- be on the defensive; act against an attack
- protect against a challenge or attack; "Hold that position behind the trees!"; "Hold the bridge against the enemys attacks" (同)guard, hold
- be the defense counsel for someone in a trial; "Ms. Smith will represent the defendant" (同)represent
- argue or speak in defense of; "She supported the motion to strike" (同)support, fend for
- protection from harm; "sanitation is the best defense against disease" (同)defence
- the act of defending someone or something against attack or injury; "a good boxer needs a good defense"; "defense against hurricanes is an urgent problem" (同)defence
- (military) military action or resources protecting a country against potential enemies; "they died in the defense of Stalingrad"; "they were developed for the defense program" (同)defence, defensive measure
- a defendants answer or plea denying the truth of the charges against him; "he gave evidence for the defense" (同)defence, denial, demurrer
- (sports) the team that is trying to prevent the other team from scoring; "his teams are always good on defense" (同)defence, defending team
- an organization of defenders that provides resistance against attack; "he joined the defense against invasion" (同)defence, defense force, defence force
- the defendant and his legal advisors collectively; "the defense called for a mistrial" (同)defence, defense team, defense lawyers
- the justification for some act or belief; "he offered a persuasive defense of the theory" (同)defence, vindication
- intended or appropriate for defending against or deterring aggression or attack; "defensive weapons"; "a defensive stance"
- an attitude of defensiveness (especially in the phrase `on the defensive' (同)defensive attitude
- attempting to justify or defend in speech or writing (同)justificative, justificatory
- a person who cares for persons or property (同)guardian, protector, shielder
- a fighter who holds out against attack (同)withstander
- a person or institution against whom an action is brought in a court of law; the person being sued or accused (同)suspect
- a defendant who has been joined together with one or more other defendants in a single action (同)co-defendant
- a lawyer who represents indigent defendants at public expense
- capable of being defended (同)defensible
- attempting to or designed to prevent an opponent from winning or scoring
- (…から)…'を'『守る』,保護する《+『名』+『against』(『from』)+『名』(do『ing』)》 / (言論などで)…'を'『擁護する』,支持する / (法廷で)〈被告〉'を'『弁護する』 / 防御する,身を守る
- 防御の,守備の / 弁護の / 防御,守勢
- 防御する人,擁護者 / 選手権保持者 / 弁護士
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- Underground allies: How and why do mycelial networks help plants defend themselves?: What are the fitness, regulatory, and practical implications of defence-related signaling between plants via common mycelial networks?
- Babikova Z, Johnson D, Bruce T, Pickett J, Gilbert L.Author information Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK; James Hutton Institute, Aberdeen, UK; Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, UK.AbstractMost land plants associate with mycorrhizal fungi that can connect roots of neighboring plants in common mycelial networks (CMNs). Recent evidence shows that CMNs transfer warning signals of pathogen and aphid attack between plants. However, we do not know how defence-related signaling via CMNs operates or how ubiquitous it is. Nor do we know what the ecological relevance and fitness consequences are, particularly from the perspective of the mycorrhizal fungus. Here, we focus on the potential fitness benefits for mycorrhizal fungi and outline hypothetical scenarios in which signal transfer via CMNs is modulated in order to acquire the most benefit for the fungus (i.e. acquisition of carbon) for minimal cost. We speculate that the signal may be quantitative and may elicit plant defence responses on different levels depending on the distance the signal is transferred. Finally, we discuss the possibility of practical applications of this phenomenon for crop protection.
- BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology.Bioessays.2014 Jan;36(1):21-6. doi: 10.1002/bies.201300092. Epub 2013 Oct 15.
- Most land plants associate with mycorrhizal fungi that can connect roots of neighboring plants in common mycelial networks (CMNs). Recent evidence shows that CMNs transfer warning signals of pathogen and aphid attack between plants. However, we do not know how defence-related signaling via CMNs oper
- PMID 24129903
- Justification for conscience exemptions in health care.
- Kantymir L, McLeod C.AbstractSome bioethicists argue that conscientious objectors in health care should have to justify themselves, just as objectors in the military do. They should have to provide reasons that explain why they should be exempt from offering the services that they find offensive. There are two versions of this view in the literature, each giving different standards of justification. We show these views are each either too permissive (i.e. would result in problematic exemptions based on conscience) or too restrictive (i.e. would produce problematic denials of exemption). We then develop a middle ground position that we believe better combines respect for the conscience of healthcare professionals with concern for the duties that they owe to patients. Our claim, in short, is that insofar as objectors should have to justify themselves, they should have to do it according to the standard that we defend rather than according to the standards that others have developed.
- Bioethics.Bioethics.2014 Jan;28(1):16-23. doi: 10.1111/bioe.12055. Epub 2013 Sep 30.
- Some bioethicists argue that conscientious objectors in health care should have to justify themselves, just as objectors in the military do. They should have to provide reasons that explain why they should be exempt from offering the services that they find offensive. There are two versions of this
- PMID 24117510
- Management of Early-stage Esophageal Neoplasia (MESEN) Consensus.
