- a brief statement that presents the main points in a concise form; "he gave a summary of the conclusions" (同)sum-up
- give an abstract (of)
- not representing or imitating external reality or the objects of nature; "a large abstract painting" (同)abstractionist, nonfigurative, nonobjective
- consider a concept without thinking of a specific example; consider abstractly or theoretically
- consider apart from a particular case or instance; "Lets abstract away from this particular example"
- dealing with a subject in the abstract without practical purpose or intention; "abstract reasoning"; "abstract science"
- existing only in the mind; separated from embodiment; "abstract words like `truth and `justice"
- of short duration or distance; "a brief stay in the country"
- a document stating the facts and points of law of a clients case (同)legal brief
- a condensed written summary or abstract
- concise and succinct; "covered the matter in a brief statement"
- give essential information to someone; "The reporters were briefed about the Presidents plan to invade"
- a quantity of money; "he borrowed a large sum"; "the amount he had in cash was insufficient" (同)sum of money, amount, amount of money
- the whole amount (同)total, totality, aggregate
- a quantity obtained by the addition of a group of numbers (同)amount, total
- the final aggregate; "the sum of all our troubles did not equal the misery they suffered" (同)summation, sum total
- the line that appears to bound an object (同)lineation
- a schematic or preliminary plan (同)schema, scheme
- a sketchy summary of the main points of an argument or theory (同)synopsis, abstract, precis
- (music) the repetition of themes introduced earlier (especially when one is composing the final part of a movement)
- a summary at the end that repeats the substance of a longer discussion (同)recap, review
- (music) the section of a composition or movement (especially in sonata form) in which musical themes that were introduced earlier are repeated
- a judgment rendered by the court prior to a verdict because no material issue of fact exists and one party or the other is entitled to a judgment as a matter of law (同)summary judgement, judgment on the pleadings, judgement on the pleadings
- (…の)『要約』,摘要 概要《+of+名》 / 『用約した』,かいつまんだ;手短の / (裁判などか)略式の,即決の
- 『抽象的な』 / 理論的な,観念的な / (美術において)抽象派の / 〈U〉抽象 / 〈C〉抜粋,摘要(summary) / 〈C〉抽象美術作品 / (いくつかのものから)〈ある概念〉'を'抽象する,抽出する《+『名』+『from』+『名』》 / 〈本・スピーチなど〉'を'要約する(summarize),抜粋する / (…から)〈金属など〉'を'抽出する,分離する《+『名』+『from』+『名』》
- 『短時間の』;短期間の(short) / 言葉数の少ない,簡潔な / (弁護士が裁判所に提出する)弁輪趣意書 / 《複数形で》(下着の)ブリーフ / 〈人〉‘に'必要な指示(情報)を与える / ‥‘を'要約する
- 〈C〉《the sum》(数・量の)『合形』,総計(sum total)《+of+名》 / 〈U〉《時に a sum》(抽象的なことの)全体《+of+名》 / 〈C〉《形容詞をつけて》(…の)『額』《+of+名》 / 〈C〉《話》算数,算数の問題 / 〈U〉《the sum》(…の)要約,要旨《+of+名》 / …‘を'『合計する』《+up+名,+名+up》 / 合計して…になる《+up to+名》
- (物の)『輪郭』,外形《+『of』+『名』》 / (…の)輪郭図,線画,略図《+『of』+『名』》 / (話・でき事などの)『概要』,あらまし;《複数形で》(…の)要点,眼目《+『of』+『名』》 / …‘の'『輪郭を描く』,略図を描く / …‘の'概要を述へる,‘を'概説する
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- The European Medicines Agency approval of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (Ameluz) for the treatment of actinic keratosis of mild to moderate intensity on the face and scalp: summary of the scientific assessment of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use.
