome overlooks Killian Court, where graduation ceremonies are held each year. The friezes of the limestone-clad buildings around Killian Court are engraved with the names of important scientists and philosophers.[a] The spacious Building 7 atrium at 77 Massachusetts Avenue is regarded as the entrance to the Infinite Corridor and the rest of the campus.[101]

Alvar Aalto's Baker House (1947), Eero Saarinen's MIT Chapel and Kresge Auditorium (1955), and I.M. Pei's Green, Dreyfus, Landau, and Wiesner buildings represent high forms of post-war modernist architecture.[125][126][127] More recent buildings like Frank Gehry's Stata Center (2004), Steven Holl's Simmons Hall (2002), Charles Correa's Building 46 (2005), and Fumihiko Maki's Media Lab Extension (2009) stand out among the Boston area's classical architecture and serve as examples of contemporary campus "starchitecture".[120][128] These buildings have not always been well received;[129][130] in 2010, The Princeton Review included MIT in a list of twenty schools whose campuses are "tiny, unsightly, or both".[131]

Housing

Main article: Housing at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Simmons Hall undergrad dormitory was completed in 2002

Undergraduates are guaranteed four-year housing in one of MIT's 12 undergraduate dormitories.[132] Those living on campus can receive support and mentoring from live-in graduate student tutors, resident advisors, and faculty housemasters.[133] Because housing assignments are made based on the preferences of the students themselves, diverse social atmospheres can be sustained in different living groups; for example, according to the Yale Daily News staff's The Insider's Guide to the Colleges, 2010, "The split between East Campus and West Campus is a significant characteristic of MIT. East Campus has gained a reputation as a thriving counterculture."[134] MIT also has 5 dormitories for single graduate students and 2 apartment buildings on campus for married student families.[135]

MIT has an active Greek and co-op housing system, including thirty-six fraternities, sororities, and independent living groups (FSILGs).[136] As of 2015, 98% of all undergraduates lived in MIT-affiliated housing; 54% of the men participated in fraternities and 20% of the women were involved in sororities.[137] Most FSILGs are located across the river in Back Bay near where MIT was founded, and there is also a cluster of fraternities on MIT's West Campus that face the Charles River Basin.[138] After the 1997 alcohol-related death of Scott Krueger, a new pledge at the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity, MIT required all freshmen to live in the dormitory system starting in 2002.[139] Because FSILGs had previously housed as many as 300 freshmen off-campus, the new policy could not be implemented until Simmons Hall opened in that year.[140]

Organization and administration

Lobby 7 (at 77 Massachusetts Avenue) is regarded as the main entrance to campus

MIT is chartered as a non-profit organization and is owned and governed by a privately appointed board of trustees known as the MIT Corporation.[141] The current board consists of 43 members elected to five-year terms,[142] 25 life members who vote until their 75th birthday,[143] 3 elected officers (President, Treasurer, and Secretary),[144] and 4 ex officio members (the president of the alumni association, the Governor of Massachusetts, the Massachusetts Secretary of Education, and the Chief Justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court).[145][146] The board is chaired by Robert Millard, a co-founder of L-3 Communications Holdings.[147][148] The Corporation approves the budget, new programs, degrees and faculty appointments, and elects the President to serve as the chief executive officer of the university and preside over the Institute's faculty.[101][149] MIT's endowment and other financial assets are managed through a subsidiary called MIT Investment Management Company (MITIMCo).[150] Valued at $9.7 billion in 2011, MIT's endowment is the sixth-largest among American colleges and universities.[151][152]

MIT has five schools (Science, Engineering, Architecture and Planning, Management, and Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences) and one college (Whitaker College of Health Sciences and Technology), but no schools of law or medicine.[153][b] While faculty committees assert substantial control over many areas of MIT's curriculum, research, student life, and administrative affairs,[155] the chair of each of MIT's 32 academic departments reports to the dean of that department's school, who in turn reports to the Provost under the President.[156] The current president is L. Rafael Reif, who formerly served as provost under President Susan Hockfield, the first woman to hold the post.[157][158]

