zygospore

出典: meddic

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「a plant spore formed by two similar sexual cells」

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出典(authority):フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』「2015/06/25 20:15:45」(JST)

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英文文献

  • De novo transcriptome profiling uncovers a drastic downregulation of photosynthesis upon nitrogen deprivation in the nonmodel green alga Botryosphaerella sudeticus.
  • Sun D, Zhu J, Fang L, Zhang X, Chow Y, Liu J.Author information Systems Biology, Genome Institute of Singapore, 60 Biopolis Street, #02-01, Singapore 138672, Singapore. liujh@gis.a-star.edu.sg.AbstractBACKGROUND: Neutral lipid storage is enhanced by nitrogen deprivation (ND) in numbers of green microalgal species. However, little is known about the metabolic pathways whose transcription levels are most significantly altered following ND in green microalgae, especially the nonmodel species.
  • BMC genomics.BMC Genomics.2013 Oct 19;14:715. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-14-715.
  • BACKGROUND: Neutral lipid storage is enhanced by nitrogen deprivation (ND) in numbers of green microalgal species. However, little is known about the metabolic pathways whose transcription levels are most significantly altered following ND in green microalgae, especially the nonmodel species.RESULTS
  • PMID 24138407
  • Phylogenetic lineages in Entomophthoromycota.
  • Gryganskyi AP, Humber RA, Smith ME, Hodge K, Huang B, Voigt K, Vilgalys R.Author information Duke University, Department of Biology, Durham, NC 27708-90338, USA;AbstractEntomophthoromycota is one of six major phylogenetic lineages among the former phylum Zygomycota. These early terrestrial fungi share evolutionarily ancestral characters such as coenocytic mycelium and gametangiogamy as a sexual process resulting in zygospore formation. Previous molecular studies have shown the monophyly of Entomophthoromycota, thus justifying raising the taxonomic status of these fungi to a phylum. Multi-gene phylogenies have identified five major lineages of Entomophthoromycota. In this review we provide a detailed discussion about the biology and taxonomy of these lineages: I) Basidiobolus (Basidiobolomycetes: Basidiobolaceae; primarily saprobic); II) Conidiobolus (Entomophthoromycetes, Ancylistaceae; several clades of saprobes and invertebrate pathogens), as well as three rapidly evolving entomopathogenic lineages in the family Entomophthoraceae centering around; III) Batkoa; IV) Entomophthora and allied genera; and V) the subfamily Erynioideae which includes Zoophthora and allied genera. Molecular phylogenic analysis has recently determined the relationships of several taxa that were previously unresolved based on morphology alone: Eryniopsis, Macrobiotophthora, Massospora, Strongwellsea and two as yet undescribed genera of Basidiobolaceae.
  • Persoonia.Persoonia.2013 Jun;30:94-105. doi: 10.3767/003158513X666330. Epub 2013 Mar 19.
  • Entomophthoromycota is one of six major phylogenetic lineages among the former phylum Zygomycota. These early terrestrial fungi share evolutionarily ancestral characters such as coenocytic mycelium and gametangiogamy as a sexual process resulting in zygospore formation. Previous molecular studies ha
  • PMID 24027349
  • Overview of 75 years of Smittium research, establishing a new genus for Smittium culisetae, and prospects for future revisions of the 'Smittium' Claire.
  • Wang Y, Tretter ED, Lichtwardt RW, White MM.Author information Boise State University, Department of Biological Sciences, Boise, ID, USA.AbstractThe Harpellales includes 38 genera of endosymbiotic microfungi associated with various Arthropoda. Smittium, the second genus to be described, is now also the most species rich of the order. Species of Smittium inhabit the digestive tracts of larval aquatic insects, especially lower Dipt era, worldwide. During the 75 y since the type, Smittium aruernense, was described a number of advances in our understanding of the gut fungi have unfolded, in whole or in part, with Smittium as a model for the fungal trichomycetes. This in part relates to the high number of successful isolation attempts, with about 40% of known species having been cultured, a total number that far exceeds any other genus of gut fungus. Many isolates of Smittium have been used in laboratory studies for ultrastructural. physiological, host feeding, serological, as well as isozyme, and now ongoing molecular systematic studies. Molecular studies have shown thai Smittium is polyphyletic but with consistent separation of Smittium culisetae, one of the most common and widespread species, from the remainder of Smittium. A brief overview of Smittium research is provided. Zygospore and trichospore morphology and molecular evidence (immunological, isozyme, DNA sequences and phyiogenetic analyses) are used to establish Zancudomyces and to accommodate Smittium culisetae. For the latter evidence, we include the first two-gene phylogenetic analysis, using combined 18S and 28S rRNA gene sequence data to show a cluster of Zancudomyces culisetae separate from Smittium. As the broadest taxon sampling of Smittium to date, this also serves a molecular systematic update toward revisionary syntheses of this and other Harpellales taxa.
  • Mycologia.Mycologia.2013 Jan-Feb;105(1):90-111. doi: 10.3852/11-311. Epub 2012 Jul 16.
  • The Harpellales includes 38 genera of endosymbiotic microfungi associated with various Arthropoda. Smittium, the second genus to be described, is now also the most species rich of the order. Species of Smittium inhabit the digestive tracts of larval aquatic insects, especially lower Dipt era, worldw
  • PMID 22802392

