- of or relating to recreation; "a recreational area with a pool and ball fields"
- a motorized wheeled vehicle used for camping or other recreational activities (同)RV, R.V.
- a room equipped for informal entertaining (同)rec room
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- Effects of caffeine and menthol on cognition and mood during simulated firefighting in the heat.
- Zhang Y1, Balilionis G2, Casaru C2, Geary C2, Schumacker RE3, Neggers YH4, Curtner-Smith MD2, Richardson MT2, Bishop PA2, Green JM5.Author information 1Department of Kinesiology, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.orgDepartment of Kinesiology, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA.3Department of Educational Studies in Psychology, Research Methodology, and Counseling, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA.4Department of Human Nutrition, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA.5Department of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, University of North Alabama, Florence, AL 35632, USA.AbstractThis study examined the separate effects of caffeine and menthol on cognition and mood during simulated firefighting in the heat. Participants (N = 10) performed three trials in a counterbalanced order, either with 400 mg caffeine, menthol lozenges, or placebo. The simulated firefighting consisted of 2 bouts of 20-min treadmill exercise and one bout of 20-min stepping exercise in the heat with two brief 15-min rest periods between each exercise phase. Exercise induced significant dehydration (>3%) and elevated rectal temperature (>38.9 °C), for all three conditions. Neither caffeine nor menthol reduced perceived exertion compared to placebo (p > 0.05). Mood ratings (i.e., alertness, hedonic tone, tension) significantly deteriorated over time (p < 0.05), but there was no difference among the three conditions. Simple reaction time, short-term memory, and retrieval memory did not alter with treatments or repeated evaluations. Reaction accuracy from a math test remained unchanged throughout the experimental period; reaction time from the math test was significantly faster after exposure to the heat (p < 0.05). It is concluded that, exhaustive exercise in the heat severely impacted mood, but minimally impacted cognition. These treatments failed to show ergogenic benefits in a simulated firefighting paradigm in a hot environment.
- Applied ergonomics.Appl Ergon.2014 May;45(3):510-4. doi: 10.1016/j.apergo.2013.07.005. Epub 2013 Jul 26.
- This study examined the separate effects of caffeine and menthol on cognition and mood during simulated firefighting in the heat. Participants (N = 10) performed three trials in a counterbalanced order, either with 400 mg caffeine, menthol lozenges, or placebo. The simulated firefighting consiste
- PMID 23891504
- Transforming Pinus pinaster forest to recreation site: preliminary effects on LAI, some forest floor, and soil properties.
- Oztürk M1, Bolat I.Author information 1Division of Landscape Techniques, Department of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Forestry, Bartın University, Room no: 314, 74100, Bartın, Turkey, email@example.com.AbstractThis study investigates the effects of forest transformation into recreation site. A fragment of a Pinus pinaster plantation forest was transferred to a recreation site in the city of Bartın located close to the Black Sea coast of northwestern Turkey. During the transformation, some of the trees were selectively removed from the forest to generate more open spaces for the recreationists. As a result, Leaf Area Index (LAI) decreased by 0.20 (about 11 %). Additionally, roads and pathways were introduced into the site together with some recreational equipment sealing parts of the soil surface. Consequently, forest environment was altered with a semi-natural landscape within the recreation site. The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of forest transformation into recreation site particularly in terms of the LAI parameter, forest floor, and soil properties. Preliminary monitoring results indicate that forest floor biomass is reduced by 26 % in the recreation site compared to the control site. Soil temperature is increased by 15 % in the recreation site where selective removal of trees expanded the gaps allowing more light transmission. On the other hand, the soil bulk density which is an indicator of soil compaction is unexpectedly slightly lower in the recreation site. Organic carbon (Corg) and total nitrogen (Ntotal) together with the other physical and chemical parameter values indicate that forest floor and soil have not been exposed to much disturbance. However, subsequent removal of trees that would threaten the vegetation, forest floor, and soil should not be allowed. The activities of the recreationists are to be concentrated on the paved spaces rather than soil surfaces. Furthermore, long-term monitoring and management is necessary for both the observation and conservation of the site.
- Environmental monitoring and assessment.Environ Monit Assess.2014 Apr;186(4):2563-72. doi: 10.1007/s10661-013-3560-1. Epub 2013 Dec 4.
- This study investigates the effects of forest transformation into recreation site. A fragment of a Pinus pinaster plantation forest was transferred to a recreation site in the city of Bartın located close to the Black Sea coast of northwestern Turkey. During the transformation, some of the trees we
- PMID 24306444
- Outbreak of leptospirosis after white-water rafting: sign of a shift from rural to recreational leptospirosis in Sri Lanka?
- Agampodi SB1, Karunarathna D1, Jayathilala N1, Rathnayaka H1, Agampodi TC1, Karunanayaka L2.Author information 1Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Rajarata University, Sri Lanka.2Medical Research Institute, Sri Lanka.AbstractSUMMARY This paper reports the first recreation-related leptospirosis outbreak in Sri Lanka in 20 office workers who were involved in white-water rafting during a staff outing. Two weeks after the rafting event on 7 September 2012, six participants developed fever, of which four had classical clinical features of leptospirosis. Four weeks after the exposure, an outbreak investigation was conducted for 19 of the 20 participants. Of the six fever patients, four were confirmed as having acute leptospirosis using either single sample MAT titre ⩾1/400 (n = 2) or positive IgM ELISA (n = 2). An afebrile patient with headache and myalgia also had a MAT titre ⩾1/400. Seventeen of the 19 participants investigated showed anti-leptospiral antibodies. None of the participants had a history of leptospirosis or recent outdoor exposures other than the rafting event. This outbreak provides evidence of the changing epidemiology of leptospirosis and suggests a wider range of risk exposures including those related to recreational activities of more affluent urban populations in addition to the well recognized occupational hazards of rural farming.
- Epidemiology and infection.Epidemiol Infect.2014 Apr;142(4):843-6. doi: 10.1017/S0950268813001465. Epub 2013 Jun 26.
- SUMMARY This paper reports the first recreation-related leptospirosis outbreak in Sri Lanka in 20 office workers who were involved in white-water rafting during a staff outing. Two weeks after the rafting event on 7 September 2012, six participants developed fever, of which four had classical clinic
- PMID 23800619
- 文化選擇和"地方"的再生產 : "泛中國文化"的建構
- 陳 志勤
- 164, 232-254, 2013-12-24
- … Therefore, the recreation of the image of 'Shui Xiang Gu Zhen (i.e., Ancient Canal Towns)' can be conducted. …
- NAID 120005367866
- A Proposal for Source Tracking of Fecal Pollution in Recreational Waters by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis
- FURUKAWA TAKASHI,SUZUKI YOSHIHIRO
- Microbes and environments 28(4), 444-449, 2013-12
- NAID 40019926804
- 多様なレクリエーション機会の提供という視点からみた自然公園管理のあり方 : 十和田八幡平国立公園八幡平地区を事例としたROS手法の適用
- ABCが大好きな40代の夫婦です。全曲視聴しました。やっぱりyasuは声が素晴らしいです。親世代の私たちが聞いていて胸が熱くなり涙が出てきます。夫はさっそく予約しました。大学生の息子も予約したそうです。全世代の皆様に聞いて ...