Academics

MIT is a large, highly residential, research university with a majority of enrollments in graduate and professional programs.[159] The university has been accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges since 1929.[160][161] MIT operates on a 4–1–4 academic calendar with the fall semester beginning after Labor Day and ending in mid-December, a 4-week "Independent Activities Period" in the month of January, and the spring semester beginning in early February and ending in late May.[162]

MIT students refer to both their majors and classes using numbers or acronyms alone.[163] Departments and their corresponding majors are numbered in the approximate order of their foundation; for example, Civil and Environmental Engineering is Course 1, while Linguistics and Philosophy is Course 24.[164] Students majoring in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), the most popular department, collectively identify themselves as "Course 6". MIT students use a combination of the department's course number and the number assigned to the class to identify their subjects; the introductory calculus-based classical mechanics course is simply "8.01" at MIT.[165][c]

Undergraduate program

The four-year, full-time undergraduate program maintains a balance between professional majors and those in the arts and sciences, and has been dubbed "most selective" by U.S. News,[168] admitting few transfer students[159] and 8.0% of its applicants in the 2015 admissions cycle.[169] MIT offers 44 undergraduate degrees across its five schools.[170] In the 2010–2011 academic year, 1,161 bachelor of science degrees (abbreviated "SB") were granted, the only type of undergraduate degree MIT now awards.[171][172] In the 2011 fall term, among students who had designated a major, the School of Engineering was the most popular division, enrolling 63% of students in its 19 degree programs, followed by the School of Science (29%), School of Humanities, Arts, & Social Sciences (3.7%), Sloan School of Management (3.3%), and School of Architecture and Planning (2%). The largest undergraduate degree programs were in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (Course 6–2), Computer Science and Engineering (Course 6–3), Mechanical Engineering (Course 2), Physics (Course 8), and Mathematics (Course 18).[166]

The Infinite Corridor is the primary passageway through campus

All undergraduates are required to complete a core curriculum called the General Institute Requirements (GIRs).[173] The Science Requirement, generally completed during freshman year as prerequisites for classes in science and engineering majors, comprises two semesters of physics, two semesters of calculus, one semester of chemistry, and one semester of biology. There is a Laboratory Requirement, usually satisfied by an appropriate class in a course major. The Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences (HASS) Requirement consists of eight semesters of classes in the humanities, arts, and social sciences, including at least one semester from each division as well as the courses required for a designated concentration in a HASS division. Under the Communication Requirement, two of the HASS classes, plus two of the classes taken in the designated major must be "communication-intensive",[174] including "substantial instruction and practice in oral presentation".[175] Finally, all students are required to complete a swimming test;[176] non-varsity athletes must also take four quarters of physical education classes.[173]

Most classes rely on a combination of lectures, recitations led by associate professors or graduate students, weekly problem sets ("p-sets"), and periodic quizzes or tests. While the pace and difficulty of MIT coursework has been compared to "drinking from a fire hose",[177][178] the freshmen retention rate at MIT is similar to other research universities.[168] The "pass/no-record" grading system relieves some pressure for first-year undergraduates. For each class taken in the fall term, freshmen transcripts will either report only that the class was passed, or otherwise not have any record of it. In the spring term, passing grades (A, B, C) appear on the transcript while non-passing grades are again not recorded.[179] (Grading had previously been "pass/no record" all freshman year, but was amended for the Class of 2006 to prevent students from gaming the system by completing required major classes in their freshman year.[180]) Also, freshmen may choose to join alternative learning communities, such as Experimental Study Group, Concourse, or Terrascope.[179]

In 1969, Margaret MacVicar founded the Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP) to enable undergraduates to collaborate directly with faculty members and researchers. Students join or initiate research projects ("UROPs") for academic credit, pay, or on a volunteer basis through postings on the UROP website or by contacting faculty members directly.[181] A substantial majority of undergraduates participate.[182][183] Students often become published, file patent applications, and/or launch start-up companies based upon their experience in UROPs.[184][185]

In 1970, the then-Dean of Institute Relations, Benson R. Snyder, published The Hidden Curriculum, arguing that education at MIT was often slighted in favor of following a set of unwritten expectations, and that graduating with good grades was more often the product of figuring out the system rather than a solid education. The successful student, according to Snyder, was the one who was able to discern which of the formal requirements were to be ignored in favor of which unstated norms. For example, organized student groups had compiled "course bibles"—collections of problem-set and examination questions and answers for later students to use as references. This sort of gamesmanship, Snyder argued, hindered development of a creative intellect and contributed to student discontent and unrest.[186][187]

Robert Engman's Möbius Strip hanging from the crown of the Barker Engineering Library's reading room located inside the Great Dome. As of 2013, it has been removed.

