- valuable source of caviar and isinglass; found in Black and Caspian seas (同)hausen, white sturgeon, Acipenser huso
- roe of beluga sturgeon usually from Russia; highly valued
- シロチョウザメ(黒海,カスピ海およびボルガ川産) / シロイルカ,シロクジラ(北極海産)
- The CLO3403/CLO3404 Two-Component System of Clostridium botulinum E1 Beluga Is Important for Cold Shock Response and Growth at Low Temperatures.
- Mascher G, Derman Y, Kirk DG, Palonen E, Lindström M, Korkeala H.Author information Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.AbstractIn order to survive a temperature downshift, bacteria have to sense the changing environment and adjust their metabolism and structure. Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) play a central role in sensing and responding to many different environmental stimuli. Although the nonproteolytic (group II) Clostridium botulinum represents a major hazard in chilled foods, the cold adaption mechanisms of group II C. botulinum organisms are not known. Here, we show that the CLO3403/CLO3404 TCS of C. botulinum E1 Beluga is involved in the cold shock response and growth at 12°C. Cold shock induced the expression of the genes encoding the histidine kinase (clo3403) and the response regulator (clo3404) by more than 100-fold after 5 h relative to their expression in a nonshocked culture at the corresponding time point. The involvement of CLO3403/CLO3404 in growth at low temperature was demonstrated by impaired growth of the insertional clo3403 and clo3404 knockout mutants at 12°C compared to the growth of the wild-type culture. Additionally, the inactivation of clo3403 had a negative effect on motility. The growth efficiency at 12°C of the TCS mutants and the motility of the kinase mutants were restored by introducing a plasmid harboring the operon of the CLO3403/CLO3404 TCS. The results suggest that the CLO3403/CLO3404 TCS is important for the cold tolerance of C. botulinum E1 Beluga.
- Applied and environmental microbiology.Appl Environ Microbiol.2014 Jan;80(1):399-407. doi: 10.1128/AEM.03204-13. Epub 2013 Nov 1.
- In order to survive a temperature downshift, bacteria have to sense the changing environment and adjust their metabolism and structure. Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) play a central role in sensing and responding to many different environmental stimuli. Although the nonproteolytic
- PMID 24185852
- Discovery of a novel bottlenose dolphin coronavirus reveals a distinct species of marine mammal coronavirus in gammacoronavirus.
- Woo PC, Lau SK, Lam CS, Tsang AK, Hui SW, Fan RY, Martelli P, Yuen KY.Author information State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.AbstractWhile gammacoronaviruses mainly comprise infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and its closely related bird coronaviruses (CoVs), the only mammalian gammacoronavirus was discovered from a white beluga whale (beluga whale CoV [BWCoV] SW1) in 2008. In this study, we discovered a novel gammacoronavirus from fecal samples from three Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus), which we named bottlenose dolphin CoV (BdCoV) HKU22. All the three BdCoV HKU22-positive samples were collected on the same date, suggesting a cluster of infection, with viral loads of 1 × 10(3) to 1 × 10(5) copies per ml. Clearance of virus was associated with a specific antibody response against the nucleocapsid of BdCoV HKU22. Complete genome sequencing and comparative genome analysis showed that BdCoV HKU22 and BWCoV SW1 have similar genome characteristics and structures. Their genome size is about 32,000 nucleotides, the largest among all CoVs, as a result of multiple unique open reading frames (NS5a, NS5b, NS5c, NS6, NS7, NS8, NS9, and NS10) between their membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N) protein genes. Although comparative genome analysis showed that BdCoV HKU22 and BWCoV SW1 should belong to the same species, a major difference was observed in the proteins encoded by their spike (S) genes, which showed only 74.3 to 74.7% amino acid identities. The high ratios of the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (Ks) to the number of nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site (Ka) in multiple regions of the genome, especially the S gene (Ka/Ks ratio, 2.5), indicated that BdCoV HKU22 may be evolving rapidly, supporting a recent transmission event to the bottlenose dolphins. We propose a distinct species, Cetacean coronavirus, in Gammacoronavirus, to include BdCoV HKU22 and BWCoV SW1, whereas IBV and its closely related bird CoVs represent another species, Avian coronavirus, in Gammacoronavirus.
- Journal of virology.J Virol.2014 Jan;88(2):1318-31. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02351-13. Epub 2013 Nov 13.