- Tzogani K1, Straube M, Hoppe U, Kiely P, O'Dea G, Enzmann H, Salmon P, Salmonson T, Pignatti F.Author information 1European Medicines Agency , London.AbstractThe European Commission has recently issued a marketing authorisation valid throughout the European Union for 5-aminolaevulinic acid (Ameluz). The decision was based on the favorable opinion of the CHMP recommending a marketing authorization for 5-aminolaevulinic acid for treatment of actinic keratosis of mild to moderate intensity on the face and scalp. The active substance is a sensitizer used in photodynamic/radiation therapy (ATC code L01XD04). The gel should cover the lesions and approximately 5 mm of the surrounding area with a film of about 1 mm thickness. The entire treatment area should be illuminated with a red light source, either with a narrow spectrum around 630 nm and a light dose of approximately 37 J/cm(2) or a broader and continuous spectrum in the range between 570 and 670 nm with a light dose between 75 and 200 J/cm(2). One session of photodynamic therapy should be administered for single or multiple lesions. Non- or partially responding lesions should be retreated in a second session 3 months after the first treatment. 5-aminolaevulinic acid is metabolized to protoporphyrin IX, a photoactive compound which accumulates intracellularly in the treated actinic keratosis lesions. Protoporphyrin IX is activated by illumination with red light of a suitable wavelength and energy. In the presence of oxygen, reactive oxygen species are formed which causes damage of cellular components and eventually destroys the target cells. The benefit with 5-aminolaevulinic acid is its ability to improve the complete response rate of actinic keratosis lesions. The most common side effects are reactions at the site of application. The objective of this article is to summarize the scientific review of the application. The detailed scientific assessment report and product information, including the summary of product characteristics (SmPC), are available on the EMA website (www.ema.europa.eu).
- The Journal of dermatological treatment.J Dermatolog Treat.2014 Oct;25(5):371-4. doi: 10.3109/09546634.2013.789474. Epub 2013 May 21.
- The European Commission has recently issued a marketing authorisation valid throughout the European Union for 5-aminolaevulinic acid (Ameluz). The decision was based on the favorable opinion of the CHMP recommending a marketing authorization for 5-aminolaevulinic acid for treatment of actinic kerato
- PMID 23550714
- Genistein Modulates Proliferation and Mitochondrial Functionality in Breast Cancer Cells Depending on ERalpha/ERbeta Ratio.
- Pons DG1, Nadal-Serrano M, Blanquer-Rossello MM, Sastre-Serra J, Oliver J, Roca P.Author information 1Grupo Multidisciplinar de Oncología Traslacional, Institut Universitari d'Investigació en Ciències de la Salut (IUNICS), Palma de Mallorca, Illes Balears, Spain; Ciber Fisiopatología Obesidad y Nutrición (CB06/03), Instituto Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.AbstractBreast cancer is the most common malignancy in women of developed countries. The aim of this study was to investigate whether genistein, a soy phytoestrogen, and 17β-estradiol (E2) could have effects on the cell cycle and mitochondrial function and dynamics. Three human breast cancer cell lines with different estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) ratio were used: MCF-7 (high ERα/ERβ ratio), T47D (low ERα/ERβ ratio) and MDA-MB-231 (ER-negative). Cell proliferation, cell cycle, mitochondrial functionality, and mitochondrial dynamics parameters were analyzed. E2 and genistein treatment induced cell proliferation and apoptosis inhibition in MCF-7, but not in T47D and MDA-MB-231. Moreover, genistein treatment produced an up-regulation of ERβ and a rise in cytochrome c oxidase activity in T47D cells, decreasing the ATP synthase/cytochrome c oxidase ratio. Finally, genistein treatment produced a drop in mitochondrial dynamics only in MCF-7 cells. In summary, the beneficial effects of genistein consumption depend on the ERα/ERβ ratio in breast cells. Therefore, genistein treatment produces cell cycle arrest and an improvement of mitochondrial functionality in T47D cells with a low ERα/ERβ ratio, but not in MCF-7 (high ERα/ERβ ratio) and MDA-MB-231 (ER-negative) ones. J. Cell. Biochem. 115: 949-958, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Journal of cellular biochemistry.J Cell Biochem.2014 May;115(5):949-58. doi: 10.1002/jcb.24737.
- Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women of developed countries. The aim of this study was to investigate whether genistein, a soy phytoestrogen, and 17β-estradiol (E2) could have effects on the cell cycle and mitochondrial function and dynamics. Three human breast cancer cell lines wit
- PMID 24375531
- Long Noncoding RNAs Expression Profile of the Developing Mouse Heart.