Graduate program

MIT's graduate program has high coexistence with the undergraduate program, and many courses are taken by qualified students at both levels. MIT offers a comprehensive doctoral program with degrees in the humanities, social sciences, and STEM fields as well as professional degrees.[159] The Institute offers graduate programs leading to academic degrees such as the Master of Science (MS), various Engineer's Degrees, Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), and Doctor of Science (ScD) and interdisciplinary graduate programs such as the MD-PhD (with Harvard Medical School).[188][189]

Admission to graduate programs is decentralized; applicants apply directly to the department or degree program. More than 90% of doctoral students are supported by fellowships, research assistantships (RAs), or teaching assistantships (TAs).[190]

MIT awarded 1,547 master's degrees and 609 doctoral degrees in the academic year 2010–11.[171] In the 2011 fall term, the School of Engineering was the most popular academic division, enrolling 45.0% of graduate students, followed by the Sloan School of Management (19%), School of Science (16.9%), School of Architecture and Planning (9.2%), Whitaker College of Health Sciences (5.1%),[d] and School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences (4.7%). The largest graduate degree programs were the Sloan MBA, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, and Mechanical Engineering.[166]

University rankings

University rankings
National
ARWU[191] 3
Forbes[192] 5
U.S. News & World Report[193] 7
Washington Monthly[194] 15
Global
ARWU[195] 3
QS[196] 1
Times[197] 5
U.S. News & World Report[198] 2

MIT places among the top ten in many overall rankings of universities (see right) and rankings based on students' revealed preferences.[199][200][201] For several years, U.S. News & World Report, the QS World University Rankings, and the Academic Ranking of World Universities have ranked MIT's School of Engineering first, as did the 1995 National Research Council report.[202] In the same lists, MIT's strongest showings apart from in engineering are in computer science, the natural sciences, business, economics, linguistics, mathematics, and, to a lesser extent, political science and philosophy.[10][11][12][13][203]

In 2014, Money magazine ranked MIT as third in the US "Best Colleges for Your Money", based on its assessment of "the most bang for your tuition buck", factoring in quality of education, affordability, and career outcomes.[204] As of 2014, Forbes magazine rated MIT as the second "Most Entrepreneurial University", based on the percentage of alumni and students self-identifying as founders or business owners on LinkedIn.[205] In 2015, Brookings Fellow Jonathan Rothwell issued a report "Beyond College Rankings", placing MIT as third in the US, with an estimated 45% value-added to mid-career salary.[206]

Collaborations

Eero Saarinen's Kresge Auditorium (1955) is a classic example of post-war architecture

The university historically pioneered research and training collaborations between academia, industry and government.[207][208]  In 1946, President Compton, Harvard Business School professor Georges Doriot, and Massachusetts Investor Trust chairman Merrill Grisswold founded American Research and Development Corporation, the first American venture-capital firm.[209][210]  In 1948, Compton established the MIT Industrial Liaison Program.[211]  Throughout the late 1980s and early 1990s, American politicians and business leaders accused MIT and other universities of contributing to a declining economy by transferring taxpayer-funded research and technology to international – especially Japanese — firms that were competing with struggling American businesses.[212][213] On the other hand, MIT's extensive collaboration with the federal government on research projects has led to several MIT leaders serving as presidential scientific advisers since 1940.[e] MIT established a Washington Office in 1991 to continue effective lobbying for research funding and national science policy.[215][216]

The U.S. Justice Department began an investigation in 1989, and in 1991 filed an antitrust suit against MIT, the eight Ivy League colleges, and eleven other institutions for allegedly engaging in price-fixing during their annual "Overlap Meetings", which were held to prevent bidding wars over promising prospective students from consuming funds for need-based scholarships.[217][218] While the Ivy League institutions settled,[219] MIT contested the charges, arguing that the practice was not anti-competitive because it ensured the availability of aid for the greatest number of students.[220][221] MIT ultimately prevailed when the Justice Department dropped the case in 1994.[222][223]

Walker Memorial is a monument to MIT's fourth president, Francis Amasa Walker
MIT main campus, seen from Vassar Street. The Great Dome is visible in the distance, and the Stata Center is at right.