和文文献

  • Ultrastructural studies on zygomycotan fungi in the Zoopagaceae and Cochlonemataceae
  • デスミッド類の接合胞子2
  • 金綱 善恭,山岸 高旺
  • 藻類 = The bulletin of Japanese Society of Phycology 59(1), 17-20, 2011-03-10
  • NAID 10027882831

関連リンク

(zī'gə-spôr', zĭg'ə-) A large, multinucleate spore formed by union of isogametes (gametes that are not distinguished by size and structure), as in certain algae or fungi. A zygospore develops thick, resistant walls and enters a period ...
Definition of ZYGOSPORE: a thick-walled spore of some algae and fungi that is formed by union of two similar sexual cells, usually serves as a resting spore, and produces the sporophytic phase Ask The Editor Videos Lay vs. Lie

関連画像

Description Rhizopus zygospores.jpgTapeworm scolex/proglottidRhizopus hyphae and zygospores]Gumby's Gallery - mucor-zygospore.jpg ZygosporeRhizopus_mature_zygospore_volk.gif (129210


★リンクテーブル★
リンク元真菌

真菌」

  [★]

fungus, (pl.)fungi
かび菌類 Mycota
微生物学真菌症抗真菌薬


細菌、真菌、藻類、原虫

  • いずれも単細胞生物
  • 細菌は核を持たないが、それ以外は核を持つ
  • 細胞壁の多糖:細菌はペプチドグリカンなど。真菌はβグルカン、キチン。藻類はセルロース。原虫は細胞壁を持たない
  • 栄養獲得様式:藻類は光合成独立栄養生性。

大きさ

  • 数μm。観察に油浸レンズは不要

細胞膜

細胞壁

線維状多糖

  • 細胞壁の骨格となる
  • キチンとβ-グルカンからなる。
  • 特殊な多糖にキトサンがある

キチン

β-グルカン

  • グルコースのホモ重合体
  • β(1→3)結合、β(1→6)結合
  • 酵母では細胞壁成分にβ-1,3-グルカンが多い

キトサン

糖タンパク質

形態による分類

Coccidioides immitis
Histoplasma capsulatum
Sporothrix schenckii
Candida albicans

培養と感染組織における形態


菌糸の構造

接合菌などの下等真菌にのみ見られる

菌糸の機能

生殖方式による分類

有性生殖と無性生殖

  • 有性生殖と無性生殖を行う
  • 無性生殖のみ行う

有性胞子形成

無性胞子形成

培養

  • グルコース1-4%, ペプトン1%

種類

真菌の染色法(SMB.358)

  • 細胞壁の多糖を染色:コットンブルー(cotton blue)、グラム染色(全ての真菌はグラム陽性)
  • 真菌細胞壁多糖を特異的に染色:PAS染色、Grocottメテナミン銀染色、ファンギフローラY

参考

  • 真菌の写真 - Fungal Images

病原体としての真菌

分類群 菌名 病名 出芽分裂 菌体 菌糸 胞子 発芽管 寄生性 感染経路 病原体の特徴 病型 検査 治療
不完全菌 Candida albicans カンジダ症     仮性菌糸 厚膜胞子 形成   常在菌→各所 日和見感染症      
担子菌 Filobasidiella neoformans クリプトコッカス症 出芽 厚い莢膜       通性細胞内寄生体 鳩の乾燥糞→空気感染→肺(通性細胞内寄生体) 日和見感染菌 肺クリプトコッカス症
中枢神経クリプトコッカス症、
皮膚クリプトコッカス症
全身性クリプトコッカス症
墨汁染色 ( アムホテリシンB or フルコナゾール )
  ± フルシトシン
不完全菌 Trichosporon asahii トリコスポロン症     仮性菌糸 分節分生子              
子嚢菌 Aspergillus fumigatus/
'Aspergillus flavus
アスペルギルス症   糸状菌
不完全菌
有隔菌糸       土壌や朽ちた植物、空気中の浮遊胞子        
  Mucor/'Rhizopus/
Absidia/Rhizomucor
ムコール症     無隔菌糸     血管に親和性 土壌や朽ちた植物、空気中の浮遊胞子
 → 浮遊胞子の吸入
  鼻眼脳型ムコール症
侵襲性肺ムコール症
全身播種型ムコール症
β-D-グルカン陰性。
喀痰、血培陰性
アムホテリシンB
子嚢菌 Pneumocystis jirovecii
('Pneumocystis carini)
ニューモシスチス・カリニ感染症                      
子嚢菌 Histoplasma capsulatum ヒストプラスマ症 二形性真菌
 37℃酵母型発育
 25℃菌糸形成
          空気感染。肺に一次病変を作り様々な臓器に播種 AIDS患者に好発      
不完全菌 Coccidioides immitis コクシジオイデス症 二形性真菌     内生胞子              
不完全菌 Sporothrix schenckii スポロトリクス症 二形性真菌                    




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