- While gammacoronaviruses mainly comprise infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and its closely related bird coronaviruses (CoVs), the only mammalian gammacoronavirus was discovered from a white beluga whale (beluga whale CoV [BWCoV] SW1) in 2008. In this study, we discovered a novel gammacoronavirus fro
- PMID 24227844
- Heavy metal bioaccumulation and risk assessment for wild and farmed beluga sturgeon caviar.
- Hosseini SV, Hosseini SM, Monsef Rad SF, Mobinifar M, Regenstein JM.Author information Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.AbstractBecause of over-exploitation of sturgeon for caviar production, they have been listed worldwide in annex II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species regulations; so caviar production using aquaculture is increasingly seen as a feasible way to reduce overfishing. The accumulation of the nonessential metals As, Ba, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Sn was determined in the caviar of farmed and wild Beluga sturgeon (Huso huso). The levels of As in both and Cd in wild samples were less than 0.01 mg kg(-1) wet weight, and the comparison for all of the metals studied did not show large fluctuations in metal concentrations between farmed and wild caviar samples. The average for each toxic metal was below the permissible limits proposed by the UK's Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Foods (2000). The maximum allowable daily consumption rate of caviar was calculated; however, the health risks from caviar consumption are uncertain because the amount of caviar consumed by heavy users is not known.
- Environmental monitoring and assessment.Environ Monit Assess.2013 Dec;185(12):9995-9. doi: 10.1007/s10661-013-3307-z. Epub 2013 Jun 21.
- Because of over-exploitation of sturgeon for caviar production, they have been listed worldwide in annex II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species regulations; so caviar production using aquaculture is increasingly seen as a feasible way to reduce overfishing. The accumulatio
- PMID 23793540
- Hearing pathways in the Yangtze finless porpoise, Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis.
- Mooney TA, Li S, Ketten D, Wang K, Wang D.Author information Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA;AbstractHow an animal receives sound may influence its use of sound. While "jaw hearing" is well supported for odontocetes, examining how sound is received across the head work has been limited to a few representative species. The substantial variation in jaw and head morphology among odontocetes suggests variation in sound reception. Here we address how a divergent subspecies, the Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) hears low, mid, and high frequency tones, as well as broadband clicks, comparing sounds presented at different locations across the head. Hearing was measured using auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). Click and tone stimuli (8, 54, and 120 kHz) were presented at nine locations on the head and body using a suction-cup transducer. Threshold differences were compared between frequencies and locations, and referenced to the underlying anatomy using computed tomography (CT) imaging of deceased animals of the same subspecies. The best hearing locations with minimum thresholds were found adjacent to a mandibular fat pad and overlying the auditory bulla. Mean thresholds were not substantially different at locations from the rostrum tip to the ear (11.6 dB). This contrasts with tests with bottlenose dolphins and beluga whales, in which 30-40 dB threshold differences were found across the animals' heads. Response latencies increased with decreasing response amplitudes, which suggests that both latency and sensitivity are interrelated when considering sound reception across the odontocete head. The results suggest that there are differences among odontocetes in the anatomy related to receiving sound, and porpoises may have relatively less acoustic "shadowing".
- The Journal of experimental biology.J Exp Biol.2013 Oct 18. [Epub ahead of print]
- How an animal receives sound may influence its use of sound. While "jaw hearing" is well supported for odontocetes, examining how sound is received across the head work has been limited to a few representative species. The substantial variation in jaw and head morphology among odontocetes suggests v
- PMID 24143026
- Beluga Hunting Practices of the Indigenous People in Kamchatka: Characterization of Sea Mammal Hunting in Northeastern Asia
- Watanabe Yutaka,渡部 裕,ワタナベ ユタカ
- Senri Ethnological Studies 84, 177-194, 2013-08-30
- NAID 120005345000
- Exchange of "signature" calls in captive belugas (Delphinapterus leucas)
- Morisaka Tadamichi,Yoshida Yayoi,Akune Yuichiro,Mishima Hideki,Nishimoto Sayo
- Journal of Ethology 31(2), 141-149, 2013-05
- … If other individuals do not respond to the PS1 call of a beluga within 1 s, belugas tend to repeat the call and wait for a response. …
- NAID 120005434978
- 生業活動とは何か : カナダ極北地域のイヌイットによるシロイルカ猟を中心に
- カムチャツカ先住民の海洋資源の利用 : チギリ地区南部沿岸における地理的特徴と歴史的変化 (環境変化と先住民の生業文化 : 海洋生態系における適応)
- Beluga（ベルーガ）とはねとらじ公式放送用アプリケーションです。 只今開発中のため β版として公開しています。 関連記事（ねとらじの仕組みとBelugaアプリの開発）
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- Delphinapterus leucas