MIT's proximity[f] to Harvard University ("the other school up the river") has led to a substantial number of research collaborations such as the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology and the Broad Institute.[224] In addition, students at the two schools can cross-register for credits toward their own school's degrees without any additional fees.[224] A cross-registration program between MIT and Wellesley College has also existed since 1969, and in 2002 the Cambridge–MIT Institute launched an undergraduate exchange program between MIT and the University of Cambridge.[224] MIT has more modest cross-registration programs with Boston University, Brandeis University, Tufts University, Massachusetts College of Art, and the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.[224]

MIT maintains substantial research and faculty ties with independent research organizations in the Boston area, such as the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Ongoing international research and educational collaborations include the Singapore-MIT Alliance, MIT-Politecnico di Milano,[224][225] MIT-Zaragoza International Logistics Program, and projects in other countries through the MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) program.[224][226]

The mass-market magazine Technology Review is published by MIT through a subsidiary company, as is a special edition that also serves as an alumni magazine.[227][228] The MIT Press is a major university press, publishing over 200 books and 30 journals annually, emphasizing science and technology as well as arts, architecture, new media, current events, and social issues.[229]

Libraries, collections and museums

See also: Campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology § Artwork

The MIT library system consists of five subject libraries: Barker (Engineering), Dewey (Economics), Hayden (Humanities and Science), Lewis (Music), and Rotch (Arts and Architecture). There are also various specialized libraries and archives. The libraries contain more than 2.9 million printed volumes, 2.4 million microforms, 49,000 print or electronic journal subscriptions, and 670 reference databases. The past decade has seen a trend of increased focus on digital over print resources in the libraries.[230] Notable collections include the Lewis Music Library with an emphasis on 20th and 21st-century music and electronic music,[231] the List Visual Arts Center's rotating exhibitions of contemporary art,[232] and the Compton Gallery's cross-disciplinary exhibitions.[233] MIT allocates a percentage of the budget for all new construction and renovation to commission and support its extensive public art and outdoor sculpture collection.[234][235]

The MIT Museum was founded in 1971 and collects, preserves, and exhibits artifacts significant to the culture and history of MIT. The Museum now engages in significant educational outreach programs for the general public, including the annual Cambridge Science Festival, the first celebration of this kind in the United States. Since 2005, its official mission has been, "to engage the wider community with MIT's science, technology and other areas of scholarship in ways that will best serve the nation and the world in the 21st century".[236]

Research

MIT was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1934 and remains a research university with a very high level of research activity;[46][159] research expenditures totaled $718.2 million in 2009.[237] The federal government was the largest source of sponsored research, with the Department of Health and Human Services granting $255.9 million, Department of Defense $97.5 million, Department of Energy $65.8 million, National Science Foundation $61.4 million, and NASA $27.4 million.[237] MIT employs approximately 1300 researchers in addition to faculty.[238] In 2011, MIT faculty and researchers disclosed 632 inventions, were issued 153 patents, earned $85.4 million in cash income, and received $69.6 million in royalties.[239] Through programs like the Deshpande Center, MIT faculty leverage their research and discoveries into multi-million-dollar commercial ventures.[240]

The GNU project and free software movement originated at MIT

In electronics, magnetic core memory, radar, single electron transistors, and inertial guidance controls were invented or substantially developed by MIT researchers.[241][242] Harold Eugene Edgerton was a pioneer in high speed photography and sonar.[243][244] Claude E. Shannon developed much of modern information theory and discovered the application of Boolean logic to digital circuit design theory.[245] In the domain of computer science, MIT faculty and researchers made fundamental contributions to cybernetics, artificial intelligence, computer languages, machine learning, robotics, and cryptography.[242][246] At least nine Turing Award laureates and seven recipients of the Draper Prize in engineering have been or are currently associated with MIT.[247][248]

