- class switching、isotype switching
- elegance in dress or behavior; "she has a lot of class"
- a collection of things sharing a common attribute; "there are two classes of detergents" (同)category, family
- a league ranked by quality; "he played baseball in class D for two years"; "Princeton is in the NCAA Division 1-AA" (同)division
- a body of students who are taught together; "early morning classes are always sleepy" (同)form, grade, course
- people having the same social, economic, or educational status; "the working class"; "an emerging professional class" (同)stratum, social_class, socio-economic class
- a body of students who graduate together; "the class of 97"; "she was in my year at Hoehandle High" (同)year
- (biology) a taxonomic group containing one or more orders
- a class of proteins produced in lymph tissue in vertebrates and that function as antibodies in the immune response (同)Ig, immune serum globulin, immune gamma globulin, immune_globulin
- 〈C〉(何らかの類似性を持つ)(…の)『種類』,類(sort, kind)《+『of』+『名』》 / 〈C〉《集合的に》《単数扱い》『クラス』,学級,組 / 〈U〉〈C〉(クラス単位の)『授業』;授業時間 / 〈C〉《米》《集合的に》(主に高校・大学の)同期生 / 〈C〉《しばしば複数形で》(同程度の教育・経済力・社会的地位などを持つ)『階級』,階層 / 〈C〉(交通機関などの)『等級』 / 〈C〉(英国の大学の)試験の合格等級 / 〈C〉綱(こう)(動植物の分類で門(phylum, division)と目(もく)(order)の間) / 〈U〉《話》(その人の社会的地位を高く見せる)風格 / …'を'(…の)部類に入れる《+『名』+『among』(『with』)+『名』》,(…として)…'を'分類する《+『名』+『as』+『名』》
全文を閲覧するには購読必要です。 To read the full text you will need to subscribe.
- Nonredundant function of soluble LTα3 produced by innate lymphoid cells in intestinal homeostasis.
- Kruglov AA, Grivennikov SI, Kuprash DV, Winsauer C, Prepens S, Seleznik GM, Eberl G, Littman DR, Heikenwalder M, Tumanov AV, Nedospasov SA.Author information German Rheumatism Research Center (DRFZ), a Leibniz Institute, Berlin 10117, Germany.AbstractImmunoglobulin A (IgA) production at mucosal surfaces contributes to protection against pathogens and controls intestinal microbiota composition. However, mechanisms regulating IgA induction are not completely defined. We show that soluble lymphotoxin α (sLTα3) produced by RORγt(+) innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) controls T cell-dependent IgA induction in the lamina propria via regulation of T cell homing to the gut. By contrast, membrane-bound lymphotoxin β (LTα1β2) produced by RORγt(+) ILCs is critical for T cell-independent IgA induction in the lamina propria via control of dendritic cell functions. Ablation of LTα in RORγt(+) cells abrogated IgA production in the gut and altered microbiota composition. Thus, soluble and membrane-bound lymphotoxins produced by ILCs distinctly organize adaptive immune responses in the gut and control commensal microbiota composition.
- Science (New York, N.Y.).Science.2013 Dec 6;342(6163):1243-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1243364.
- Immunoglobulin A (IgA) production at mucosal surfaces contributes to protection against pathogens and controls intestinal microbiota composition. However, mechanisms regulating IgA induction are not completely defined. We show that soluble lymphotoxin α (sLTα3) produced by RORγt(+) innate lymphoi
- PMID 24311691
- Myeloma stem cell concepts, heterogeneity and plasticity of multiple myeloma.
- Hajek R, Okubote SA, Svachova H.Author information Babak Myeloma Group, Department of Pathological Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; Department of Haemato-oncology, University Hospital Ostrava, Ostrava, Czech Republic; Department of Clinical Haematology, University Hospital Brno, Brno, Czech Republic; Faculty of Medicine, University of Ostrava, Ostrava, Czech Republic.AbstractMultiple myeloma (MM) is a haematological malignancy characterized by the accumulation of clonal plasma cells (PCs) in the bone marrow (BM). Although novel therapeutic strategies have prolonged survival of patients, the disease remains difficult to treat with a high risk of relapse. The failure of therapy is thought to be associated with a persistent population of the so-called MM stem cells or myeloma initiating cells (MIC) that exhibit tumour-initiating potential, self-renewal and resistance to chemotherapy. However, the population responsible for the origin and sustainability of tumour mass has not been clearly characterized so far. This review summarizes current myeloma stem cell concepts and suggests that high phenotypic and intra-clonal heterogeneity, together with plasticity potential of MM might be other contributing factors explaining discrepancies among particular concepts and contributing to the treatment failure.
- British journal of haematology.Br J Haematol.2013 Dec;163(5):551-64. doi: 10.1111/bjh.12563. Epub 2013 Sep 20.
- Multiple myeloma (MM) is a haematological malignancy characterized by the accumulation of clonal plasma cells (PCs) in the bone marrow (BM). Although novel therapeutic strategies have prolonged survival of patients, the disease remains difficult to treat with a high risk of relapse. The failure of t
- PMID 24111932
- Addendum: IgE+ memory B cells and plasma cells generated through a germinal-center pathway.
- Talay O, Yan D, Brightbill HD, Straney EE, Zhou M, Ladi E, Lee WP, Egen JG, Austin CD, Xu M, Wu LC.
- Nature immunology.Nat Immunol.2013 Dec;14(12):1302-4. doi: 10.1038/ni.2770.
- PMID 24240161
- IgA Production and Tonsillar Focal Infection in IgA Nephropathy
- MENG Hongxue,OHTAKE Hiroya,ISHIDA Akihiro,OHTA Nobuo,KAKEHATA Seiji,YAMAKAWA Mitsunori
- Journal of clinical and experimental hematopathology 52(3), 161-170, 2012-12-01
- NAID 10031143559
- Essential role of macrophages in the initiation of allergic rhinitis in mice sensitized intranasally once with cedar pollen : regulation of class switching of immunoglobulin in B cells by controlling interleukin-4 production in T cells of submandibular lymph nodes
- Hirano Masayo,Ogita-Nakanishi Hiromi,Miyachi Wakako [他]
- Microbiology and immunology 56(6), 392-405, 2012-06
- NAID 40019311581
- 199 Immunoglobulin class switching Janet Stavnezer Antibody class switching is induced by B-cell activators in the presence of cytokines. The identity of the heavy-chain class to which a B cell is switched is regulated by ...
- Information about Immunoglobulin class switching in Free online English dictionary. What is Immunoglobulin class switching? Meaning of Immunoglobulin class switching medical term. What does Immunoglobulin class switching ...
- immunoglobulin class switching
- isotype switching