- overthrow or destroy (something considered evil or harmful); "The police smashed the drug ring after they were tipped off"
- break into pieces, as by striking or knocking over; "Smash a plate" (同)dash
- break suddenly into pieces, as from a violent blow; "The window smashed"
- a serious collision (especially of motor vehicles) (同)smash-up
- hit hard; "He smashed a 3-run homer" (同)nail, boom, blast
- with a loud crash; "the car went smash through the fence" (同)smashingly
- collide or strike violently and suddenly; "The motorcycle smashed into the guard rail"
- hit (a tennis ball) in a powerful overhead stroke
- hit violently; "She smashed her car against the guard rail"
- a very attractive or seductive looking woman (同)stunner, knockout, beauty, ravisher, sweetheart, peach, lulu, looker, mantrap, dish
- a person who smashes something
- the act of breaking something into small pieces (同)shattering
- …‘を'『粉々にする』(shatter);…‘を'打ち砕いて(…に)する《+『名』+『to』(『into』)+『名』》・…‘を'ガン(ガシャン)と打つ(打ちつける);…‘の'(…を)強打する《+『名』+『on』+『名』》・…‘を'完全に壊する,打ち負かす《+『名』+『up,』+『up』+『名』》 / (テニス・卓球などで)〈球〉‘を'スマッシュできめる・〈物が〉『粉々に砕ける』《+『up』》;砕けて(…に)なる《+『to』(『into』)+『名』》・(…に)ガン(ガシャン)とぶつかる,衝突する《+『into』(『through』,『against』)+『名』》・(テニス・卓球などで)スマッシュを打つ / (…が)『粉々になること』,粉砕,衝突;(物の)壊れる音,(衝突の)大音響《+『of』+『名』(do『ing』)》・大成功,大当たり / (テニス・卓球などで)スマッシュ・大成功の,大当たりの・ガシャンと;まともに
- 粉砕工(機) / 強打;墜落 / 《英話》すてきな人(物)
- (車・列車などの)衝突 / 大失敗;崩壊;破産
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- A nanoparticle formulation reduces the corneal toxicity of indomethacin eye drops and enhances its corneal permeability.
- Nagai N1, Ito Y2, Okamoto N3, Shimomura Y3.Author information 1Faculty of Pharmacy, Kinki University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502, Japan.2Faculty of Pharmacy, Kinki University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502, Japan. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.orgDepartment of Ophthalmology, Kinki University, Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-Higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511, Japan.AbstractIndomethacin (IMC) has been shown to reduce post-operative inflammation and to decrease intraocular irritation after cataract extraction and in cystoid macular edema; however, the clinical use of its most commonly used eye drops is limited due to topical side-effects that include burning sensation, irritation and epithelial keratitis. It is known that decreasing direct cell stimulation and reducing the amount applied via increasing bioavailability are useful for improving these issues. In this study, we designed ophthalmic formulations containing 0.5% IMC nanoparticles using zirconia beads and Bead Smash 12 (IMCnano eye drops; particle size 76±59nm, mean±S.D.), and investigated the corneal toxicity of these IMCnano eye drops. IMCnano eye drops are tolerated better by a human cornea epithelial cell line (HCE-T) than commercially available NDSAIDs preparations (IMC, pranoprofen, diclofenac, bromfenac and nepafenac eye drops), and corneal wound healing in rat eyes with debrided corneal epithelium instilled with IMCnano eye drops is significantly better than that of eyes instilled with commercially available IMC eye drops. In addition, the accumulation of IMC in HCE-T cells treated with the IMCnano eye drops for 30min was 19.9% that of the accumulation from commercially available IMC eye drops. On the other hand, the corneal penetration of IMC from IMCnano eye drops was significantly greater than in the case of the commercially available IMC eye drops in both in vivo and in vitro studies using rabbit corneas. Taken together, we hypothesize that a nanoparticle formulation reduces the corneal toxicity of IMC eye drops, probably because the accumulation of IMC from IMCnano eye drops in the eye is lower than that from commercially available IMC eye drops. In addition, the nanoparticle formulation may allow a decrease in the amount of IMC used due to the increase in bioavailability, resulting in reduced drug toxicity. These findings provide significant information that can be used to design further studies aimed at developing less toxic eye drops.
- Toxicology.Toxicology.2014 May 7;319:53-62. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2014.02.012. Epub 2014 Mar 2.
- Indomethacin (IMC) has been shown to reduce post-operative inflammation and to decrease intraocular irritation after cataract extraction and in cystoid macular edema; however, the clinical use of its most commonly used eye drops is limited due to topical side-effects that include burning sensation,
- PMID 24598350
- Discovery of recurrent structural variants in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
- Valouev A1, Weng Z, Sweeney RT, Varma S, Le QT, Kong C, Sidow A, West RB.Author information 1Division of Bioinformatics, Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90087, USA;AbstractWe present the discovery of genes recurrently involved in structural variation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and the identification of a novel type of somatic structural variant. We identified the variants with high complexity mate-pair libraries and a novel computational algorithm specifically designed for tumor-normal comparisons, SMASH. SMASH combines signals from split reads and mate-pair discordance to detect somatic structural variants. We demonstrate a >90% validation rate and a breakpoint reconstruction accuracy of 3 bp by Sanger sequencing. Our approach identified three in-frame gene fusions (YAP1-MAML2, PTPLB-RSRC1, and SP3-PTK2) that had strong levels of expression in corresponding NPC tissues. We found two cases of a novel type of structural variant, which we call "coupled inversion," one of which produced the YAP1-MAML2 fusion. To investigate whether the identified fusion genes are recurrent, we performed fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to screen 196 independent NPC cases. We observed recurrent rearrangements of MAML2 (three cases), PTK2 (six cases), and SP3 (two cases), corresponding to a combined rate of structural variation recurrence of 6% among tested NPC tissues.