Current and previous physics faculty have won eight Nobel Prizes,[249] four Dirac Medals,[250] and three Wolf Prizes predominantly for their contributions to subatomic and quantum theory.[251] Members of the chemistry department have been awarded three Nobel Prizes and one Wolf Prize for the discovery of novel syntheses and methods.[249] MIT biologists have been awarded six Nobel Prizes for their contributions to genetics, immunology, oncology, and molecular biology.[249] Professor Eric Lander was one of the principal leaders of the Human Genome Project.[252][253] Positronium atoms,[254] synthetic penicillin,[255] synthetic self-replicating molecules,[256] and the genetic bases for Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (also known as ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease) and Huntington's disease were first discovered at MIT.[257] Jerome Lettvin transformed the study of cognitive science with his paper "What the frog's eye tells the frog's brain".[258]

In the domain of humanities, arts, and social sciences, MIT economists have been awarded five Nobel Prizes and nine John Bates Clark Medals.[249][259] Linguists Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle authored seminal texts on generative grammar and phonology.[260][261] The MIT Media Lab, founded in 1985 within the School of Architecture and Planning and known for its unconventional research,[262][263] has been home to influential researchers such as constructivist educator and Logo creator Seymour Papert.[264]

Spanning many of the above fields, MacArthur Fellowships (the so-called "Genius Grants") have been awarded to 38 people associated with MIT.[265] Four Pulitzer Prize–winning writers currently work at or have retired from MIT.[266] Four current or former faculty are members of the American Academy of Arts and Letters.[267]

Allegations of research misconduct or improprieties have received substantial press coverage. Professor David Baltimore, a Nobel Laureate, became embroiled in a misconduct investigation starting in 1986 that led to Congressional hearings in 1991.[268][269] Professor Ted Postol has accused the MIT administration since 2000 of attempting to whitewash potential research misconduct at the Lincoln Lab facility involving a ballistic missile defense test, though a final investigation into the matter has not been completed.[270][271] Associate Professor Luk Van Parijs was dismissed in 2005 following allegations of scientific misconduct and found guilty of the same by the United States Office of Research Integrity in 2009.[272][273] Researchers developed a system to convert MRI scans into 3D printed physical models.[274]

Traditions and student activities

Main articles: Traditions and student activities at MIT and MIT class ring
See also: MIT in popular culture

The faculty and student body place a high value on meritocracy and on technical proficiency.[275][276] MIT has never awarded an honorary degree, nor does it award athletic scholarships, ad eundem degrees, or Latin honors upon graduation.[277] However, MIT has twice awarded honorary professorships: to Winston Churchill in 1949 and Salman Rushdie in 1993.[278]

Many upperclass students and alumni wear a large, heavy, distinctive class ring known as the "Brass Rat".[279][280] Originally created in 1929, the ring's official name is the "Standard Technology Ring."[281] The undergraduate ring design (a separate graduate student version exists as well) varies slightly from year to year to reflect the unique character of the MIT experience for that class, but always features a three-piece design, with the MIT seal and the class year each appearing on a separate face, flanking a large rectangular bezel bearing an image of a beaver.[279] The initialism IHTFP, representing the informal school motto "I Hate This Fucking Place" and jocularly euphemized as "I Have Truly Found Paradise," "Institute Has The Finest Professors," "It's Hard to Fondle Penguins," and other variations, has occasionally been featured on the ring given its historical prominence in student culture.[282]

Activities

Main article: Traditions and student activities at MIT
See also: Hacks at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The start of the MIT Mystery Hunt in 2007

MIT has over 500 recognized student activity groups,[283] including a campus radio station, The Tech student newspaper, an annual entrepreneurship competition, and weekly screenings of popular films by the Lecture Series Committee. Less traditional activities include the "world's largest open-shelf collection of science fiction" in English, a model railroad club, and a vibrant folk dance scene. Students, faculty, and staff are involved in over 50 educational outreach and public service programs through the MIT Museum, Edgerton Center, and MIT Public Service Center.[284]

