in a slowly developing and long lasting manner; "chronically ill persons"
in a habitual and longstanding manner; "smoking chronically" (同)inveterate
(病気が)長期にわたる,慢性の / 《名詞の前にのみ用いて》常習の,癖になった
慢性的に / 常習で絶えず
Efficacy of Multivitamin/mineral Supplementation to Reduce Chronic Disease Risk: A Critical Review of the Evidence from Observational Studies and Randomized Controlled Trials.
Angelo G1, Drake VJ, Frei B.
Critical reviews in food science and nutrition.Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr.2015 Dec 6;55(14):1968-91. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2014.912199.
We reviewed recent scientific evidence regarding the effects of multivitamin/mineral (MVM) supplements on risk of chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and age-related eye diseases. Data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational, prospective cohort studies were
Pharmacological treatment and staging in bipolar disorder: evidence from clinical practice.
Goi PD1, Bücker J1, Vianna-Sulzbach M1, Rosa AR1, Grande I2, Chendo I3, Sodré LA1, Kauer-Sant'Anna M1, Silveira L1, Kunz M1, Ceresér KM1, Gama CS1, Massuda R1.
Revista brasileira de psiquiatria (Sao Paulo, Brazil : 1999).Rev Bras Psiquiatr.2015 12/05;37(2):121-125. Epub 2015 May 12.
OBJECTIVES: Staging models for medical diseases are widely used to guide treatment and prognosis. Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic condition and it is among the most disabling disorders in medicine. The staging model proposed by Kapczinski in 2009 presents four progressive clinical stages of BD. O
Annals of intensive care.Ann Intensive Care.2015 Dec;5(1):55. doi: 10.1186/s13613-015-0055-y. Epub 2015 Jun 7.
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE) are frequently hypercapnic, possibly because of associated underlying chronic lung disease (CLD). Since hypercapnia has been associated with outcome, we aimed to identify factors associated to hypercapnia and its role on outcome of p
OBJECTIVE: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have a prominent role in inducing innate immune response. It has been suggested that regulation of TLRs is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic otitis media. TLR 2 and TLR 4 polymorphisms were connected with susceptibility to acute otitis and chronic otitis w
Amazonレビュー 1989's Straight Outta Compton, by Dre's previous outfit N.W.A., may have shined the public spotlight on the genre, but The Chronic legitimized it. That is not to say that Snoop Doggy Dogg (The Chronic marks his ...