- the state of being physically constrained; "dogs should be kept under restraint" (同)restraint
- the act of constraining; the threat or use of force to control the thoughts or behavior of others
- the force applied to a unit area of surface; measured in pascals (SI unit) or in dynes (cgs unit); "the compressed gas exerts an increased pressure" (同)pressure level, force per unit area
- an oppressive condition of physical or mental or social or economic distress
- the somatic sensation that results from applying force to an area of skin; "the sensitivity of his skin to pressure and temperature was normal" (同)pressure_sensation
- a force that compels; "the public brought pressure to bear on the government"
- do forcibly; exert force; "Dont force it!"
- (physics) the influence that produces a change in a physical quantity; "force equals mass times acceleration"
- physical energy or intensity; "he hit with all the force he could muster"; "it was destroyed by the strength of the gale"; "a government has not the vitality and forcefulness of a living man" (同)forcefulness, strength
- group of people willing to obey orders; "a public force is necessary to give security to the rights of citizens" (同)personnel
- a group of people having the power of effective action; "he joined forces with a band of adventurers"
- a powerful effect or influence; "the force of his eloquence easily persuaded them"
- force into or from an action or state, either physically or metaphorically; "She rammed her mind into focus"; "He drives me mad" (同)drive, ram
- impose urgently, importunately, or inexorably; "She forced her diet fads on him" (同)thrust
- compel to behave in a certain way; "Social relations impose courtesy" (同)impose
- ensure observance of laws and rules; "Apply the rules to everyone"; (同)implement, apply
- the act of enforcing; ensuring observance of or obedience to
- 〈U〉〈C〉(‥の)強制,無理じい;(自由などの)制限,束縛《+『on』+『名』》 / 〈U〉窮屈,気がね,圧迫感
- 〈U〉『押すこと』,『押しつけること』,圧搾,圧縮;〈C〉〈U〉『圧力』,圧力の強さ / 〈U〉『圧迫』,『強制』 / 〈U〉(不快な)圧迫感 / 〈C〉〈U〉(精神的な)重荷,苦脳;(時間・金銭的)切迫 / 〈U〉多忙,あわただしさ / 《おもに米》…‘に'圧力をかける,強制する(《英》pressurise)
- 〈U〉(物理的な)『力』,勢い;体力 / 〈U〉『暴力』,腕ずく / 〈C〉《集合的に》(共通の目的・活動のための)集団,隊 / 〈C〉《しばしば複数形で》『軍隊』,部隊 / 〈C〉(社会的)勢力;有力な人物 / 〈U〉(精神あるいは知性の)力 / 〈U〉『影響力』,効果 / 〈U〉(言葉の)意味,真意 / 〈人〉‘に'『強いる』,無理を言う / (…から)…‘を'力ずくで手に入れる《+『名』+『from』(『out of』)+『名』》 / …‘を'むりに押し出す / (容器などに)…‘を'むりに押し込む《+『名』+『into』+『名』》 / (人に)…‘を'『押しつける』《+『名』+『on』(『upon』)+『名』〈人〉》 / 〈植物〉‘を'促成栽培する
- 〈法律など〉‘を'『実施する』,施行する / (…に)…‘を'『強要する』,強いる《+『名』+『on』(『upon』)+『名』》 / 〈意見など〉‘を'強化する,強調する
- (法律などの)実施,施行 / 強制,強要
- 《『constrain』+『名』+『to』 do》 / 〈人〉'を'押さえつけて動けないようにする,〈怒りなど〉'を'抑えつける
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- Genome-scale metabolic flux analysis of Streptomyces lividans growing on a complex medium.
- D'Huys PJ, Lule I, Vercammen D, Anné J, Van Impe JF, Bernaerts K.SourceChemical and Biochemical Process Technology and Control Section, Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, W. de Croylaan 46, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
- Journal of biotechnology.J Biotechnol.2012 Sep 15;161(1):1-13. Epub 2012 May 26.
- Constraint-based metabolic modeling comprises various excellent tools to assess experimentally observed phenotypic behavior of micro-organisms in terms of intracellular metabolic fluxes. In combination with genome-scale metabolic networks, micro-organisms can be investigated in much more detail and
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- Empirical Correlates of Low Scores on MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical Scales in a Sample of University Students.
- Avdeyeva TV, Tellegen A, Ben-Porath YS.Source1University of St. Thomas, St. Paul, MN, USA.
- Assessment.Assessment.2012 Sep;19(3):388-93. Epub 2011 Jun 21.
- In the present study, the authors explored the meaning of low scores on the MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical (RC) scales. Using responses of a sample of university students (N = 811), the authors examined whether low (T < 39), within-normal-limits (T = 39-64), and high (T > 65) score lev
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- Thermodynamic constraints shape the structure of carbon fixation pathways.
- Bar-Even A, Flamholz A, Noor E, Milo R.AbstractThermodynamics impose a major constraint on the structure of metabolic pathways. Here, we use carbon fixation pathways to demonstrate how thermodynamics shape the structure of pathways and determine the cellular resources they consume. We analyze the energetic profile of prototypical reactions and show that each reaction type displays a characteristic change in Gibbs energy. Specifically, although carbon fixation pathways display a considerable structural variability, they are all energetically constrained by two types of reactions: carboxylation and carboxyl reduction. In fact, all adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules consumed by carbon fixation pathways - with a single exception - are used, directly or indirectly, to power one of these unfavorable reactions. When an indirect coupling is employed, the energy released by ATP hydrolysis is used to establish another chemical bond with high energy of hydrolysis, e.g. a thioester. This bond is cleaved by a downstream enzyme to energize an unfavorable reaction. Notably, many pathways exhibit reduced ATP requirement as they couple unfavorable carboxylation or carboxyl reduction reactions to exergonic reactions other than ATP hydrolysis. In the most extreme example, the reductive acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) pathway bypasses almost all ATP-consuming reactions. On the other hand, the reductive pentose phosphate pathway appears to be the least ATP-efficient because it is the only carbon fixation pathway that invests ATP in metabolic aims other than carboxylation and carboxyl reduction. Altogether, our analysis indicates that basic thermodynamic considerations accurately predict the resource investment required to support a metabolic pathway and further identifies biochemical mechanisms that can decrease this requirement.
- Biochimica et biophysica acta.Biochim Biophys Acta.2012 Sep;1817(9):1646-59. Epub 2012 May 17.
- Thermodynamics impose a major constraint on the structure of metabolic pathways. Here, we use carbon fixation pathways to demonstrate how thermodynamics shape the structure of pathways and determine the cellular resources they consume. We analyze the energetic profile of prototypical reactions and s
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