The Independent Activities Period is a four-week-long "term" offering hundreds of optional classes, lectures, demonstrations, and other activities throughout the month of January between the Fall and Spring semesters. Some of the most popular recurring IAP activities are the 6.270, 6.370, and MasLab competitions,[285] the annual "mystery hunt",[286] and Charm School.[287][288] More than 250 students pursue externships annually at companies in the US and abroad.[289][290]

Many MIT students also engage in "hacking", which encompasses both the physical exploration of areas that are generally off-limits (such as rooftops and steam tunnels), as well as elaborate practical jokes.[291][292] Recent high-profile hacks have included the abduction of Caltech's cannon,[293] reconstructing a Wright Flyer atop the Great Dome,[294] and adorning the John Harvard statue with the Master Chief's Mjölnir Helmet.[295]

Athletics

Main article: MIT Engineers
The Zesiger sports and fitness center houses a two-story fitness center as well as swimming and diving pools

MIT sponsors 31 varsity sports and has one of the three broadest NCAA Division III athletic programs.[296][297]  MIT participates in the NCAA's Division III, the New England Women's and Men's Athletic Conference, the New England Football Conference, the Pilgrim League for men's lacrosse, NCAA's Division I Eastern Association of Women's Rowing Colleges (EAWRC) for women's crew, and the Collegiate Water Polo Association (CWPA) for Men's Water Polo. Men's crew competes outside the NCAA in the Eastern Association of Rowing Colleges (EARC). In April 2009, budget cuts lead to MIT eliminating eight of its 41 sports, including the mixed men's and women's teams in alpine skiing and pistol; separate teams for men and women in ice hockey and gymnastics; and men's programs in golf and wrestling.[298][299]

People

Students

Demographics of MIT student body[166][300][301]
Undergraduate Graduate
White American 34% 40.8%
Asian American 30% 9.4%
Hispanic American 15% 3.3%
African American 10% 2.1%
Native American 1.0% 0.4%
Other/International 8% 44.0%

MIT enrolled 4,384 undergraduates and 6,510 graduate students in 2011–2012.[166] Women constituted 45 percent of undergraduate students.[166][302] Undergraduate and graduate students were drawn from all 50 states as well as 115 foreign countries.[303]

MIT received 17,909 applications for admission to the undergraduate Class of 2015; 1,742 were admitted (9.7 percent) and 1128 enrolled (64.8 percent).[137] 19,446 applications were received for graduate and advanced degree program across all departments; 2,991 were admitted (15.4 percent) and 1,880 enrolled (62.8 percent).[304]

The interquartile range on the SAT was 2090–2340 and 97 percent of students ranked in the top tenth of their high school graduating class.[137] 97 percent of the Class of 2012 returned as sophomores; 82 percent of the Class of 2007 graduated within 4 years, and 93 percent (91 percent of the men and 95 percent of the women) graduated within 6 years.[137][305]

Undergraduate tuition and fees total $40,732 and annual expenses are estimated at $52,507 as of 2012. 62 percent of students received need-based financial aid in the form of scholarships and grants from federal, state, institutional, and external sources averaging $38,964 per student.[306] Students were awarded a total of $102 million in scholarships and grants, primarily from institutional support ($84 million).[137] The annual increase in expenses has led to a student tradition (dating back to the 1960s) of tongue-in-cheek "tuition riots".[307]

MIT has been nominally co-educational since admitting Ellen Swallow Richards in 1870. Richards also became the first female member of MIT's faculty, specializing in sanitary chemistry.[308] Female students remained a minority prior to the completion of the first wing of a women's dormitory, McCormick Hall, in 1963.[309][310][311] Between 1993 and 2009, the proportion of women rose from 34 percent to 45 percent of undergraduates and from 20 percent to 31 percent of graduate students.[166][312] Women currently outnumber men in Biology, Brain & Cognitive Sciences, Architecture, Urban Planning, and Biological Engineering.[166][302]

