- movement by a cell or organism in reaction to a chemical stimulus
- movement away from a chemical stimulus
- movement toward a chemical stimulus
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- Identification of Genes Required for Soil Survival in Burkholderia thailandensis by Transposon-Directed Insertion Site Sequencing.
- Bishop AH1, Rachwal PA.Author information 1Detection Department, Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire, SP4 0JQ, UK, AHBishop@dstl.gov.uk.AbstractTransposon-directed insertion site sequencing was used to identify genes required by Burkholderia thailandensis to survive in plant/soil microcosms. A total of 1,153 genetic loci fulfilled the criteria as being likely to encode survival characteristics. Of these, 203 (17.6 %) were associated with uptake and transport systems; 463 loci (40.1 %) coded for enzymatic properties, 99 of these (21.4 %) had reduction/oxidation functions; 117 (10.1 %) were gene regulation or sensory loci; 61 (5.3 %) encoded structural proteins found in the cell envelope or with enzymatic activities related to it, distinct from these, 46 (4.0 %) were involved in chemotaxis and flagellum, or pilus synthesis; 39 (3.4 %) were transposase enzymes or were bacteriophage-derived; and 30 (2.6 %) were involved in the production of antibiotics or siderophores. Two hundred and twenty genes (19.1 %) encoded hypothetical proteins or those of unknown function. Given the importance of motility and pilus formation in microcosm persistence the nature of the colonization of the rhizosphere was examined by confocal microscopy. Wild type B. thailandensis expressing red fluorescent protein was inoculated into microcosms. Even though the roots had been washed, the bacteria were still present but they were motile with no attachment having taken place, perhaps being retained in a biofilm.
- Current microbiology.Curr Microbiol.2014 Jun;68(6):693-701. doi: 10.1007/s00284-014-0526-7. Epub 2014 Feb 2.
- Transposon-directed insertion site sequencing was used to identify genes required by Burkholderia thailandensis to survive in plant/soil microcosms. A total of 1,153 genetic loci fulfilled the criteria as being likely to encode survival characteristics. Of these, 203 (17.6 %) were associated with u
- PMID 24488501
- Pneumatic valves in folded 2D and 3D fluidic devices made from plastic films and tapes.
- Cooksey GA1, Atencia J.Author information 1Biosystems and Biomaterials Division, NIST, Gaithersburg, USA. email@example.com.AbstractWe present a rapid prototyping technique that expands elastomeric valving capabilities to devices made from thin materials such as plastic films and tapes. The time required from conception to full fabrication of functional devices is within a few hours. A key characteristic of this technology is that devices are thin (typically less than 0.5 mm in thickness), which allows for the fabrication of devices with many layers. This feature also permits folding of devices into 3D structures having fully functional valves. We illustrate this concept with the fabrication of a 25 mm-per-side cube whose walls contain microfluidic channels and valves. Control of liquid delivery through the faces of the cube is demonstrated with a chemotaxis experiment of C. elegans migrating within the enclosed volume of the cube as stimuli are delivered through the walls of the cube to the interior faces.
- Lab on a chip.Lab Chip.2014 May 21;14(10):1665-8. doi: 10.1039/c4lc00173g. Epub 2014 Apr 1.
- We present a rapid prototyping technique that expands elastomeric valving capabilities to devices made from thin materials such as plastic films and tapes. The time required from conception to full fabrication of functional devices is within a few hours. A key characteristic of this technology is th
- PMID 24691845
- Innate immune responses of airway epithelial cells to infection with Equine herpesvirus-1.
- Soboll Hussey G1, Ashton LV2, Quintana AM2, Lunn DP3, Goehring LS4, Annis K2, Landolt G2.Author information 1Department of Pathobiology and Diagnostic Investigation, College of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Medical Center, Room A13, 784 Wilson Road, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.orgDepartment of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, 300 W. Drake Road, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.3North Carolina State University, 1060 William Moore Drive, Raleigh, NC 276074, USA.4Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Germany.AbstractEquine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) is the cause of respiratory disease, abortion and myelitis in horses worldwide. Protection following infection or vaccination is typically incomplete and this lack of protective immunity is thought to be due to the immunomodulatory properties of EHV-1. EHV-1 immune modulation is likely initiated early in the infection cycle at the respiratory epithelium, but to date, immunity to EHV-1 at the epithelial cell barrier remains poorly characterized. Thus, the purpose of this study was to use a recently established primary equine respiratory epithelial cell culture (EREC) system to characterize innate immunity to EHV-1. Differentiated ERECs were inoculated with a neuropathogenic strain of EHV-1 and cytokine responses were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and ELISA. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I and MHC-II as well as toll-like receptor (TLR)3 and TLR9 protein expression were examined using fluorescence activated cell-sorting analysis and chemotaxis of neutrophils and monocytes were evaluated using chemotaxis assays. Infection with EHV-1 resulted in increased expression of TLR3 and 9 as well as inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha, and IL-6) and chemokines (IL-8, MCP-1). In contrast, EHV-1 infection caused marked decreases of MHC-I and MHC-II expression as well as a reduction in IFN-gamma production. In summary, these results provide an initial characterization of the early immune response to EHV-1 at the epithelial cell barrier and show that, while EHV-1 maintains induction of an inflammatory response, it causes an attenuation of IFN-gamma responses and down-modulates expression of MHC-I and MHC-II, which are important molecules for antigen presentation.
- Veterinary microbiology.Vet Microbiol.2014 May 14;170(1-2):28-38. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.01.018. Epub 2014 Feb 3.
- Equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) is the cause of respiratory disease, abortion and myelitis in horses worldwide. Protection following infection or vaccination is typically incomplete and this lack of protective immunity is thought to be due to the immunomodulatory properties of EHV-1. EHV-1 immune modul
- PMID 24560592
- Serum Amyloid A Induces NLRP-3-Mediated IL-1β Secretion in Neutrophils
- Migita Kiyoshi,Izumi Yasumori,Jiuchi Yuka,Kozuru Hideko,Kawahara Chieko,Nakamura Minoru,Nakamura Tadashi,Agematsu Kazunaga,Masumoto Junya,Yasunami Michio,Kawakami Atsushi,Eguchi Katsumi
- PLoS ONE 9(5), e96703, 2014-05-20
- … Background/Aims: Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute phase reactant with significant immunological activities, including effects on cytokine synthesis and neutrophil chemotaxis. …
- NAID 120005447070
- A simple way to derive a priori estimates for solutions to chemotaxis systems (New Role of the Theory of Abstract Evolution Equations : From a Point of View Overlooking the Individual Partial Differential Equations)
- Report on the chemotaxis-fluid systems (New Role of the Theory of Abstract Evolution Equations : From a Point of View Overlooking the Individual Partial Differential Equations)
- che·mo·tax·is / ˌki moʊˈtæk sɪs, ˌkɛm oʊ-/ Show Spelled [kee-moh-tak-sis, kem-oh-] Show IPA noun Biology. oriented movement toward or away from a chemical stimulus. Origin: 1890–95; chemo-+ -taxis Related forms che·mo·tac ...
- How to perform chemotaxis assays? Experimental Workflow µ-Slide Chemotaxis 2D µ-Slide Chemotaxis 3D Gradient Stability 2D Versus 3D Chemotaxis Data Analysis Types of chemotaxis assays Experimental Endpoints
- leukotriene, LT
- C3aアナフィラトキシン C3a anaphylatoxin
- 活性はC5aの約1/200 (SMB.35)