- Zhu JG1, Shen YH, Liu HL, Liu M, Shen YQ, Kong XQ, Song GX, Qian LM.Author information 1Department of Pediatrics, Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210029, People's Republic of China.AbstractLong noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) represent a sub-group of noncoding RNAs that are longer than 200 nucleotides. The characterization of lncRNAs and their acceptance as crucial regulators of numerous developmental and biological pathways have suggested that the lncRNA study has gradually become one of the hot topics in the field of RNA biology. Many lncRNAs show spatially and temporally restricted expression patterns during embryogenesis and organogenesis. This study aimed to characterize the lncRNA profile of the fetal mouse heart at three key time points (embryonic day E11.5, E14.5, and E18.5) in its development, by performing a microarray lncRNAs screen. Gene Ontology analysis and ingenuity pathway analysis showed some significant gene functions and pathways were altered in heart development process. We compared lncRNAs profile between the three points (E14.5 vs. E11.5 [early development]; E18.5 vs. E14.5 [later development]). A total of 1,237 lncRNAs were found to have consistent fold changes (>2.0) between the three time points. Among them, 20 dysregulated lncRNAs were randomly selected and confirmed by real-time qRT-PCR. Additionally, bioinformatics analysis of AK011347 suggested it may be involved in heart development through the target gene Map3k7. In summary, this study identified differentially expressed lncRNAs in the three time points studied, and these lncRNAs may provide a new clue of mechanism of normal heart development. J. Cell. Biochem. 115: 910-918, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Journal of cellular biochemistry.J Cell Biochem.2014 May;115(5):910-8. doi: 10.1002/jcb.24733.
- Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) represent a sub-group of noncoding RNAs that are longer than 200 nucleotides. The characterization of lncRNAs and their acceptance as crucial regulators of numerous developmental and biological pathways have suggested that the lncRNA study has gradually become one of th
- PMID 24375461
- Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 modulates cyclooxygenase 2 and the inflammatory response in idiopathic and genetic Parkinson's disease.
- Lopez de Maturana R1, Aguila JC1, Sousa A1, Vazquez N1, Del Rio P1, Aiastui A2, Gorostidi A2, Lopez de Munain A3, Sanchez-Pernaute R4.Author information 1Laboratory of Stem Cells and Neural Repair, Fundación Inbiomed, San Sebastián, Spain.2Neuroscience Area, Biodonostia Institute, San Sebastián, Spain.3Neuroscience Area, Biodonostia Institute, San Sebastián, Spain; Department of Neurology, Hospital Universitario Donostia, San Sebastián, Spain; Deparment of Neurosciences, University of the Basque Country, San Sebastián, Spain; CIBERNED (Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas), Carlos III Institute, Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, San Sebastián, Spain.4Laboratory of Stem Cells and Neural Repair, Fundación Inbiomed, San Sebastián, Spain. Electronic address: email@example.com.AbstractInflammatory mechanisms are activated in aging and late-onset neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) contribute to both idiopathic and familial forms of PD. Here, we investigated the involvement of LRRK2 in inflammatory pathways using primary dermal fibroblasts from patients with 2 common mutations in LRRK2 (G2019S and R1441G), idiopathic PD and age-matched healthy individuals. Basal cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 RNA levels were very high in the fibroblasts of all patients. Remarkably, LRRK2 silencing experiments significantly reduced basal COX-2 levels and COX-2 induction after a pro-inflammatory stimulus. Additionally, in samples from patients with the R1441G mutation and with idiopathic PD, we found a prominent cytoplasmic re-distribution of human antigen R, a protein that, among others, stabilizes COX-2 RNA. Furthermore, the response to lipopolysaccharide was defective in these 2 groups, which showed weak induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduced NFκB transcriptional activation. In summary, we describe multiple defects in inflammatory pathways in which LRRK2 appears to be critically involved. Further studies are required to establish the therapeutic implications of inflammatory dysregulation in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease.
- Neurobiology of aging.Neurobiol Aging.2014 May;35(5):1116-24. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2013.11.018. Epub 2013 Nov 22.
- Inflammatory mechanisms are activated in aging and late-onset neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) contribute to both idiopathic and familial forms of PD. Here, we investigated the involvement of LRRK2 in inflammatory pathway
- PMID 24360742
- Towards statistical modeling of tsunami occurrence with regional frequency analysis
- Hosking Jonathan R. M.
- Journal of Math-for-Industry 4(A), 41-48, 2012-4-8
- … The computations are typically based on L-moments, which are summary statistics that have good properties of efficiency and robustness for describing data from heavy-tailed probability distributions. …
- NAID 120004094700
- 村瀬 潤
- 低温科学 70, 131-136, 2012-03-31
- … In summary, 1)Methane emission from northern wetland is reduced in winter partly by snowpack and methane is accumulated in the soil under snow;snow melt causes a “burst”of methane emission in spring. …
- NAID 120003994084
- abstract, brevis, briefly, outline, recapitulate, recapitulation, short, short duration, short term, short-term, sum, summarize, summary, synopses, synopsis
- abstract, brief, outline, recapitulation, recycle, recycling, reuse, reutilize, salvage, sum, summarize, summary, synopses, synopsis
- laboratory research、research、research activity、research and development、research priority、research technique、work
Summary of Product Characteristics