A number of student deaths in the late 1990s and early 2000s resulted in considerable media attention to MIT's culture and student life.[313][314] After the alcohol-related death of Scott Krueger in September 1997 as a new member at the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity,[315] MIT began requiring all freshmen to live in the dormitory system.[315][316] The 2000 suicide of MIT undergraduate Elizabeth Shin drew attention to suicides at MIT and created a controversy over whether MIT had an unusually high suicide rate.[317][318] In late 2001 a task force's recommended improvements in student mental health services were implemented,[319][320] including expanding staff and operating hours at the mental health center.[321] These and later cases were significant as well because they sought to prove the negligence and liability of university administrators in loco parentis.[317]

Faculty and staff

Main article: List of Massachusetts Institute of Technology faculty
Institute Professors Emeriti and Nobel Laureates (from left to right) Franco Modigliani (deceased), Paul Samuelson (also deceased), and Robert Solow (picture taken in 2000)

As of 2013, MIT had 1,030 faculty members, of whom 225 were women.[4] Faculty are responsible for lecturing classes, advising both graduate and undergraduate students, and sitting on academic committees, as well as conducting original research. Between 1964 and 2009, a total of seventeen faculty and staff members affiliated with MIT were awarded Nobel Prizes (thirteen in the last 25 years).[322] MIT faculty members past or present have won a total of twenty-seven Nobel Prizes, the majority in Economics or Physics.[323] As of October 2013, among current faculty and teaching staff there are 67 Guggenheim Fellows, 6 Fulbright Scholars, and 22 MacArthur Fellows.[4] Faculty members who have made extraordinary contributions to their research field as well as the MIT community are granted appointments as Institute Professors for the remainder of their tenures.

A 1998 MIT study concluded that a systemic bias against female faculty existed in its School of Science,[324] although the study's methods were controversial.[325][326] Since the study, though, women have headed departments within the Schools of Science and of Engineering, and MIT has appointed several female vice presidents, although allegations of sexism continue to be made.[327] Susan Hockfield, a molecular neurobiologist, was MIT's president from 2004 to 2012 and was the first woman to hold the post.[158]

Tenure outcomes have vaulted MIT into the national spotlight on several occasions. The 1984 dismissal of David F. Noble, a historian of technology, became a cause célèbre about the extent to which academics are granted freedom of speech after he published several books and papers critical of MIT's and other research universities' reliance upon financial support from corporations and the military.[328] Former materials science professor Gretchen Kalonji sued MIT in 1994 alleging that she was denied tenure because of sexual discrimination. Several years later, the lawsuit was settled with undisclosed payments, and establishment of a project to encourage women and minorities to seek faculty positions.[327][329][330] In 1997, the Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination issued a probable cause finding supporting UMass Boston Professor James Jennings' allegations of racial discrimination after a senior faculty search committee in the Department of Urban Studies and Planning did not offer him reciprocal tenure.[331] In 2006–2007, MIT's denial of tenure to African-American stem cell scientist professor James Sherley reignited accusations of racism in the tenure process, eventually leading to a protracted public dispute with the administration, a brief hunger strike, and the resignation of Professor Frank L. Douglas in protest.[332][333] April Simpson of The Boston Globe reported on February 6, 2007: "Less than half of MIT's junior faculty members are granted tenure. After Sherley was initially denied tenure, his case was examined three times before the university established that neither racial discrimination nor conflict of interest affected the decision. Twenty-one of Sherley's colleagues issued a statement yesterday saying that the professor was treated fairly in tenure review."[334]

MIT faculty members have often been recruited to lead other colleges and universities. Founding faculty member Charles W. Eliot was recruited in 1869 to become president of Harvard University, a post he would hold for 40 years, during which he wielded considerable influence on both American higher education and secondary education. MIT alumnus and faculty member George Ellery Hale played a central role in the development of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and other faculty members have been key founders of Franklin W. Olin College of Engineering in nearby Needham, Massachusetts.