- Genome research.Genome Res.2014 Feb;24(2):300-9. doi: 10.1101/gr.156224.113. Epub 2013 Nov 8.
- We present the discovery of genes recurrently involved in structural variation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and the identification of a novel type of somatic structural variant. We identified the variants with high complexity mate-pair libraries and a novel computational algorithm specifically
- PMID 24214394
- How to best smash a snail: the effect of tooth shape on crushing load.
- Crofts SB1, Summers AP.Author information 1Department of Biology, University of Washington, , Seattle, WA 98195-1800, USA.AbstractOrganisms that are durophagous, hard prey consumers, have a diversity of tooth forms. To determine why we see this variation, we tested whether some tooth forms break shells better than others. We measured the force needed with three series of aluminium tooth models, which varied in concavity and the morphology of a stress concentrating cusp, to break a shell. We created functionally identical copies of two intertidal snail shells: the thicker shelled Nucella ostrina and the more ornamented Nucella lamellosa using a three-dimensional printer. In this way, we reduced variation in material properties between test shells, allowing us to test only the interaction of the experimental teeth with the two shell morphologies. We found that for all tooth shapes, thicker shells are harder to break than the thinner shells and that increased ornamentation has no discernible effect. Our results show that for both shell morphologies, domed and flat teeth break shells better than cupped teeth, and teeth with tall or skinny cusps break shells best. While our results indicate that there is an ideal tooth form for shell breaking, we do not see this shape in nature. This suggests a probable trade-off between tooth function and the structural integrity of the tooth.
- Journal of the Royal Society, Interface / the Royal Society.J R Soc Interface.2014 Jan 15;11(92):20131053. doi: 10.1098/rsif.2013.1053. Print 2014 Mar 6.
- Organisms that are durophagous, hard prey consumers, have a diversity of tooth forms. To determine why we see this variation, we tested whether some tooth forms break shells better than others. We measured the force needed with three series of aluminium tooth models, which varied in concavity and th
- PMID 24430124
- Therapeutic effects of gel ointments containing tranilast nanoparticles on paw edema in adjuvant-induced arthritis rats.
- Nagai N1, Ito Y.Author information 1School of Pharmacy, Kinki University.AbstractTranilast (TL), an antiallergic agent, has been clinically used in the treatment of bronchial asthma, although its clinical use has been limited by its poor solubility in water, photodegradation and systemic side effects. In this study, we prepared a gel ointment containing TL nanoparticles (TLnano gel ointment), and investigated its usefulness. In addition, we demonstrated the preventive effects of the TLnano gel ointment on inflammation in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) rats. The TLnano gel ointment was prepared using Bead Smash 12 (a bead mill) and additives including sodium docusate, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, methylcellulose and Carbopol 934; the mean particle diameter of the TL nanoparticles was 71.0±25.4 nm. In in vitro skin penetration experiments, the amount of penetrated TL, the penetration rate (Jc) and the penetration coefficient through the skin (Kp) of the TLnano gel ointment were significantly higher than those of a gel ointment containing TL microparticles (TLmicro gel ointment; particle diameter 50.5±26.3 µm). The TL concentrations in the skin tissue and plasma of rats receiving the TLnano gel ointment were also higher than in rats receiving the TLmicro gel ointment. In addition, the application of the TLnano gel ointment attenuated the increase in paw edema of the hind feet of AA rats in comparison with AA rats treated with the TLmicro gel ointment. These results suggest that TL nanoparticles can be applied to the formulation of a transdermal system, and that a transdermal formulation using TL nanoparticles might be a delivery option for the clinical treatment of RA.
- Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin.Biol Pharm Bull.2014;37(1):96-104.
- Tranilast (TL), an antiallergic agent, has been clinically used in the treatment of bronchial asthma, although its clinical use has been limited by its poor solubility in water, photodegradation and systemic side effects. In this study, we prepared a gel ointment containing TL nanoparticles (TLnano
- PMID 24389486
- Therapeutic Effects of Gel Ointments Containing Tranilast Nanoparticles on Paw Edema in Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis Rats
- Nagai Noriaki,Ito Yoshimasa
- Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 37(1), 96-104, 2014
- … The TLnano gel ointment was prepared using Bead Smash 12 (a bead mill) and additives including sodium docusate, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, methylcellulose and Carbopol 934; …
- NAID 130003382107
- 兒嶋 昇,升 佑二郎,野瀬 朋洋,Masu Yujiro,野瀬 朋洋,Nose Tomohiro
- 法政大学スポーツ健康学研究 4, 39-46, 2013-03
- … Furthermore, during regular training, it may be important to reduce the burden on the shoulder by not performing smash training on a daily basis. …
- NAID 120005255273
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