- Nieponice A, Badaloni AE, Jobe BA, Hoppo T, Pellegrini C, Velanovich V, Falk GW, Reavis K, Swanstrom L, Sharma VK, Nachman F, Ciotola FF, Caro LE, Cerisoli C, Cavadas D, Figueroa LD, Pirchi D, Gibson M, Elizalde S, Cohen H.Author information Department of Surgery, University of Favaloro, Av. Belgrano 1746, C1093AAS, Buenos Aires, Argentina, email@example.com.AbstractBACKGROUND: Treatment of esophageal adenocarcinoma often involves surgical resection. Newer technologies in interventional endoscopy have led to a substantial paradigm shift in the management of early-stage neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus comprising high-grade dysplasia (HGD), intramucosal carcinoma, and, in some cases, submucosal carcinoma. However, there has been no consensus regarding the indications for esophageal preservation in these cases. In this work, consensus guidelines were established for the management of early-stage esophageal neoplasia considering clinically relevant aspects (age, comorbidities, and social environment) in each scenario.
- World journal of surgery.World J Surg.2014 Jan;38(1):96-105. doi: 10.1007/s00268-013-2235-y.
- BACKGROUND: Treatment of esophageal adenocarcinoma often involves surgical resection. Newer technologies in interventional endoscopy have led to a substantial paradigm shift in the management of early-stage neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus comprising high-grade dysplasia (HGD), intramucosal carcinom
- PMID 24101017
- The impact of self-efficacy, alexithymia and multiple traumas on posttraumatic stress disorder and psychiatric co-morbidity following epileptic seizures: A moderated mediation analysis.
- Chung MC, Allen RD, Dennis I.Author information Zayed University, Natural Science and Public Health, Abu Dhabi, P.O. Box 144534, United Arab Emirates. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.AbstractThis study investigated the incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychiatric co-morbidity following epileptic seizure, whether alexithymia mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and psychiatric outcomes, and whether the mediational effect was moderated by the severity of PTSD from other traumas. Seventy-one (M=31, F=40) people with a diagnosis of epilepsy recruited from support groups in the United Kingdom completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 and the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale. They were compared with 71 people (M=29, F=42) without epilepsy. For people with epilepsy, 51% and 22% met the diagnostic criteria for post-epileptic seizure PTSD and for PTSD following one other traumatic life event respectively. For the control group, 24% met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD following other traumatic life events. The epilepsy group reported significantly more anxiety and depression than the control. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis showed that self-efficacy was significantly correlated with alexithymia, post-epileptic seizure PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity. Alexithymia was also significantly correlated with post-epileptic seizure PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity. Mediation analyses confirmed that alexithymia mediated the path between self-efficacy and post-epileptic seizure PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity. Moderated mediation also confirmed that self-efficacy and PTSD from one other trauma moderated the effect of alexithymia on outcomes. To conclude, people can develop posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and psychiatric co-morbidity following epileptic seizure. These psychiatric outcomes are closely linked with their belief in personal competence to deal with stressful situations and regulate their own functioning, to process rather than defend against distressing emotions, and with the degree of PTSD from other traumas.
- Psychiatry research.Psychiatry Res.2013 Dec 30;210(3):1033-41. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2013.07.041. Epub 2013 Aug 23.
- This study investigated the incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychiatric co-morbidity following epileptic seizure, whether alexithymia mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and psychiatric outcomes, and whether the mediational effect was moderated by the severity of PT
- PMID 23978734
- 判例批評 大学入学選考における人種に基づく優遇措置を禁止する州憲法改正は合衆国憲法修正第14条に反するか : Schuette v. Coalition to defend Affirmative Action, 134 S. Ct. 1623 (2014)
- 因中有果説の極北 (特別号 インド哲学諸派の〈存在〉をめぐる議論の解明)
- 子どもの「守れない安全」を守ることの意味 : パトロールによって「顔見知り」を作る意義とは何か
- Idea Watch : DEFEND YOUR RESEARCH 苦痛を待つのは苦痛そのものよりつらい
- GT-R専門店 ガレージ ディフェンド スカイラインGT-R R32,R33,R34,R35 その他GTスポーツカーのことならお任せください 全国最大級のGT-Rショップ。常時50台以上を展示中、R32、R33、R34、フルノーマルからヘビーチューンまですべてのお客 ...
- defendとは。意味や和訳。[動](他)1 [III[名]（[副]）]…を（敵・危害などから）守る，防御する（⇔attack）((against, from ...))（⇒GUARD[類語]）；《スポーツ》〈ポジション・タイトルなどを〉守るdefend one's country against enemies国 ...
- defend 【自動】 防御する 《法律》弁護する 【他動】 〔敵の攻撃などから〕～を... - アルクがお届けする進化するオンライン英和・和英辞書データベース。一般的な単語や連語から、イディオム、専門用語、スラングまで幅広く収録。