As of 2014, former provost Robert A. Brown is president of Boston University; former provost Mark Wrighton is chancellor of Washington University in St. Louis; former associate provost Alice Gast is president of Lehigh University; and former professor Suh Nam-pyo is president of KAIST. Former dean of the School of Science Robert J. Birgeneau was the chancellor of the University of California, Berkeley (2004–2013); former professor John Maeda was president of Rhode Island School of Design (RISD, 2008–2013); former professor David Baltimore was president of Caltech (1997–2006); and MIT alumnus and former assistant professor Hans Mark served as chancellor of the University of Texas system (1984–1992).

In addition, faculty members have been recruited to lead governmental agencies; for example, former professor Marcia McNutt is president of the National Academy of Sciences,[335] urban studies professor Xavier de Souza Briggs is currently the associate director of the White House Office of Management and Budget,[336] and biology professor Eric Lander is a co-chair of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology.[337] In 2013, faculty member Ernest Moniz was nominated by President Obama and later confirmed as United States Secretary of Energy.[338][339] Former professor Hans Mark served as Secretary of the Air Force from 1979 to 1981. Alumna and Institute Professor Sheila Widnall served as Secretary of the Air Force between 1993 and 1997, making her the first female Secretary of the Air Force and first woman to lead an entire branch of the US military in the Department of Defense.

Based on feedback from employees, MIT was ranked #7 as a place to work, among US colleges and universities as of 2013.[340] Surveys cited a "smart", "creative", "friendly" environment, noting that the work-life balance tilts towards a "strong work ethic", but complaining about "low pay".[341]

Notable alumni

Main article: List of Massachusetts Institute of Technology alumni

Many of MIT's over 120,000 alumni have had considerable success in scientific research, public service, education, and business. As of 2014, 27 MIT alumni have won the Nobel Prize, 47 have been selected as Rhodes Scholars, and 61 have been selected as Marshall Scholars.[342]

Alumni in American politics and public service include former Chairman of the Federal Reserve Ben Bernanke, former MA-1 Representative John Olver, former CA-13 Representative Pete Stark, former National Economic Council chairman Lawrence H. Summers, and former Council of Economic Advisors chairwoman Christina Romer. MIT alumni in international politics include Foreign Affairs Minister of Iran Ali Akbar Salehi, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, President of Colombia Virgilio Barco Vargas, President of the European Central Bank Mario Draghi, Governor of the Reserve Bank of India Raghuram Rajan, former British Foreign Minister David Miliband, former Greek Prime Minister Lucas Papademos, former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, and former Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister Ahmed Chalabi.

MIT alumni founded or co-founded many notable companies, such as Intel, McDonnell Douglas, Texas Instruments, 3Com, Qualcomm, Bose, Raytheon, Koch Industries, Rockwell International, Genentech, Dropbox, and Campbell Soup. According to the British newspaper, The Guardian, "a survey of living MIT alumni found that they have formed 25,800 companies, employing more than three million people including about a quarter of the workforce of Silicon Valley. Those firms collectively generate global revenues of about $1.9 trillion (£1.2 trillion) a year. If MIT were a country, it would have the 11th highest GDP of any nation in the world."[343][344][345]

Prominent institutions of higher education have been led by MIT alumni, including the University of California system, Harvard University, New York Institute of Technology, Johns Hopkins University, Carnegie Mellon University, Tufts University, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rhode Island School of Design (RISD), Northeastern University, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Purdue University, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, KAIST, and Quaid-e-Azam University. Berklee College of Music, the largest independent college of contemporary music in the world, was founded and led by MIT alumnus Lawrence Berk for more than three decades.

More than one third of the United States' manned spaceflights have included MIT-educated astronauts (among them Apollo 11 Lunar Module Pilot Buzz Aldrin), more than any university excluding the United States service academies.[346] Alumnus and former faculty member Qian Xuesen was instrumental in the PRC rocket program.[347]

Noted alumni in non-scientific fields include author Hugh Lofting,[348] sculptor Daniel Chester French, guitarist Tom Scholz of the band Boston, the British BBC and ITN correspondent and political advisor David Walter, The New York Times columnist and Nobel Prize Winning economist Paul Krugman, The Bell Curve author Charles Murray, United States Supreme Court building architect Cass Gilbert,[349] Pritzker Prize-winning architects I.M. Pei and Gordon Bunshaft.